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Full text of "Nyt magazin for naturvidenskaberne"

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,r -«. _ . .-^ 

NYT MAGAZIN 



FOR 

NATURVIDENSKABERNE 

GRUNDLAGT AF 

DEN PHYSIOGRAPHISKE FORENING 
I CHRISTIANIA 

BIND 42. 



REDAKTION: 

H. Mohn, Th. Hiortdahl, W. C. Brøgger, F. Nansen, 
Hovedredaktør N. Wille. 



^-a@c= 



CHRISTIANIA 

I KOMMISSION HOS T. 0. BRØGGER 

A. W. BRØGGERS BOGTRYKKERI 
1904 




Indhold. 



Side 
W. C. Brogger, Ueber die chemische Zusammensetzung des Xenotim 1 
P. Hennings, Beitrag zur Pilzflora der Umgebung Christianias (Halb- 
insel Bygdø) 9 

P. ScHEi, On some New Occurences of Titanite from Kragerø (Pl. I) . 35 

0. Schultz, Beiträge zur Gattung Papilio L. und Colias Leach. 1 — 11 39 
F. G. Gade og J. Holmboe, Aarsberetning for det biologiske selskab 

i Kristiania 1903 47 

H. Kiær, Dyrelivet i Drøbaksund (Pl. II, III) 61 

H. N. Dixon and W. E. Nicholson, Bryological notes on a trip in Norway 91 

E. Strand, Beitrag zur Schmetterlingsfauna Norwegens. III . . . ' 109 
E. Strand, Bemerkninger til Myntmester Münsters „Nye norske 

Coleoptera" 180 

S. K. Selland, Om vegetationen i Granvin . 183 

N. Wille et V. Wittrock, Motion au Congrès international de Bo- 
tanique. Deuxième Session. Vienne 1905 217 

K. Dahl, A study on trout and young salmon, (Report on researches 
concerning the migrations of young salmon 1898—1902). (With 

3 pi. and 7 tables) 221 

J. Qvigstad, Lappiske Navne paa Pattedyr, Krybdyr og Padder, Fiske, 

Leddyr og lavere Dyr 339 

Boganmeldelser I— VI 



Forfatterne alfabetisk ordnede. 

W. C. Brøgger S. 1, Knut Dahl S. 221, H. N. Dixon S. 91, F. G. 
Gade S. 47, P. Hennings S. 9, J. Holmboe S. 47, Hans Kjær S. Gl, W. E. 
Nicholson S. 91, .1. Qvigstad S. 339, P. Schei S. 35, Oskar Schultz S. 39, 
S. K. Selland S. 183, Embr. Strand S. 109, 180, N. Wille S. 217, V. 
Wittrock s. 217. 



31453 



über die chemische Zusammensetzung 
des Xenotim. 

Von 
Professor Dr. W. C. Brøgger. 



i.n einer vor etwa zwei Jahren erschienenen Abhandlung: 
„Hussakit, ein neues Mineral, und dessen Beziehung zum Xeno- 
tim"^ haben die Verfasser derselben, E. H. Kraus und J. Rei- 
TiNGER die Vermuthung ausgesprochen, „dass das, was man 
Xenotim nennt, weiter nichts ist, als ein Hussakit, aus welchem 
durch Einfluss der natürlichen Wässer die Schwefelsäure aus- 
gelaugt und der so in das Yttriumphosphat übergeführt wurde"; 
der sogenannte Xenotim wäre somit nur „eine Pseudomorphose 
nach dem Hussakit", dessen Zusammensetzung nach einem ana- 
lysirten Vorkommen von Dattas bei Diamantina in Brasilien aus 
3R2O3. 3P2O5. SO3 besteht. 

Diese Auffassung der Zusammensetzung des Xenotim wurde 
von den Verfassern dadurch begründet, dass alle bisjetzt analy- 
sirten Xenotime an mehr oder weniger zersetztem Material aus- 
geführt gewesen wären, allein mit Ausnahme einer Analyse von 
Blomstrand an dem von mir beschi-iebenen Xenotim von Are, 
bei Langesund, Norwegen; für diese Analyse wurde aber an- 



^ Groth's Zeitschr, f. Krystallographie und Mineralogie, B. 34, P. 268 ff. 
(1901). 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXSXII. I. 1 



w. c. BRØGGER. 



genommen, dass die Schwefelsaure übersehen worden sei, indem 
der JMachweiss derselben, bei der von Blomstrand angewandten 
analytischen Methode (Aufschliessung mit Schwefelsäure) nicht 
möglich war. Die Verfasser fanden auch eine Stütze ihrer Auf- 
fassung darin, dass in einem Xenotim von Hitterø Schwefelsäure 
durch qualitative Prüfung nachgewiesen wurde; die Abwesenheit 
von Schwefelsäure in anderen norwegischen Xenotimen (von 
Arendal, Raade bei Moss und Hilterø) wurde durch die oben 
genannte Hypothese von einer Auslaugung früher vorhandener 
Schwefelsäure erklärt. 

Diese Hypothese über die Zusammensetzung des Xenotim 
scheint mehreren späteren Verfassern als bewiesen zu gelten ; so 
identificiert z. B. H. Rösler^ ohne weiteres den in Gesteinen 
vorkommenden Xenotim mit Hussakit. Da diese Hypothese über 
die wahre Zusammensetzung des Xenotim mir aber ziemlich 
fraglich vorkommen musste, schien es mir wünsch ens werth die- 
selbe wenn möglich genauer zu prüfen. 

Von dem von Blomstrand analysirten Krystall des Xeno- 
tim von Ai'0 hatte ich noch eine kleine Quantität übrig; die- 
selbe wurde nach der von Beitinger angewandten Methode auf 
Schwefelsäure geprüft. Die Bestimmung wurde von Herrn Dr. 
0. Heidenreich ausgeführt. Es wurde dabei nur äusserst geringe 
Spuren von Schwefelsäure vorgefunden, jedenfalls bedeutend we- 
niger als 0.1 ^/o wahrscheinlich kaum mehr als 0.01 %. Da für 
diese Prüfung nur 0.2 Gram angewandt werden konnte, war eine 
genauere Bestimmung ausgeschlossen ; es schien in Betracht der 
ganz geringen Spur von Schwefelsäure, welche bei dieser Prüfung 
vorgefunden wurde, auch nicht ausgeschlossen, dass dieselbe 
vielleicht von einer Verunreinigung der Reagentien herrühren 
könne. 

Es schien deshalb wünschenswerth eine zweite Bestimmung 



Über den Hussakit (Xenotim) und einige andere seltene gesteinsbildende 
Mineralien, Z. K. B. 26, P. 258, ff. 



ÜBER DIE CHEM. ZUSAMMENS. DES XENOTIM. 3 

mit sorgfältig geprüften Reagentien auf einer grösseren Quantität 
von Substanz zu erhalten. Glücklicher weise war nun vor eini- 
gen Jahren eine geringe Anzahl von Krystallen herstammend 
aus demselben Vorkommen, als das von Blomstrand untersuchte, 
einem der Inselchen bei Arö, für die Mineraliensammlung der 
Universität Kristiania erworben, und von diesen Krystallen 
wurde nun ein vollständig frisches Bruchstück für die Analyse 
aufgeopfert; im Ganzen wurde dabei etwas mehr als 2 Gram 
für die Bestimmung gebraucht. Dieselbe, welche ebenfalls von 
Herrn Dr. 0. Heidenreich ausgeführt wurde, gab das Resultat, 
dass keine Spur von Schwefelsäure in dieser Probe nach- 
gewiesen werden konnte. 

Das Material dieser beiden Proben war, wie gesagt, voll- 
kommen frisch, bräunhch durchsichtig bis durchscheinend; das 
sp. Gew. war früher von mir für die von Blomstrand unter- 
suchte Probe zu 4.62 bestimmt^. Der ganz kleine von Blom- 
strand nachgewiesene Wassergehalt (Glühverlust) von 0.23 ^/o 
dürfte nach dem Befund der mikroskopischen Untersuchung von 
mechanisch eingeschlossenen Flüssigkeitseinschlüssen herrühren 
können. 

Nach dieser Revision der BLOMSTRAND'schen Analyse ist es 
somit sicher bewiesen, dass der Xenotim von Arø aus YPO/^ 
ohne Beimengung eines Sulphates besteht und dass der Xeno- 
tim somit nicht als eine Pseudomorphose nach Hussakit auf- 
zufassen ist, sondern eine selbständige gut charachterisirte 
Mineralspecies bildet. 

Nachdem dies als sicher festgestellt angesehen werden muss, 
fragt es sich dann ferner wie demnach das Verhältniss zwischen 
dem Xenotim und dem Hussakit aufzufassen sein dürfte. Die 
Krystalle des frischen unzersetzten Xenotimvorkommens von den 
Arø-Inselchen zeigt dasselbe Axenverhältniss als der gewöhn- 
liche Xenotim von den zahlreichen Vorkommen der südnorwegi- 



1 Für den Hussakit nach Kraus und Reitinger 4.587. 



w. c. BRØGGER. 



schen granitischen Pegmatitgänge^, obwohl die Messungen keine 
sehr genauen Resultate erlaubten, da die Flächen meistens ganz 
matt sind; nur die Ausbildung ist etwas verschieden, indem die 
Krystalle von dem Inselchen bei Arø einen ausgesprochen pris- 
matischen Typus aufweisen, mit vorherrschenden Flächen von 
}110|, theils mit |001| allein, theils mit jOOlj und lUlj am Ende. 
Es muss demnach angenommen werden, dass der typische Xe- 
notim, das heisst das reine Yttriumorthophosphat, und der Hus- 
sakit sehr nahe dieselbe Krystallform besitzen. Da beide in 
ganz frischem Zustande bekannt sind, kann der eine nicht als 
eine Pseudomorphose nach dem anderen aufgefasst werden, 
weder der Xenotim nach dem Hussakit, noch der Hussakit nach 
dem Xenotim. Beide Mineralien müssen deshalb in Betracht 
der nahe verwandten chemischen Zusammensetzung und der 
völligen Übereinstimmung in physikalischer Beziehung (Krystall- 
form, Spaltbarkeit, optische Eigenschaften, sp. Gewicht etc.) als 
verschiedene Glieder derselben Mineraliengattung betrachtet 
werden; der Hussakit ist somit wohl am einfachsten als ein 
Xenotim, in welchem dem Orthophosphat ein Sulphat in unter- 
geordneter Menge beigemischt ist, aufzufassen. 

Es fragt sich ob die Beimischung des Sulphates in dem 
durch die Analyse des Hussakitvorkommens von Dattas gefun- 
denen Verhältnis SO3: Pj O5 =1:3 eine constante stöchio- 
metrische Verbinding repräsentirt oder nicht ? Diese Frage kann 
selbstverständlich nicht ohne weiteres, sondern erst durch die 
Untersuchung mehrerer Vorkomnisse von unzersetztem Material 
beantwortet werden. 



* Sieh meine Abhandlung über Xenotim von norwegischen Vorkommen 
in Geol. Foren, i Stockholm Forhandl. B. 6, P. 747 ff. 



ÜBER DIE CHEM. ZUSAMMENS. DES XENOTIM. 5 

Kraus und Reitinger haben die Ansicht vertreten, dass 
dem Hussakit die folgende symmetrische Formel zukäme: 

00 000 

II /\/\/\||/\/\/\|l 
P P P S P P P 

/\ /l\ /l\ y'\ /W /l\ /\ 

000000 0000000 

\ I / \l/ \l/^ \l/ \l/ \ I / 

R RR R R R 

wobei zwei Phosphoratome als Bestandtheile von Pyrophosphor- 
säure, vier als solche von Orthophosphorsäure angenommen sind. 
Es dürfte aber vielleicht wahrscheinlicher sein, dass der Hus- 
sakit von Dattas eher aufzufassen wäre als ein Xenotim, in 
welchem fünf Moleküle des gewöhnlichen Orthophosphates YPO4 
verbunden wären mit einem Molekül eines ilfei^aphosphates eines 
Atoms von Yttrium, dessen zwei restirende Valenzen mit Schwefel- 
säure gesättigt wären, also bestehend aus 5 Molekülen 

/0\ 
Y-O-P = 

\0/ 

mit einem Molekül 

Dies dürfte um so wahrscheinlicher sein, als wie bekannt 
die Metatantalate und Metaniobate von Eisen und Mangan: Ta- 
piolit und Mossit, mit dem Xenotim geometrisch homoiomorph 
sind. 

WahrscheinUch bildet dann auch die Verbindung 

5 [YPOJ. [(SO, Y). PO3) 

keine feste stöchiometrische Verbindung von eben 5 Orthophos- 
phat mit 1 Metaphosphat, sondern es ist a priori wahrschein- 
licher, dass zwischen dem wahren Xenotim (ohne Beimischung 



6 W. C. BRØGGER. 



des Sulphatmoleküls) und dem sulphathaltigen Hussakit eine 
vollständige Übergangsreihe vorkommen dürfte, und dass dem- 
nach das Verhältniss 5 : 1 in dem Mineral von Dattas nur zu- 
fällig gewesen ist. Wo in den genannten norwegischen Vor- 
kommen nur Spuren von H2SO4 nachgewiesen wurden, braucht 
dies demnach vielleicht nicht auf eine eventuell stattgefundene 
Auslaugung bezogen zu werden, sondern es ist ebenso wahr- 
scheinlich, dass die Beimischung, des Sulphatmoleküls auch ur- 
sprünglich ganz gering gewesen ist. Diese Auffassung wird 
auch gestützt dadurch, dass gewisse unverkennbare, durch Mor- 
photropie verständliche, krystallographische Verwandschafsbezieh- 
ungen zwischen dem Yttriumphosphat, dem Xenotim, und dem 
Ceriumphosphat, dem Monazit, bestehen, wobei an der Monazit- 
tafel die Flächen von }100j den Flächen von |001| des Xenotim 
entsprechen. 

Als ein einigermassen obwohl nicht genau analoges Beispiel 
einer der Xenotim-Hussakitreihe entsprechenden Mischungsreihe 
dürfte an die Reihe der Alkaligranate hingewiesen werden ; auch 
in dieser Reihe sind Glieder bekannt mit beigemischtem, an- 
gehängtem Sulphatmolekül (Nosean-Haüyn-Reihe) und solche 
ohne Sulphatmolekül (Lagoriolit); diese beiden Verbindungen 
sind geometrisch homoiomorph und dürften sich wahrscheinlich, 
wie die Untersuchungen von J. Morozewics (sich Ref. in Z. K. B. 
33, P. 510) lehren, in ganz beliebigen Proportionen mischen kön- 
nen; vielleicht findet somit ein ähnliches Verhältniss auch statt 
zwischen dem Xenotim und dem Hussakit. 

Von dem oben angefürten erhellt dann auch, dass es keines- 
wegs berechtigt sein dürfte, die gewöhnlichen braunen Xenotime, 
welche z. B. an norwegischen granitischen Pegmatitgängen ja 
sehr verbreitet sind^ ohne weiteres als Hussakite, welche durch 



Seitdem meine Abhandlung über das Vorkommen des Xenotim an 
norwegischen Pegmatitgängen erschien {l. c. 1883) ist eine grosse An- 
zahl neuer norwegischer Vorkommnisse dieses Minerals bekannt ge- 
worden. Ich werde dieselben bei späterer Gelegenheit erwähnen. 



ÜBER DIE CHEM. ZUSAMMENS. DES XENOTIM. 



Zersetzung ihren Schwefelsäuregehalt eingebüsst haben, zu be- 
trachten. Ich möchte es im Gegentheil als wahrscheinlicher 
ansehen, dass sie in den meisten Fällen auch vor der Zersetzung 
schwefelsäurefrei gewesen sind. Mehrere Vorkommen können 
übrigens, wie die mikroskopische Untersuchung zu zeigen scheint, 
jedenfals nur wenig durch Zersetzung geändert sein. 



Gedruckt 12. November 1903. 



Beitrag zur Pilzflora der Umgebung Cliristianias 
(Halbinsel Bygdø). 

Von 
P. Hennings. 



Ajn Juni 1902 wurden von mir in der Umgebung Chri- 
stianias nur eine Anzahl Micromyceten gesammelt, da bei der 
anhaltenden Dürre nur ganz vereinzelte Hymenomyceten ange- 
troffen wurden. Desto reicher zeigte sich von Mitte bis gegen 
Ende August 1903 in Folge andauernder feuchter Witterung die 
Agaricinenflora daselbst entwickelt. Besonders zahlreich traten 
fleischige Hutpilze im Kongeskoven auf der Halbinsel Bygdø, 
in dessen unmittelbarer Nachbarschaft ich Wohnung genommen 
hatte, auf. Wegen des unbeständigen Wetters musste von aus- 
gedehnteren Ausflügen in der Umgebung Christianias Abstand 
genommen werden, um die unfreiwillige Musse auszufüllen sam- 
melte, beobachtete und notierte ich die besonders auf Bygdø 
vorkommenden Pilzarten. Es sind ausserdem nur vereinzelte 
Ausflüge nach Holmenkollen, VoxenkoUen, Sarabraaten, Nord- 
strand von mir ausgeführt worden. Doch fand sich hier bei 
weitem nicht der Pilzreichthum wie im Kongeskoven und den 
benachbarten Waldbeständen. Auf Herrn Professor Wille's 
freundlichen Wunsch habe ich alle Pilzarten, welche ich beson- 
ders auf Bygdø beobachtet und gesammelt habe, im nach- 



10 p. HENNINGS. 



stehenden Verzeichnisse systematisch zusammengestellt. Selbst- 
folglich giebt dasselbe nur ein sehr unvollständiges Bild der 
Flora, zumal ich manche Pilze, so verschiedene Inocyhe-, Cor- 
tinarius-, Hussula-, Mycena-Arien ohne entsprechende Hilfs- 
mittel nicht am Ort und Stelle sicher zu bestimmen vermochte. 
Verschiedene anderswo gemeine Pilze z. B. Amanita tnuscaria, 
A. phalloïdes, A. Mappa, A. rubescens, A. pantherina etc. 
habe ich nirgends angetroffen, obwohl dieselben sicher auch hier 
vorkommen dürften. Im Ganzen wurden vor mir ca. 375 Pilz- 
arten beobachtet und ca. 240 Arten gesammelt, darunter 12 neue 
Fungi imperfedi. Von dem Präparieren grösserer fleischiger 
Hutpilze musste mit Rücksicht auf die feuchte Witterung abge- 
sehen werden. 

Myxomyce tes. 

Ceratiomyxa mucida (Pers.). Oscarshall auf einem Baumstumpf 
bei der Wirthschaft. 

Tubulina cylindrica (Bull). Ebendort. 

Perichaena corticalis (Batsch.). Daselbst auf einem Pappel- 
stumpf. 

Hemitrichia clavata (Pers.). Daselbst auf Baumstumpf. 

Lycogala epidendron (Lm.). Kongeskoven auf Nadelholzstumpf. 

Fuligo septica (Lm.). Daselbst auf Nadeln und Holz. 

Feronosporaceae. 

Gystopus candidus (Pers.). Auf Capsella bursa pastoris, Si- 
napis arvensis an Wegen u. s. w. 

C. Tragopogonis (Pers.). Auf Tragopogon pratensis beim Folke- 
museet, auf Gentaurea Scabiosa am Strande im Kongeskoven 
nach dem Seebad. 

Phytophthora infestans (Mont.). Auf Kartoffeläckern beim 
Folkemuseet. 

Plasmopara nivea (Ung.). Auf Pimpinella Saxifraga bei Oscars- 
hall. 



PILZENFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. H 

Bremia Laducae Reg. Auf Lampsana communis, Oscarshall. 
Peronospora conglomerata Fück. Auf Geranium pusillum beim 

Seebad. 
P. effusa (Grev.). Auf Atriplex patulum im Schlosspark in 

Christiania Juni 1902. 
P. ürticae (Lib.). Auf Urtica dioica bei Oscarshall. 
P. sordida (Berk.). Auf Scrophularia nodosa in Kongeskoven 

beim Seebad. 
P. Bubi Rabenh, Auf Rubus fructicosus in Kongeskoven. 
P. alta Fuck. Auf Plantago major an Wegerändern Furu- 

baken. 

Protomycetaceae. 

Protomyces macrosporus Ung. Auf Aegopodium Podagraria 
in Gärten Furubaken. 

üstila^ginaceae. 

Ustilago Avenae (Pers.). Getreidefeld beim Folkemuseet auf 
Avena sativa. 

U. Hordei (Pers.). Daselbst hinter Oscarshall auf Hordeum vul- 
gare. 

U. Scabiosae (Sow.). Auf Knautia arvensis daselbst. 

U. Tragopogonis (Pers.). Gemein auf Tragopogon pratensis beim 
Folkemuseet u. s. w. Juni 1902. 

Urocystis Anemones (Pers.). Anemone nemorosa bei Holmen- 
kollen Juni 1902. 

Entyloma Ranunculi (Bon.). Ranunculus repens. Konge- 
skoven. 

E. Calendulae (Oudem.). Calendula officinalis in Furubaken im 
Garten. 

Tuburcinia Trientalis (Berk, et Br.). Trientalis europaea bei 
Holmenkollen Juni 1902, Conidienstadium: Ascomyces Trien- 
talis Berk. 



12 P. HENNINGS. 



Uredinacea^e. 

Uromyces Fahae (Pers.). Lathyrus montanus bei Holmenkollen. 
Aug. 1903. 

U. Alchemillae (Pers.). Alchemilla vulgaris. Daselbst Juni 
1902. 

TJ. Polygont (Pers.). Polygonum aviculare auf Bygdø überall, 
Nordstrand. 

JJ. Geranii (De Gand.). Geranium palustre? Kongeskoven beim 
Seebad. 

TJ. Valerianae (Schum.). Valeriana officinalis daselbst. 

TJ. Ervi (Wallr.). Ervum hirsutum bei Fredriksborg. 

TJ. Aconiti lycocloni (D. G.)- Accidium auf Aconitum septen- 
trionale bei Sarabraaten. Juni 1902. 

Puccinia Galii (Pers.). Galium verum bei Oscarshall. 

P. Laducarum Syd. Lactuca muralis. Kongeskoven, Oscars- 
hall. 

P. Lampsanae (Schultz). Lampsana communis bei Oscarshall, 
Nordstrand. 

P. Grepidis Schrot. Grepis tectorum bei Fredriksborg. 

P. Violae (Schum.). Viola hirta, V. silvatica in Kongeskoven, 
Holmenkollen. 

P. Pimpinellae (Strauss). Pimpinella Saxifraga bei Oscarshall. 

P. Menthae Pers. Mentha arvensis an Aeckern Furubaken, 
Galamintha Acinos daselbst u. s. w. 

P. graminis (Pers.). Aecidien vereinzelt auf Berberis ; Puccinia 
gemeiner, besonders auf Seeale cereale, dessen Halme stets 
sehr stark mit Rost bedeckt waren. Es ist überraschend 
dass die zahllosen Berberissträucher, wie ich sie zahlreicher 
als [auf Bygdø nie gesehen, nicht ausgerottet werden, da 
doch ausgedehnter Getreidebau stellenweise stattfindet. 

P. coronata Gord. Phalaris arundinacea am Strande nach den 
Seebad. 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 13 

P. rubigo — vera (D. C). Accidien auf Lycopsis bei Frederiks- 
borg. 

P. Poarum Niels. Accidien auf Tussilago Farfara überall auf 
Bygdø, Holmenkollen o, s. v. 

P. Magnusiana Körn. Phragmites communis am Strande zum 
Seebad. 

P. suaveolens (Pers.). Girsium arvense auf Bygdø häufig, 

P. Hieracii Schum. Hieracium umbellatum häufig an Wegen, 
H. vulgatum Kongeskoven. 

P. Cirsii Lasch. Girsium oleraceum bei Oscarshall. 

P Taraxaci. Taraxacum officinale überall gemein an Wegen 
auf Bygdø u. s. w. 

P Garduarum Jacky. Garduus crispus in Furubaken. 

P EcMnopis Hazsl. Echinops sphaerocephalus Fredriksborg 
am Tivoli. 

P hullata Pers. Libanotis montana bei Frederiksborg. 

P Pölygoni Pers. Polygonum amphibium bei Oscarshall. 

P Centaureae Mart. Gentaurea Jacea u. Gentaurea Scabiosa 
am Strande im Kongeskoven. 

P argentata (Schulz). Impatiens noli tangere auf Oscarshall 
spärlich. 

P.fusca Relh. Anemone nemorosa bei Holmenkollen. Juni 1.902. 

P Aegopodii (Schum.). Aegopodium Podagraria bei Oscarshall. 

P Ärenariae (Schum.). Moehringia trinervia auf Bygdø, Holmen- 
kollen. 

P. Valantiae Pers. Galium Mollugo hinter Oscarshall. 

P. Malvaœarum Mont. Malva neglecta. Furubaken, Nord- 
strand. 

P. Glechomatis De Gand. Glechoma hederaceum, Kongeskoven. 

Fhragmidium Potentillae (Pers.). Potentilla argentea auf Bygdø, 
Nordstrand an Wegen. 

Phr. suhcorticium (Schr.). Rosa sp. im Garten am Kongeskoven. 

Melampsora Helioscopiae (Pers.). Euphorbia Helioscopia auf 
Aeckern hei Folkemuseet. 



p. HENNINGS. 



M. farinosa (Pers.). Salix Gaprea bei Oscarshali. 

Melampsoridium betulinum (Pers.). Betula alba bei OscarshalL 

Pucciniastrum pustulatum Pers. Epilobium montanum bei 
Holmenkollen. 

Thecopsora Vacciniorum (Link.). Vaccinium Myrtillus. Konge- 
skoven. 

Coleosporium Sonchi (Pers.). Sonchus asper am Strande nach 
Seebad. 

G. Campanulae (Pers.). Campanula rotundifolia daselbst, auf 
C. rapunculoides verbreitet. 

Cronartium rihicola Dietr. Ribes nigrum im Garten beim 
Kongeskoven. 

Äecidium leucospernum D. G. Anemone nemorosa auf Holmen- 
kollen. Juni 1902. 

Ä. Grossulariae Pers. Ribes Grossularia beim Folkemuseet. 
Juni 1902. 

A. stroMlinwm Alb. et Schw. Auf alten Zapfen von Picea 
excelsa überall im Kongeskoven, Oscarshall u. s. w. häufig. 

Ueberall findet sich hier Prunus Padus, die mit Accidien be- 
hafteten Zapfen fanden sich oft neben und unter diesen, aber 
nirgends habe ich hier, trotz vielen Suchens Thecopsora 
Padi, welches mit dem Äecidium in genetischem Zusam- 
menhang stehen soll, gefunden. 

Tremellinaceae. 

Exidia plicata Klotsch. Auf Erlenstumpf bei Oscarshall. 
Ulocolla foliacea (Pers.). Auf Kiefernstumpf in Kongeskoven. 

Dacryomycetaceae. 

Bacryomyces ahietinus (Pers.). Ueberall gemein auf Fichten- 
stumpfen, auf Brettern u. s. w. 

Calocera viscosa (Pers.). Auf Wurzeln und Stümpfen von 
Fichten und Kiefern im Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, Holmen- 
kollen, Sarabraaten u. s. w. 



PILZENFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 15 

Exo b asidiacea e . 

Exobasidiwm Vaccinii Fugk. Kongeskoven auf Vaccinium Vitis 
ideae; sehr spärlich auf Arctostaphylos am Strande nach dem 
Seebad. 

Hypochnacea,e. 

Hypochuus Sambuci (Pers.). Am Grunde von Sambucusstamm 
im Garten. 

Thelephoraceae. 

Gorticium comedens (Nees). Auf Erlenzweigen bei Oscarshall. 

C. giganteum (Fries). Am Grunde eines Fichtenstumpfes? in 
Kongeskoven. 

Peniophora incarnata (Pers.). An der Rinde eines Ulmen- 
stumpfes am Kongsskoven. 

P. quercina (Pers.). An abgefallenen Eichenzweigen Oscarshall. 

Stereum hirsutum (Willd.). An Baumstumpfen, Pfählen häufig. 

St. purpureum Pers. c. form, lilacina. An Stumpfen von Bir- 
ken, Ulmen, Pappeln daselbst. 

St. rugosum (Pers.). An Erlenstumpfen Oscarshall. 

St. sanguinolentum Fries. An Nadelholz in Kongeskoven. 

Coniophora cerehella (Pers.). Am Grunde eines Pfahles bei 
Fredriksborg Tivoli. 

Thelephora laciniata Pers. Kongeskoven am Grunde der 
Stämme. 

Th. terrestris Ehrh. Daselbst in Wegen. 

Craterellus cornucopioides (Lin.). Oscarshall vereinzelt unter 

Bäumen. 

Clavariacea^e. 



Ciavaria inaequalis Müll. form. Kongeskoven am Wege zw. 

Moosen auf Nadeln u. Zweigen. 
Gl. pistillaris (Lin.). Sarabraaten auf Erdboden vereinzelt. 




LjJ 



^C^y \/i? 






16 P. HENNINGS. 



Cl. cristata (Holmk.), Oscarshall unter Bäumen bei Gols 
Kirke. 

Hydnaceae. 

Hydnwm aurantiacum Batsch. Kongeskoven vereinzelt zw. 
Moosen. 

H. suaveolens Scop. Sarabraaten. 

Irpex fusco-violaceus (Schrad.). An Fichtenstumpf in Konge- 
skoven. 

Polyporaceae. 

Poria Radula Pers. An einen Baumstumpf Oscarshall. 
Fornes ungulatus (Sghaeff.). An Stämmen und Stumpfen von 

Picea excelsa häufig Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, Holmenkollen, 

Voxenkollen. 
F. annosus Fr. An Wurzeln von Picea excelsa? bei Gols Kirke, 

Sarabraaten. 
F. ulmarius (Sow^.). Oscarshall an Ulmenstamm. 
F. igniarius (Lm.). An Pflaumenstamm in Garten Fredriks- 

borgvei. 
Polyporus fragüis Fr. An faulendem Fichtenstumpf in Konge- 
skoven. 
P. horealis (Wählend.). Ebendort an Nadelholzstumpf. 
P. amorphus Fries. Ebendort an Nadelholzstumpfen. 
P. adustus (WiLLD.). An einem Birkenstumpf im Garten am 

Kongeskoven. 
P. fumosus (Pers.). An Laubhoizstumpf bei Oscarshall. 
P. radiatus (Sov\^.). An einem Erlenstumpf, Oscarshall, bei 

Gols Kirke. 
P. hetulinus (Bull.). An einer Birke daselbst. 
P squamosus (Huds.). An einem Salixstamm bei Holmenkollen. 

Juni 1902. 
P hrumalis (Pers.). An einem Birkenast bei Sarabraaten. 

Juni 1902. 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 17 

Polystictus abietinus (Dicks.). An Fichtenstumpfen in Konge- 
skoven, bei Voxenkollen, Sarabraaten, auch in resupinater 
Form an umgefallenen Stämmen. 

P. versicolor (Lm.). An Baumstumpfen bei Oscarshall. 

P. Mrsutus (Wulf). Ebendort bei der Kirche Goi. 

Baedalea unicolor (Bull,). An einem Birkenstumpf im Garten 
am Kongeskoven. 

Lenzites heteromorpha Fries. An umgefallenen Fichtenstämmen 
bei Voxenkollen Juni 1902, Kongeskoven Aug. 1903. 

L. abietina (Bull). An Fichtenstumpfen gemein überall. 

Tylopüus felleus Bull. Kongeskoven, Oscarshall unter Fichten 
und Kiefern einzeln. 

Boletus scaber Bull. Kongeskoven, Oscarshall u. s. w. unter 
Birken häufig. 

P. hulbosus ScHAEFF. Oscarshall, Kongeskoven bei der Wald- 
kapelle, Holmenkollen. 

P. subtomentosus Lm. Ebendort vereinzelt. 

P. variegatus Schwartz. Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen. 

P. badius Fries. Kongeskoven, Oscarshall vereinzelt. 

P. piperatus Bull. Daselbst. Holmenkollen. 

P. granulatus Lm. Ueberall heerdenweise besonders in Konge- 
skoven. Ein guter Speisepilz, der bei der ungeheuren Menge 
daselbst gut verwendbar wäre. 

P. bovinus Lm. Kongeskoven sehr vereinzelt. 

Boletopsis luteus (Lm.). Waldrand bei der Waldkapelle spärhch. 

P. flavus (WiTTR.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, Fredriksborgvei in 
Gärten, Holmenkollen. 

Agaricaceae. 

Cantharellus cïbariusFBiES. Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen spärlich 
0. aurantiacus (Wulff). Daselbst vereinzelt. 
Paxillus Ächeruntius (Humb.). Kongeskoven an einem Pfahl. 
P. involutus (Batsch.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, botan. Garten 
u. s. w. unter Birken. 

Nyt Mag. f.Naturv. XXXXIl. L 2 



18 P. HENNINGS. 



Goprinus plicatilis (Curt.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall. 

C. domesticus (Pers.). Auf Rasenplatz im Garten am Fredriks- 
borgvei. 

C. micaceus Bull. Oscarshall am Grunde von Stämmen rasig. 

C. atramentarius Bull. Daselbst am Wege. 

C. porcellanus (Sghaeff.). Daselbst auf Rasenplatz. 

Gomphidius viscidus (Lm.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, Skov- 
kapellet, Holmenkollen u. s. w. 

Hygrophorus psittacinus (Sghaeff.). Kongeskoven, Holmen- 
kollen zwischen Moosen. 

H. miniatus (Scop.). Oscarshall auf Rasen. 

H. ceraceus (Wulf). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen. 

H. conicus (Scop.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, Sarabraaten. 

H. ericeus (Bull). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen. 

Limacium ehurneum (Bull). Kongeskoven zw. Moosen. 

L. olivaceo-alhum Fries. Kongeskoven zw. Nadeln. 

Bussula fragilis (Pers.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall. 

B. emetica (Sghaeff.). Daselbst? Holmenkollen. 

B. pedinata (Bull). Oscarshall unter Birken. 

B. cyanoxantha (Sghaeff.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, Skov- 
kapellet, Holmenkollen. 

B. foetens Pers. Daselbst. 

B. rubra De Cand. Kongeskoven, Oscarshall. 

B. lepida Fries. Daselbst. 

B. furcata (Lam.). Oscarshall unter Birken, auch in Gärten. 

B. depallens (Pers.). Kongeskoven. 

B. adusta (Pers.) Kongeskoven in Wegen, Oscarshall. 

B. intégra (Lin.). Daselbst sehr häufig. 

B. chamaeleontina Fries. Ebenfalls in verschiedenen Färbungen. 

B. grisea Pers. Kongeskoven, Gols Kirke. , 

B. alutacea Pers. Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, Holmenkollen. 

B. lutea (Huds). Oscarshall. 

B. xerampelina (Sghaeff.). Kongeskoven, Skovkapellet. 

Lactaria subdulcis (Bull). Oscarshall. 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 19 

L. seriflua (De Cand. Daselbst, Kongeskoven. 

L. piperata (Scop.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall. 

L, pallida Pers. Oscarshall, Skovkapellet. 

L. vellerea Fries. Kongeskoven. 

L. glyciosma Fries. Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, in Gärten. 

L. rufa (Scop.). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen. 

L. torminosa (Sghaeff.). Oscarshall unter Birken am Ausgange 
am Wege. 

L. necator Pers. Gols Kirke, Kongeskoven unter Birken. 

L. scrohiculata (Scop.). Kongeskoven am Wege zum Seebad. 

L. deliciosa (Lm.). Oscarshall, Kongeskoven. Vorzüglicher 
Speisepilz. 

Marasmius perf orans (Hoffm.). Kongeskoven auf Fichtennadeln. 

M. cauticinalis {Sw.). Ebendort. 

M. androsaceus (Lin.). Ebendort, Holmenkollen. 

M. graminum (Lib.). Waldkapelle. 

M. scorodonius Fries. Kongeskoven und überall auch in Gärten 
in ungeheurer Menge zw. Kiefernnadeln, auch an Baum- 
stämmen. Der stark nach Knoblauch schmeckende Pilz 
wird als Gewürz an Saucen, Braten benutzt und getrocknet 
in den Handel gebracht, in Berlin als Muscheron bezeichnet, 
theuer bezahlt. 

M. Oreades Fries. Ueberall an Wegen, auf Rasenplätzen oft 
in Hexenringen heerdenweise. Guter Suppenpilz. 

M. peronatus (Bolt.). Kongeskoven, Skovkapellet. 

Psathyrella disseminata (Pers.). Oscarshall in ungeheurer Menge 
am Grunde alter Laubholzstämme, mehrere Meter hoch hin- 
auf in Wundrissen heerdenweise. 

Ps. gracilis (Pers.). Kongeskoven, in Gärten unter Gebüsch. 

Panaeolus fimicota (Fries). Auf Dung an Wegen, in Gärten. 

P. foenisecii (Pers.). Oscarshall auf Rasenplatz, an Wegen. 

Chalymotta campanulata (Lin.). Ebendort. 

Psilocyhe spadicea (Schaeff.). Am Grunde eines Birkenstammes 
Oscarshall. 



20 P. HENNINGS. 



Ps. atroruf a [ScHAEFF.). Holmenkollen am Wege zwischen Moosen. 

Hyphöloma appendiculatum (Bull), Am Grunde von Weiden - 
stammen und Birken daselbst, in Gärten am Fredriksborgvei. 

H. fasciculare (Huds.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall nicht häufig 
bemerkt. 

H. lateritium (Schaeff.). Oscarshall an Laubholzstumpf. 

H. epixanthum Paul. Kongeskoven auf Fichtenstumpfen. 

Stropharia Goronilla (Fries). In einem Garten am Fredriks- 
borgvei. 

Str. viridula (Schaeff.). Rasig an einem Fichtenstumpf in 
Kongeskoven. 

Str. stercoraria (Fries). Kongeskoven am Wege auf Dung. 

Psalliota campestris (Lm.). Am Wege bei Folkemuseet. 

Ps. silvatica (Schaeff.). Kongeskoven sowie im Garten daneben. 

Crepidotus calolepis (Fries). Oscarshall an Pappelstamm und 
Sorbus Aucuparia. Exemplare bis 4 cm. breit, oberseits 
braunschuppig, mit filziger Basis; Sporen ellipsoid, braun, 

7—8 X 4—5 /". 
Galera Hypni (Batsch). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen zw. Moosen. 
Q. tenera (Schaeff.). An Wegen und auf Rasenplätzen in 

Gärten am Fredriksborgvei. 
Hebeloma crustuliniforme (Bull). Kongeskoven an Wegen, in 

Gärten. 
Naucoria temulenta (Feies). Kongeskoven nach dem Seebad. 
N. pediades (Fries). An Wegen, in Gärten Fredriksborgvei, 

Holmenkollen. 
Flammula sapinea (Fries). Oscarshall an Stumpf von Picea. 
Fl. carbonaria (Fries). Kongeskoven auf einer Kohlenstelle nach 

dem Seebad, 
Inocybe geophylla (Sow.). Kongeskoven häufig, Oscarshall, 

Holmenkollen. 
/. sambucina (Fries). Kongeskoven. 
I. rimosa (Bull.). Kongeskoven. 

I. cristata (Scop.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall an Wegerändern. 
/. scabra (Müll.). Daselbst. 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 21 

Cortinarius {Dermocybe) cinnamomeus (Lin.). Kongeskoven, 
Holmenkollen. 

C. (D.) anthracinus Fries. Daselbst. 

C. {Hydrocyhe) acutus (Pers.). Oscarshall, Skovkapellet. 

G. [H.) fasciatus Fries. Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen. 

G. (H.) decipiens (Pers.). Kongsskoven, auf Rasenplatz im 
Garten. 

G. [Telamonia] hemitrichus (Pers.). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen. 

G. [Myxacium] collinitus (Pers.). Kongeskoven. 

Pholiota mutahilis (Sghaeff.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall bei 
Gols Kirke an Baumstumpfen. 

Ph. destruens (Brond.). An einem hegenden Pappelstamm in 
Oscarshall. 

Claudopus nidulans (Pers.). Kongeskoven an Fichtenstumpf. 

Nolanea pascua (Pers.). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen. 

Leptonia solstitialis (Fries). Kongeskoven. 

L. serrulata Fries. Holmenkollen am Wegerand. 

Glitopilus prunulus (Scop.). Oscarshall auf Rasenplatz nahe 
dem Ausgange unweit der Gols Kirke. 

Entoloma sericeum (Bull.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, Holmen- 
kollen. 

Pluteus cervinus (Sghaeff.). Oscarshall an Baumstümpfen. 

Pleurotus ostreatus (Jaqu.). Oscarshall am Sorbus Aucuparia. 

Omphalia fibula (Bull.). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen, Sara- 
braaten zwischen Moosen. 

0. umhellifera (Lm.). Kongeskoven, Sarabraaten an feuchten 
Stellen. 

Mycena corticola (Pers.). Oscarshall an berindetem Pappel- 
stamm. 

M. epipterygia (Scop.). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen. 

M. sanguinolenta (Alb. & Sghw^.). Oscarshall bei Gols Kirke 
zw. Laub. 

M. filopes (Bull.). Oscarshall, Waldkapelle, im Garten zwischen 
Gebüsch. 



p. HENNINGS. 



M. stannea (Fries). Kongeskoven. 

M. alcalina (Fries). Kongeskoven am Fichtenstumpf. 

M. galericulata (Scop.). Kongeskoven an Birkenstumpf. 

M. rugosa (Fries). Oscarshali an Baumstumpf. 

M. flavo-aïba (Fries). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen zwischen 
Moosen. 

M. rosea (Bull.). Oscarshall bei Gols Kirke, Holmenkollen. 

Collybia dryophila (Bull). Kongeskoven, Oscarshali. 

0. tenacella (Pers.). Kongeskoven. 

C. cirrhata (Pers.). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen aus gelben Scle- 
rotien auf faulenden Hutpilzen. 

C. hutyracea (Bull.). Kongeskoven. 

C. clusilis (Fries). Kongeskoven zwischen Moosen. 

C. radicata (Relh.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall. 

Glitocyhe laccata (Scop.). Kongeskoven, Skovkapellet, Oscarshall. 

Cl. cyathiformis (Bull.). Kongeskoven. 

CI. geotropa [Bull.)? auf Rasenplatzen im Garten am Fredriks- 
borgvei truppweise. Fruchtkörper rein weiss, bis 25 cm. 
breit, fleischig. Stiel bis 15 cm. lang, 2 cm. dick. 

Cl. sinopica (Fries). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen, Sarabraaten. 

Cl. infundibuliformis (Schaeff.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, 
Holmenkollen. 

Cl. odora (Bull). Oscarshall in Gebüsch. 

Tricholoma sordidum (Schum.). Im Garten am Fredriksborgvei. 

Tr. hrevipes (Bull.). Fredriksborg am Wege. 

Tr. melaleuGum (Pers.). Oscarshall auf Rasenplatz. 

Tr. saponaceum (Fries), Kongeskoven, Holmskollen. 

Tr. terreum (Schaeff.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, im Garten an 
Fredriksborgvei. 

Tr. rutüans (Schaeff.). Kongeskoven an Kiefernstumpf? 

Lepiota çristata (Alb. & Sghw.). Kongeskoven, Oscarshall. 

L. clypeolaria (Bull.). Holmenkollen. 

L. procera (Scop.). Im Garten am PVedriksborgvei. 

Amanita excelsa Fries? Bei der Skovkapellet. 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 23 

Ljcoperdciceaje. 

Lycoperdon pisiforme Schaeff. An Baumstumpfen Konge- 

skoven, Holmskollen. 
L. gemmatum Batsch. Kongeskoven, Oscarshall, Holmenkollen in 

verschiedenen Formen. 
L. pusillum Batsch. Kongeskoven am Wege, Holmenkollen. 
Bovista plumbea Pers. Kongeskoven nahe dem Christian 

August Denkmal. 

Scleroderma^taceae. 
Scleroderma vulgare Horn. Furubaken am Wege nach Oscarshall. 

Nidala,riaceae. 

Crucibulum vulgare Tul. Frederiksborgvei nahe dem Tivoli 
an Stakettpfählen, Christiania Schlosspark an Pfählen. 

Cyathus Olla (Batsch.). Fredriksborgvei im Garten an Brett- 
rändern. 

ExoasccLcea^e. 

Exoascus hetulinus (Rostr.). Betula alba, im Garten Fredriks- 
borgvei. 

Rhizinacea^e. 

Bhizina infläta (Schaeff.). Kongeskoven auf einer kleinen 
Kohlenstelle mit Pyronema omphalodes. 

Helvellaceae. 

Helvetia laçunosa Afz. Oscarshall unter Gebüsch. 
Gyromitra esculenta (Pers.). Holmenkollen Juni 1902, soll bei 
Sarabraaten in grosser Menge vorkommen. 

Bulgariaceae. 

Coryne sarcoides Jacq. Conidienpilz auf Schnittfläche von Betula 
in Oscarshall. 



24 P. HENNINGS. 



Dermajtea,cea.e. 

Dermatea Ariae (Pers.). Auf Zweigen von Sorbus Aria. 
Oscarshall am Parkwege. 

MoUisisicecie. 

Mollisia minutella (Sacc). Auf faulenden Stengeln von Bunias 
Orientalis, nahe dem Folkemuseet. 

Fyrenopezizeae. 

Pirottea veneia Sacc. Kongeskoven am Strande zum Seebad 
auf faulenden Stengeln von Verbascum nigrum und Arabis sp. 

Heloticiceae. 

Helotium citrinum (Hedw.). Auf der Schnittfläche eines Baum- 
stumpfes bei Oscarshall. 

Phialea cyathoidea (Bull.). Auf faulenden Stengeln am Strande 
im Kongeskoven von Libanotis, Heracleum, Ulmaria, am 
Wege nach Folkemuseet auf Stengeln von Bunias orien- 
talis. 

Ph. glanduliformis Rehm? Auf faulenden Stengel von Aconi- 
tum septentrionale bei Holmenkollen. Juni 1902. Etwas 
unreif. 

Dasyscypha dryina Karst. Auf todtem Holz von Betula alba 
bei Holmenkollen Juni 1902. 

D. calyciformis (Wïlld.). Auf dürrem Fichtenast im Konge- 
skoven. 

Pezizaceae. 

Pyronema omphalodes (Bull.). Kongeskoven auf kleinen Kohlen- 
stellen beim Christian Augusts Monument. 
Humaria rutilans (Fries). Holmenkollen an Wegrändern. 
PUcaria pustulata (Hedv^.) Holmenkollen bei den Teichen. 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 25 

Hypoderma,tacea,e. 

Hypoderma virguUorum (D. C). form. Euphorbiae. Kongeskoven 
am Strande unweit des Seebades auf vorjährigen Stengeln 
von Euphorbia palustris überall. Asken meist 70 — 90 X 
9—10 !x„ Sporen 18—22 X 2V2— 3V2 ^, kleiner als bei der 
typischen Art. 

Phacidiaceae. 

PhacAdium repandum (Alb. & Schw.). Bei der Skovkapellet 

auf Blättern von Gahum MoUugo. 
Coccomyces coronatus (Schüm.). Auf faulenden Eichenblättern 

im Garten am Fredriksborgsvei. 

JSrysiphaceae. 

Sphaerotheca panosa (Wallr.), Im Garten am Fredriksborgs- 
vei auf Rasen. 
Ä Humuli (D. G.). Oscarshall auf Impatiens noli tangere. 
Erysiphe Polygont D. G. Kongeskoven auf Heracleum Sphon- 

dylium, Anthriscus silvester, Trifolium montanum u. s. w., 

an Wegen auf Polygonum aviculare. 
E. Galeopsidis D. G. Auf Galeopsis im Garten am Fredriks- 

borgvei. 
E. Cichoracearum D. G. Auf Artemisia vulgaris, Plantago 

major an Wegen, auf Girsium canum?, Valeriana officinalis 

im Kongeskoven. 
Microsphaera Evonymi D. G. Auf Berberis daselbst sowie 

überall verbreitet. 
Phyllactinia corylea (Pers.), Auf Betula alba, Gorylus Avel- 

lana in Gärten und Oscarshall. 
Uncinula Aceris D. G. Auf Acer platanoides Oscarshall. 
U. Salicis D. G. Auf Populus spec, im Garten am Fredriks- 

borgvei. 



26 P- HENNINGS. 



Hypocreaceae. 

Nectria cinnaharina Tode.. Gonidienstadien überall verbreitet. 
N. episphaeria (Tode). Auf Diatrype Stigma in Gärten auf 

Zweigen. 
Hypocrea citrina (Pers.). Auf Holz und Erde in Kongeskoven. 
H. fungicola Karst. Kongeskoven auf Fomes ungulatus. 

Tricbosphaeriaceae. 

Coleroa Chaetomium (Kunze) Auf Blättern von Rubus idaeus 
im Kongeskoven. 

Melanommaceae. 

Melanomma Pulvis pyrius (Pers), var. Vaccinii P. Henn. 
Auf dickem Wurzelstock von Vaccinium Myrtillus am 
Wege bei Voxenkollen Juni 1902. 

Die Asken sind fast keulig, 60 — 80 X 5—6 f^'^' die Sporen 
schiefeinreihig, oblong, beiderseits schwach verschmälert, 
stumpf, braun, mit 3 Septen, eingeschnürt, 13 — 20 X ^Vs 
472 jU. Vielleicht ist der Pilz besser als Art aufzustellen, 
da er von M. Rhododendri Rehm verschieden, ebenso von 
anderen Arten. 

Cucurbitariaceae. 

Cucurbitaria Berheridis (Peps.). An dürren Arten von Ber- 
beris hinter Oscarshall. 

C Laburni (Pers.). An Aesten von Gytisus Laburnum im 
Garten am Fredriksborgvei. 

0. Caraganae Karst. An Zweigen von Garagana arborescens 
daselbst, Oscarshall. 

Sphaerelloiedeaceae. 

Stigmatea Bohertiani Fries. Auf Blättern von Geranium Ro- 
bertianum im Garten am Fredriksborgvei. 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 27 

Mycosphaerella nebulösa (Pers.). An Stengeln von Solidago 
an Wegen. 

Pleosporaceae. 

Leptosphaeria Libanotis (Fuck.). Ueberall an dürren Stengeln 
von Libanotis montana auf Bygdø, besonders hinter Fredriks- 
borg, Kongeskoven, 

L. doliolum (Peks.). An trockenen Stengeln von Urtica dioica, 
Oscarshall; auf Artemisia campestris bei Seebad. 

L. modesta Desm.). An Stengeln von Heracleum, Pimpinella, 
Agrimonia, Eupatorium am Strande nach dem Seebad u. s, w. 

Pleospora vulgaris Niessl. forwi. monosticha. Auf trockenen 
Stengeln von Echinops sphaerocephalus am Fredriksborgs 
Tivoli, Hieracium umbellatum an Wegen daselbst. 

Gnomoniaceae. 

Gnomoniella idaeicola (Karst.). Kongeskoven auf trockenen 
Stengeln von Rubus saxitilis. 

Valsa^ceae. 

Maniania fimbriata (Pers.). Bei Oscarshall auf Blättern von 
Garpinus. 

Eutypa Acharii Tul. Im Garten am Fredriksborgvei auf Zwei- 
gen von Viburnum. 

E. subtecta (Fries). Daselbst auf Zv^eigen von Acer. 

E. spinosa Pers. Daselbst auf trockenen Eichenästen. 

Eutypella Sorbi (Alb. & Schw^.). Am Wege hinter Oscarshall 
auf trockenen Zweigen von Sorbus Aucuparia. 

Dia^trypaceae. 

Calosphaeria princeps Tul. Im Pensions-Garten am Fredriks- 
borgvei an einem Pflaumenbaum unterhalb der aufgerissenen 
Rinde. 

Diatrypella favacea (Fries). Daselbst am Birkenästen. 



p. HENNINGS. 



Diatrype disciformis (Hoffm.). Daselbst auf einem abgefallenen 
Buchenzweig. 



Xyleiriaceae. 

Hypoxylon coccineum Bull. An Hasel nussästen Oscarshall. 
Xylaria polymorpha (Pers.) var. hypoxylea Nits. Am Grunde 

eines Baumstumpfes bei Oscarshall. 
Ustulina deusta (Hoffm.). Ebendort. 

Dothidea,ceae. 

Plowrightia Berberidis (Sow.). Am Fahrwege hinter Oscars- 
hall zum Seebad vor dem Kongsgaarden auf dürren dünnen 
Zweigen von Berberis häufig. 

Rhopographus Pteridis (Sow.). An vorjährigen Stielen von 
Pteris aquilina Holmenkollen. Juni 1902. 

Spha,eropsidacea,e. 

Phoma complanata (Tode). Am Wege nach Oscarshall auf 
trockenen Stengeln von Bunias orientalis, Tragopogon pra- 
tensis. 

Ph. Urticae Schultz, et Sacc. Kongeskoven auf Stengeln von 
Urtica dioica. 

Ph. lirelliformis Sacc. Im Garten auf Zweigen von Viburnum 
Opulus. 

Ph. samarum (Desm.). Auf Früchten von Acer in botan. Garten 
u. Oscarshall. 

Ph. cryptica Sacc. Im Garten der kleinen Insel bei Fredriks- 
borg auf Zweigen von Lonicera Periclymenum. 

Ph. Viscariae P. Henn. n. sp. ; peritheciis subepidermide nidu- 
lantibus, suberumpentibus, atris, poro pertusis, ca. 60—105 u, 
conidiis ellipsoideis vel oblongis hyalinis, continuis, eguttu- 
latis, 5— 6V2 X 2V2— 3 iLi. 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 29 

Kongeskoven am Strande nach den Seebad an trockenen 
Stengeln von Viscaria viscosa (Gill.) mit Ascohyta Vis- 
cariae. 

Ph. Valerianae P. Henn. n. sp. : peritheciis sparsis, lenticulari- 
bus, poro pertusis, atris, ca. 100 — 120 jli, conidiis ovoideis 
vel ellipsoideis, hyalinis, 1 guttulatis, 3 — 3V2 X 2 — 3 /n. 

Kongeskoven am Strande nach dem Seebad an trockenen 
Stengeln von Valeriana officinalis. Von Ph. herbarum ganz 
verschieden. 

Macrophoma? Äriae P. Henn. n. sp. ; peritheciis sub epidermide 
gregariis, depressis, astomis, subcarbonaceis, atris; conidiis 
oblonge ellipsoideis, vel subclavatis, intus nubulosis, hya- 
Unis, 18—25 X 6 — 8 A'» conidiophoris fasciculatis, hya- 
hnis, 10—20 X 3— 4V2 ^i. 

Oscarshall an trockenen Zweigen von Sorbus Aria in 
Gemeinschaft mit Dermatea Ariae. Ob der Pilz zu Macro- 
phoma zu stellen, ist etwas zweifelhaft. 

Cytospora amhiens Sacc. Im Garten am Fredriksborgvei an 
trockenen Zweigen von Cornus sanguinea. 

C Oxyacanthae Rab. Daselbst an Zweigen von Crataegus. 

C. microsperma Sacc. Hinter Oscarshall an Zweigen von Pru- 
nus spinosa. 

C. leucostoma (Pers.) form. Cotoneastri. An trockenen Zwei- 
gen von Cotoneaster am Strande nach dem Seebad. Coni- 
dien stäbchenförmig gekrümmt, 4 — 5 X 0,5—0,7 jli, farblos. 

C. Syringae Sacc. Im Garten am Fredriksborgvei auf Zweigen 
von Syringa. 

C leucosperma (Pers.). Auf der Insel nahe Fredriksborg im 
Garten auf trockenen Zeigen von Pirus Malus. 

C. Ähietis Sacc. Am Wald nach der Skovkapellet auf abge- 
storbenen Zweigen von Picea excelsa. 

€. Gurreyi Sacc. Am Kongeskoven an trockenen Zweigen von 
Pinus silvestris. 



30 P. HENNINGS. 



Ascohyta Viscariae P. Henn. n. sp. ; peritheciis gregariis, de- 
pressis globosis hypodermicis, ostiolo prominente, atris, mem- 
branaceis, ca. 100 — 160 ^; conidiis oblonge cylindraceis, 
utrinque obtusis, medio 1 septalis, haud constrictis, hyalinis, 
13—18 X ^ l^i- 

Kongeskoven am Stiande zum Seebad auf trockenen 
Stengeln von Viscaria viscosa mit Phoma. 

Coniothyrium Cytisi P. Henn. n. sp.; peritheciis hypodermicis, 
sparsis vel aggregatis, lenticularibus, atris, pertusis, ca. 150 
180 f.i; conidiis ellipsoideis vel ovoideis, fusco-brunneis, con- 
tinus, 5 — 7 X ^ — 5 f-i. 

Oscarshall an trockenen Zv^eigen von Cytisus nigri- 
cans. 

C, Grossulariae P. Henn. n. sp.; peritheciis hypodermicis spar- 

sis vel gregariis, atris, punctiformibus, sublenticularibus ca. 
130 — 150 /Li;] conidiis ovoideis vel ellipsoideis, brunneis, 
5_8 X 3V2— 4V2 f.1. 

Im Garten an Kongeskoven auf trockenen Zweigen von 
Ribes Grossularia. 
Diplodia mamillana Fr. Garten am Fredriksborgvei auf 
trockenen Zweigen von Cornus sanguinea. 

D. ramulicola Westend. Daselbst auf Zweigen von Evonymus 

latifolius. 
Septoria virgaureae (Desm.). Anhöhen bei der Skovkapellet auf 

Blättern von Solidago virgaurea. 
S. Lamii Pass. Auf einem Acker auf Blättern von Lamium 

amplexicaule. 
S. Trientalis (Lash.). Kongeskoven auf Trientalis europaea. 
S. Convolvuli (Desm.). Daselbst am Strande auf Convolvulus 

sepium. 
S. ürticae Desm. Im Garten auf Urtica dioica. 
Rhabdospora hygdoensis P. Henn. n. sp. ; peritheciis innato- 

erumpentibus, punctiformibus, gregariis, atris, subglobosis, 

perforatis, ca. 120 — 160 f.i; conidiis cylindraceis, utrinque 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 31 

obtusis, rectis, 1 — 3 septatis, 16 — 30 X 2V2 — 3V2 i.i, hya- 
linis. 

Kongeskoven am Strande zum Seebad auf trockenen 
Stengeln von Artemisia vulgaris. Von R. Artemisiae Trail., 
R. tomispora Bres., R. Greshikei Bres. verschieden. 

Camarosporium Caraganae Karst. Gärten und Oscarshall 
an trockenen Zweigen von Caragana arborescens. 

G. hygdoense P. Henn. n. sp. ; peritheciis gregariis sub epider- 
mide nidulantibus, subglobulosis, atris, papillatis ca. 150 — 
200 /Li: conidiis ellipsoideis vel ovoideis, utrinque obtusis, 
3-5 septatis, interrupte muriformibus, 12 — 17 X 6 — 9 l^t- 

Oscarshall sowie im Garten am Fredriksborgvei auf 
Zweigen von Spiraea cfr. crenata. Von C. Spiraeae ver- 
schieden. 

Leptostromatacea^e. 

Leptothyrium alneum (Lev.). Oscarshall, Kongeskoven u. s. w. 
auf lebenden Blättern von Alnus glutinosa. 

L. Periclymeni (Desm.). Kongeskoven und in Gärten auf Blät- 
tern von Lonicera Xylosteum. 

L. litigiosum (Desm.). Kongeskoven, Holmenkollen auf abge- 
storbenen Wedelstielen von Pteris aquilina. 

Leptostroma Pinastri Desm. Kongeskoven auf abgefallenen 
Nadeln von Pinus silvestris. 

Entomosporium Mespili D. C. Am Strande nach dem Seebad 
und bei Oscarshall auf lebenden Blättern von Cotoneaster 
vulgaris. 

ExipulayCeae. 

Dinemasporiwm Tragopogonis P. Henn. n. sp. ; peritheciis 
gregariis, cupulatis, atris, ca. 100 — 180 in diam., setulis ri- 
gidis, erectis, aterrimis, acutis, usque 200 jtt longis ; conidiis 
elongato-fusoideis, curvulis, 2 — 4 guttulatis, utrinque minute 
setulosis, hyalinis, ca. 15 — 23 X 3 - 4V2 f,i. 



p. HENNINGS. 



Am Wege zum Folkemuseet auf trockenen Stengeln 
von Tragopogon pratensis. Mit B. hispidulum (Schrad.) 
var. herharum Cook., verwandt, aber verschieden. 

Melanconiaceae. 

Gloeosporium Tiliae Oud. Oscarshall an Blättern von Tilia 
intermedia. 

Gl. acerinum West. Im Garten am Fredriksborgvei auf Blät- 
tern von Acer platanoides. 

Coryneum rosarum P, Henn. n. sp. : acervulis hypodermicis atris, 
dein erumpentibus, disciformibus, 200 /.i; conidiis oblonge 
ovoideis vel subfusoideis, 1 dein 3 septatis, haud constrictis, 
fuscidulis, septis atris, 5 — 8 X ^ — 5 f.i. 

An Wegen nach Oscarshall auf trockenen Zweigen von 
Rosa sp. 

Pestalozzia monochaetoidea Sacc. & Ell. Oscarshall an tro- 
ckenen Zweigen von Spiraea spec. Die Conidien sind 10 — 
12 X 4? f.1, 3 septiert, an der Spitze mit fadenförmiger bis 
10 jLi langer Borste, an der Basis mit fast gleichlangem Stiel. 
Die Pilz ist bisher wohl nur aus Nordamerika bekannt. 

Phragmotrichum Chailletii Kze. et Schm. Kongeskoven, Oscars- 
hall, Holmenkollen häufig auf abgefallenen Fichtenzapfen. 

Mucedinaceae. 

Ramularia Geranii Westend. Kongeskoven nahe dem Strande 
am Wege zum Seebad auf Blättern von Geranium palustre. 

B. sambucina Sacc. Im Garten am Fredriksborgvei auf Blät- 
tern von Sambuens. 

R. calcea (Desm.). Kongeskoven auf Blättern von Glechoma 
hederacea. 

B. Primulae Thüm. Oscarshall auf einem Blatte von Primula. 

B. Urticae Ces. Oscarshall und im Garten am Kongeskoven 
auf Urtica dioica. 



PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CHRISTIANIAS. 33 



Cladosporium herharum (Pers.). Auf faulenden Stengeln von 
Bunias, Tragopogon, auf Eichenblättern u. s. w. verbreitet. 

Cercospora Epilobü Schneid. Holmenkollen am Wege auf Epi- 
lobium montanum. 

C. Geranii sanguinei P. Henn. n. sp. ; maculis fuscis, apicibus 
foliorum, hyphis fasciculatis, septatis, fuscis, 30 — 50 X 
3 — 5 fi; conidiis subcylindraceis, vel clavatis, rectis, apice 
obtusis, medio 1 septatis, hyalinis, 20 — 40 X 4— öVs /n. 

Kongeskoven am Strande nach dem Seebad auf Blättern 
von Geranium sanguineum häufig. 

Die Art ist von G. Geranii Kell, et Sw. aus Nord- 
amerikaverschieden, ebenso vonCercosporellaMagnusianaALL. 

Tuberculariaceae. 

Tubercularia vulgaris Tode. Gemein auf trockenen Zweigen 
u. Aesten überall. 

T. Sambuci Cord. An trockenen Zweigen von Sambuens im 
Garten am Fredriksborgvei u. s. w. 

T. Lahurni Opiz? An Zeigen von Cytisus Laburnum dort. 

Hymenula? Ardbidis P. Henn. n. sp. ; sporodocheis cauUcolis; 
subpulvinatis vel discoideis, ceraceis, roseis, ca. 0,5—2 mm. 
diam., hyphis septatis ramosis, incarnatis, 4 — 6 (.i crassis, 
sporophoris fasciculatis, conidiis oblonge cylindraceis, conli- 
nuis, obtusis, 8—10 X IV2— 2 f.i. 

Kongeskoven am Strande nach dem Seebad an trockenen 
Stengeln von Arabis spec. cfr. stricta. Der Pilz dürfte an- 
scheinend in obige Gattung, nicht zu Tubercularia oder 
Illosporium gehören, wenn auch einzelne Merkmale abwei- 
chen. 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. I. 3 



84 P. HENNINGS. PILZFLORA DER UMGEBUNG CRISTIANIAS. 

Pionnotis Biasolettiana (Cord.). Auf einem Birkenstumpfe vor 
Sarabraaten am Wege, rosenrothen, schleimigen Ueberzug 
bildend. Juni 1902. 



Gedruckt 20. januar 1904. | 



On some New Occurrences of Titanite 
from Kragerø. 

By 
P. Schei. 

(With Table I). 



-LJuring the past two years the Mineralogical Institution of 
the University has obtained some pretty good specimens of ti- 
tanite from Kragerø. Together with older material from southern 
Norway, this makes a fine material for crystallographic examin- 
ation, and the Director of the Institution, Prof. Dr. W. G. Brøg- 
GEE, has been kind enough to submit it to me for closer in- 
spection. 

At present, some few remarks on the crystallographic types 
and the mode of occurrence have not been deemed out of place, 
the more so because collections from all these localities has got 
abroad already. 

Titanite from LindvikskoUen. 

This one occurs at the same great granite-pegmatitic dyke 
that has yielded already the newly described mineral hellandite^. 



1 Prof. Dr. W. C. Brøgger: Über den Hellandit, ein neues Mineral, in 
this Magaz. B. 41. H. 3. 1903. 



36 p. SCHEI. 

Together with that mineral and hkewise embedded in quartz 
mainly, with little or no feldspar, occur crystals of titanite of a 
type well known from alpine localities. 

The predominating forms are: |100|, }111|, )001|, lllOj ; re- 
ferred to the axial ratio of Descloizeaux — Dana. Two different 
types occur, the one represented by fig. 1 and characterised by 
the forms llOOj, |110|, |llli & |001| and the other with jlOOj, 
jlllj and jOOlj, see fig. 2. 1 is identical with the combination 
figured by Hessenberg from Zillerthal, and 2 likewise with 
V. Rath's Figur of crystal from St. Gotthard. 

Common to both is the constant twinning with tw-plane jlOOj, 
no single individual being as yet observed; almost as constant 
is the phenomenon that the faces of jlllj only form the ter- 
mination ai one end, while jOOlj only is to be. found at the 
other. In one specimen, however, a small face of jOOlj cuts 
off the point of the arrow head. 

Narrow faces of jTuj are sometimes observed cutting the 
edges between jllOj and 001, Besides these, in one specimen 
are seen Toi together with Ti2 and ÏT2. 

The size is variable, mostly 30—50 mm. broad by 10 — 20 mm. 
thick and 20—30 mm. high, the greatest crystal measuring 80, 
50 and 30 mm. resp.; a broken mass of a yet greater crystal 
has been obtained. 

The mineral from this locality is seldom found in unaltered 
condition — in that case dark brown and strongly resembhng yttro- 
titanite; usually it is altered through the whole mass to a light 
grey substance, earthy-looking by weathering and containing 
grains of: quartz, muscovite, epidote, chlorite, etc., dispersed in 
the remaining titanite mass. 

Titanite from the West of Kammerfoselv. 

Of quite a different type are the crystals of titanite gathered 
from a chloritic schist west of Kammerfoselv. 



ON SOME NEW OCCURR. OF TITANITE F. KRAGERØ. 37 

The type is shown in fig. 3, with the following forms: jlllj, 
|T12J, jOlOi & jOOlj and fig. 4 with jllOj & jTllj also. 

Twinning seems to be rare, only two twins after the com- 
mon law: jlOOj tw.plane, being found among a great many 
single individuals. 

The faces are unsually dull but sometimes as if varnished, 
of a redbrown colour, finely white-sprinckled : the thin section 
shows the cause of the sprinckhng: once perhaps yellow or yel- 
lowish green and translucent to transparent, the titanite is now 
altered into a mixture of minute crystals of octahedrite (anatase) 
in a groundmass of allotriomorphic granular calcite, with a little 
quartz. The octahedrite (anatase) crystals are from 0"1 to 0*5 mm. 
long, well developed with jlllj, jlOOj and sometimes jOOlj, of 
a redbrown or purple colour, very splendent. They have been 
identified by the angle 111 to llT, measured provisionally to 137° 
in medium and in thin-section by the cleavage parallel to |111| 
and jOOlj, and by the neg. optical character. 

One handspecimen from this locality contains, besides se- 
veral of these pseudomorphs, an individual not yet wholly altered, 
with part of yellowish translucent substance, strongly resemhng 
the mineral from the third locality. 

Titanite from Frydensborg. 

This titanite is quite fresh, yellowish green to brownish yel- 
low, translucent, and occurs embedded with calcite, rutile, he- 
matite, etc., in a chloritic rock somewhat similar to the mother 
rock' of the last named titanite. The rutile has been observed 
here in allotriomoi phic grains forming a nucleus in the midst of 
a titanite individual. 

Only single individuals have been found, which are of a 
very persistent type, represented in fig. 5. 

The following forms have been noticed: jlll|, J131J, jlllj, 
JT12J, |T13J, jT21j, j021j, jToij, jOOlj, jOlOj and jllOj, of which, 
to my knowledge, }T21J is nowhere observed before- 



38 P. SCHEI. ON SOME NEW OCCURR. OF TITANITE F. KRAGERØ. 

Almost every crystal shows these forms, with the only ex- 
ception of jToil that is often wanting. Remarkable is the con- 
stant occurrence, in this and the last mentioned variety, of |010;, 
a rare form in titanite. 

The cleavage parallel to jTiij is much pronounced, and pa- 
rallel to one face of j221| is observed a parting giving exquisite 
smooth planes — . The nature of the faces is very different: 
JOlOj, jl31{, and |Tl3' are usually dull or looking varnished, 
jlllj and jOOlj strongly faceted and giving disturbed signals, 
jlllj, jT2li, and jTiaj are often very brilliant, jîi2| & |Tl3s 
both show vicinal faces. 



Printed 23. november 1903. 



Beiträge zur Gattung Papilio L. und Colias Lea eh. 



Oskar Schultz. 



1. Psupilio macha^on L. ab. rubromacula^tus Schultz. 
Ah. rubromaculatus : AI. post, supra rubromaculatis. 



Di 



'iese Form, welche in den Gatalogen gewöhnlich als „ab 
mit rothen Flecken am Vorderrande der Hinterflügel" aufgeführt 
wird und kürzer als ab. rubromaculatus bezeichnet wird, tritt 
in weniger ausgeprägten Exemplaren nicht selten überall unter 
der Stammart auf ; Stücke, bei denen die rote FJeckung grössere 
Ausdehnung erreicht, wie sie weiter unten erwähnt werden, 
dürfen als Seltenheiten angesprochen werden. 

Rote Schuppen finden sich oberseits in den gelben Saum- 
monden der Hinterflügel und zwar: 

in Mond 1. (sehr häufig), 

in Mond 1 und 2 (häufig), 

in Mond 2 und 3 (ziemlich selten), 

in Mond 1 bis 3 (ziemlich selten), 

in Mond 1 bis 4 (selten), 

in Mond 1 bis 5 (sehr selten), 

in Mond 1 bis 6 (sehr selten), 

in Mond 1 und 6 (sehr selten), 

in Mond 1, 2 und 6 (selten). 
Die rote Bestäubung kann demnach in sämtlichen 6 Saum- 
m.onden auftreten. Sie zeigt sich bald kräftiger, den ganzen 



40 OSKAR SCHULTZ. 



lichten Fleck ausfüllend — bald schwächer, oft nur schattenhaft 
einen Teil desselben einnehmend. 

Des Weiteren tritt in seltenen Fällen auch rote Bestäubung 
(wie unterseits) oberseits an der inneren Seite des dunklen Sub- 
marginalbandes der Hinterflügel auf, entweder allein oder auch 
in Verbindung mit roter Bestäubung der Marginalmonde. Sie 
erstreckt sich dann längs des ganzen Submarginalbandes oder 
nur eines Teiles desselben. Bisweilen tritt die rote Färbung 
sogar auf die Submarginalbinde selber über. Bei einem Exemplar 
aus der Coli. Pilz-Heinrichau, welches vor dem inneren Rand der 
Submarginalbinde rote Bestäubung zeigt ($), hat das Analauge 
die deutliche Bildung des Hospiton-Auges angenommen: zur 
Hälfte roth, zur Hälfte blau, dazwischen eine schwarze Trenungs- 
hnie. Zwei Exemplare mit Characteren der ab. rubromaculatus 
aus meiner Sammlung zeigen das Auge einfarbig zinnoberrot, 
ohne jede Spur von Blau. 

Auch am Afterwinkel oberhalb des Augenflecks treten bis- 
weilen keilförmig rote Schuppen auf (Iris 1900 p. 104). 

Schhesslich möchte ich die Mitteilung eines Sammlers nicht 
unerwähnt lassen, nach welcher bei einem weibHchen Exemplar, 
das in mehreren Saummonden und vor dem Innenrand der 
Submarginalbinde der Hinterflügel rote Beschuppung aufwies, 
sich schwach rote Bestäubung auch auf die beidon untersten 
gelben Saummonde der Vorderflügel erstreckte» 

Die Merkmale der ab. rubromaculatus scheinen sich häufiger 
beim weiblichen als beim männlichen Geschlecht von Papilio 
machaon L. zu finden. 

2. Papilio hospiton Guené ab. n. subrubicundus Schultz. 
Ah. subrubicundus: AI. post supra rubromaculatis. 

Rote Beschuppung auf der Oberseite der Hinterflügel. 
Die mir vorliegenden Exemplare dieser Abart (Coli. Pfitzner- 
Sprottau $; Coli. Pilz-Heinrichau) zeigen die beiden obersten 



BEITR. Z. GATTUNG PAPILIO L. U. COLIAS LEACH. 41 

Saummonde am Vorderrand der Hinterflügel von dieser Erschei- 
nung betroffen; eins davon auch den untersten, dem Analauge 
zunäehst gelegenen (6.) Saummond, indessen letzteren nur in 
sehr schwacher Weise. 

Bisweilen erscheint auch der Innenrand der dunklen Sub- 
marginalbinde ($) rostrot bestäubt (Coli. Pilz). 

Fluggebiet: Corsica, unter der Stammform. 

3. Papilio xuthulus Brem. ab. miniatulus Schultz. 
Ah. miniatulus : AI. post, lunulis marginalibus supra ochraceo- 

tinctis: 

Die rotgelbe (ockergelbe) Färbung der Unterseite, welche oft 
sehr ausgebreitet auftritt, zeigt sich in seltenen Fällen auch auf 
der Oberseite der Hinteiflügel. 

Mir Hegt eine Form vor (ab. miniatulus), welche die gelben 
Saummonde der Hinterflügel (1 — 4.) stellenweise rötlich gelb 
gefärbt zeigt. 

Vom Amurgebiet. 

4. Colias hyale L. ab. (n.) rsbdiiformis Schultz. 

Ab. radiiformis m.: AI. post, (et ant.) pundis ferrugineis 

suhtus in radios effluentihus. 

Oberseite: Vorderflügel von typischen Exemplaren nicht 
verschieden; auch der dunkle Rand nicht breiter. 

Hinterflügel: ebenfalls typisch. Nur ein einziges Exemplar 
weicht insofern ab ($), als der schwarze Aussenrand völlig fehlt 

Unterseite: Hier zeigen sich die characteristischen Merk- 
male der neuen Abart : 

Schon auf den Vorderflügeln sind bei mehreren Exempla- 
ren entweder die obersten 2 Punkte der vor dem Saum befind- 
lichen braunschwarzen Punktreihe nach dem schwarzen Mittelfleck 
zu durch starke schwarze Striche erweitert oder es sind die beiden 
untersten Punkte derselben in analoger Weise ausgezogen. Ein 



42 



OSKAR SCHULTZ. 



hierhergehöriges 6 (cf. 6. Jahresbreicht des Wiener ent, Vereins 
1895 p. 53) wird seiner Vorderflügelunterseite nach wie folgt 
beschrieben: „Auf der Unterseite der Vorderflügel stehen in 
Zello 1 b, 2 und 3 innerhalb der Saumpuncte grosse schwarze 
Mondflecke, deren convexe Seite die Saumpuncte berührt." 

Besonders aber treten die Merkmale der Abart auf der 
Unterseite der Hinterflügel hervor. 

Bald sind die rostfarbenen Punkte vor dem Saume sämmt- 
Hch nach dem 8 förmigen Mittelfleck strichförmig ausge- 
zogen, bald sind dieselben nicht peripher, sondern nach dem 
Saume zu längs den Flügeladern strahlenförmig erweitert (so 
auch. 1. c. p. 53: „Von den Saumpunkten der Unterseite der 
Hinterflügel ziehen rothbraune Strahlen zwischen den Rippen 
bis zum Saume"). 

Diese Form, welche ich durch den besonderen Namen ah. 
radiiformis (wegen des strahlenartigen Ausfliessens der Saum- 
puncte) von der Stammart absondern möchte, wurde in Pommern 
(Zamzow, Gienow), Brandenburg (Berlin), in Nieder- und Mittel- 
Schlesien (2 Stücke in Heinrichau, Coli. Pilz), in Oesterreich 
(Schneeberggebiet, Gutenstein), in der Schweiz beobachtet. Die 
Ab. radiiformis tritt wohl überall da auf, wo die Stammform 
fliegt, wenn auch nur selten. 

5. Collars phicomone L. a^b. elegans Schultz, 

Forma obscur i or. 

Ah. elegans: Al. ant. unicolorihus griseis, maculis sub- 

marginalibus vix perspicuis; al. post. supra macula media 

rubra permagna. 

Schöne Form, auffallend durch die dunkle Färbung. Auf 
den Vorderflügeln ist im Wurzel- und Mittelfelde die grüngelbe 
Grundfärbung völlig geschwunden und durch eine tief dunkel- 
graue Bestäubung verdrängt; der dunkle Aussenrand ist vor- 
handen; die lichteren Randflecken treten nur sehr wenig hervor. 



BEITR. Z. GATTUNG PAPILIO L. U. COLIAS LEACH. 43 

Bei einem Exemplar sind dieSubmarginalfïecken völlig geschwunden. 
Der Mittelpunct gioss und tief schwarz hervortretend. 

Hinterflügel ebenfalls tief dunkelgrau, jedoch mit breitem 
licht grünlich grauem Saum. Der Mittelfleck auffallend 
gross, kräftig ziegelrot gefärbt. 

Die Unterseite von typischen Exemplaren nicht verschieden. 

Aus der Schweiz. Coli. Pilz. 

6. Collas myrmldone Esp. $ a.b. (n.) Inumbrata, Schultz. 
Ah. inumbrata: AI. ant. supra margine immaculato nigro. 

Diese w ei bli che Form unterscheidet sich vom Typus dadurch, 
das der Saum der orangeroten Vorderflügel oberseits einfarbig 
schwarz und ungefleckt wie beim 6 (jedoch breiter als bei die- 
sem) ist. 

Die gelblichgrünen Hinterflügel zeigen dagegen den schmalen 
schwarzen Saum von lichtgelben (kleineren als beim Typus) 
Flecken begrenzt. 

Wegen der Verdunkelung des Vorderflügelsaumes möge diese 
Form ab. inumbrata heissen. 

2 Exemplare in Coli. Pilz (aus Glatz?); eins in meiner 
Sammlung (Oesterreich). 

7. Collas myrmldohe Esp. $ a,b. 

Prächtige weibliche Aberration dieser Species. 

Die dunkle Färbung des Saumes der Vorderflügel sehr einge- 
schränkt dadurch, dass die hellen gelblichen Submarginalflecke 
an Grösse und Breite sehr zugenomnen haben und eine fast 
ununterbrochene Binde bilden. 

Die Hinterflügel mit schmalerem schwarzen Saum ; vor dem- 
selben sehr grosse lichte Flecke. Der orangerote Mittelfleck 
kleiner als beim typischen Weibchen. 

Die Grundfärbung oberseits weniger lebhaft, orangefarben; 
unterseits mehr grünlich als gelb. Der 8-förmige Fleck kleiner. 

Aus Nieder-Oesterreich. In meiner Sammlung. 



44 OSKAR SCHULTZ. 



8. Colias chrysotheme Esp. 2 ab. 

Unterseits auf den Vorderflügeln mit schwarzen Streifen 
zwischen dem dunklen Mittelpunct und den Saumpuncten. 
Provenienz unbekannt. 
Collect. Pilz. 

9. Coli as edüsa Fabr. 5 ab. 

Der Vorderrand der Vorderflügel nicht orange gefärbt, son- 
dern breit schwefelgelb angelegt; ebensolche Färbung längs des 
Vorderrandes und im Analwinkel der Hinterflügel. Die übrige 
Flügelfläche typisch orangefarben mit breitem schwarzen Saume. 

Collection Pilz. Fundort: Bres]au(?). Diese männliche Form 
gehört vielleicht zu der ab. chrysotheme St. (= ab. auhuissoni 
Car. $.), welche in der Färbung als in der Mitte zwischen der 
Stammform und ab. hélice stehend besschrieben wird und alle 
Flügel mehr oder minder orangefarben übergössen zeigt. Auf- 
fallend bleibt immerhin der mir angegebene Fundort Breslau, da 
die ab. aubuissoni Car. nur in Südeuropa, Kleinasien und Nord- 
Africa vorkommt. 

10. Collas edusa Fabr. $ ab. 

Prächtige Aberration. 

Vorderflügelfläche in ihrer ganzen Ausdehnung bis zum 
dunklen Saum nicht orangefarben, sondern schwefelgelb. 

Die Hinterflügel grüngelb, durch zahllose schwärzliche Atome 
dunkel bestäubt; dieselben zeigen einen schönen bläulich-grün- 
Hchen Anflug. 

Unterseits: normal gefärbt. 

Fundort: Langenbielau Kreis Reichenbach. — Coli. Pilz. 

11. Coli as edusa Fabr. gyn. 
Gynandromorphes Exemplar. 
Grösse die eines kleinen typischen Weibchens. Rechte 



BEITR. Z. GATTUNG PAPILIO L. U. COLIAS LEACH. 45 

Flügel weiblich, etwas grösser als die linken; linke Flügel 
männlich. 

Linker Vorderflügel: 24 mm. gross, männlich, schlan- 
ker, weniger breit, mit breitem schwarzem Saum, letzterer ohne 
lichte Flecken. 

Linker Hinterflügel: männlich, etwas kleiner als der 
rechte. 

Rechter Vorderflügel: 25 mm. gross, weiblich, breiter, 
mit etwas breiterem dunklen Saum; letzterer mit mehreren grossen 
hellgelben Flecken. 

Rechter Hinterflügel; weiblich. 

Leib nach Gestalt und Färbung weiblich. Die äusseren 
GenitaUen dem Anscheine'^nach rein weiblich. 

Von Laghouat. 

cf. Berliner ent. Zeitschrift XLVIII p. 270. 



Gedruckt 27. januar 1904. 



Aarsberetning 

for 

Det biologiske selskab i Kristiania 
1903. 

Ved 
F. G. Gade og Jens Holmboe. 



M< 



-edlemmernes antal var ved aarets begyndelse 54. I 
aarets løb har ét medlem traadt ud af selskabet, medens samti- 
dig 3 nye er indvalgte: dr. med. Lyder Borthen, prof. dr. med. 
F. Harbitz og stud. med. P. W. K. Bøckman. 

Bestyrelsen bestod af: prosektor dr. med. F. G. Gade, for- 
mand, prof. dr. E. Poulsson, viceformand, og amanuensis Jens 
Holmboe, sekretær. 

Der blev holdt 6 møder med ialt 10 foredrag. I moderne 
deltog fra 7 til 10, gjennemsnitlig 8 medlemmer, samt fra 4 til 
35, gjennemsnitlig 12, gjæster. 

Møde torsdag den 22de januar. 

Amanuensis Thekla R. Resvoll holdt et af lysbilleder 
ledsaget foredrag om den nye vegetation paa skredet i 
Værdalen, 

Ved det store lerfald i mai 1893 dannedes et betydeligt ny- 
land, idet der gled ud et areal af ca. 2,3 km.^, og de udgledne 
masser oversvømmede dalen i en længde af 8 km, nedover. I 
den allerførste tid efter den voldsomme naturbegivenhed havde 
dette omraade et overmaade goldt og nøgent udseende; men det 



F. G. GADE OG JENS HOLMBOE. 



vårede ikke ret længe, før en ny vegetation begyndte at indfinde 
sig. Allerede i 1898 — kun 5 aar efter ulykken — havde større 
dele af skredet en ganske grøn farve, og ved nærmere undersø- 
gelser, som da blev anstillede, viste det sig, at endog noget over 
100 plantearter voksede paa den nye jordbund. I det store og 
hele taget var dog den nye vegetation tiltrods for det forholdsvis 
betydelige artsantal meget ensformig, idet kun ganske faa arter 
beherskede pladsen. Væsentlig var det kun 2 planter, heste- 
hoven [Tussilago farfara) og akersnelden (Equisetuni arvensej, 
der begge i sine rigt grenede underjordiske dele har ypperlige 
spredningsmidler, som kunde siges at danne tætte bevoksninger. 
De øvrige arter fandtes ikke i synderlig stort individantal og 
havde en spredt forekomst. For en stor del syntes planternes 
fordeling at være bestemt af jordbundens fysiske forhold og 
fugtighedsforholdene. Der, hvor bunden bestod af grus, havde 
den sin særegne vegetation, ligesom ogsaa der, hvor den bestod 
af ublandet 1er. Paa steder, hvor det var fugtigt nok og leren 
passelig opblandet med sand, fandtes saavel det tætteste som 
rigeste planteliv. Et saadant sted var f. eks. Follobækkens nye 
leie, hvor der i en tæt bundvegetation af akersnelde voksede 
omtrent 70 andre arter. Særlig opfriskende var plantelivet ved 
nogle smaa tjern, hvor der enkelte steder var udviklet temmelig 
rige vandplantesamfund. Tjernene var hyppig kransede af en 
tæt sumpvegetation, hvor især elvesnelden (Equisetum fluviatile) 
og endel siv- og stararter var fremtrædende, mens Potamogeton- 
og Sparganium-arier samt endel andre vandplanter voksede ude 
i selve våndet. De paa skredomraadet indkomne planter var 
almindelige skog-, myi'-, eng- og ugræsplanter, som øiensynlig 
stammede fra skredets nærmeste omgivelser, og havde vistnok 
for en stor del spredt sig ud fra de mange flag af den gamle 
overflade, som under udrasningen havde flydt ovenpaa lermas- 
serne. For at kunne erholde materiale til fremtidigt studium af 
arternes indbyrdes kamp om pladsen, blev nylandet ved udstukne 
Hnjer opdelt i smaa omraader og de forskjellige planter inden 



DET BIOLOGISKE SELSKAB, 1903. 49 

hvert af disse optait og opskrevet. Nye undersøgelser, anstillede 
sommeren 1902, viste, at der i løbet af 4 aar ikke var foregaaet 
særdeles store og væsentlige forandringer med vegetationen. Kun 
var plantedækket blevet tættere, idet enkelte arter havde spredt 
sig stærkt. I det store og hele taget syntes vegetationen i de 
forløbne aar væsentlig at have fortsat i den retning, som var 
paabegyndt i 1898. (Cfr. Den nye vegetation paa ler- 
fat det i Værdalen. N. Mag. f. Natv. Bd. 41). — Foredraget, 
gav anledning til en diskussion, hvori deltog brigadelæge C. 
Arbo, professor dr. N. Wille og amanuensis Jens Holmboe. 
Den sidstnævnte bragte, i tilknytning til foredraget, nogle korte 
meddelelser om 

Vegetationen paa Hamar domkirkes ruiner. 

„Paa den odde, som mellem Akers viken og Furnæsfjord 
skyder ud i Mjøsen, paa Storhamar gaards grund, ligger de be- 
rømte ruiner af Hamar domkirke. Den gamle, i middelalderen 
opførte kirke led stærkt ved svenskernes herjing under Syvaars- 
krigen (1567), og store dele af den forfald t i løbet af det følgende 
aarhundrede ^). Rester af dens mægtige buer tegner sig dog endnu 
mod himlen som et ærværdigt minde om svundne tiders kultur. 

Oppe paa de gamle mure og buer vokser der en ganske 
rig vegetation af forskjellige høiere planter. Ved et besøg den 
23de juni 1901 noterede jeg ialt følgende 44 arter blomsterplan- 
ter og bregner: 

Acer platanoides L. Sparsomt. 

Achillea Millefolium L. Tem m. sparsomt. 

*Alchemilla vulgaris L. *puhescens Lam. Sparsomt. 

^AnthrisGus silvestris Hoffm. Sparsomt. 

*Anthyllis Vulneraria L. Sparsomt. 

^Arenaria serpyllifoUa L. Temm. talrig. 

Artemisia Absinthium L. Sparsomt. 



1) Gustav Storm, Om det gamle Hamar, p. 131—133. (Histor. Tidsskr. 
3 R. 1 Bd. Kristiania 1890). 
Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. I. 4 



50 F. G. GADE OG JENS HOLMBOE. 

*Ä. campetris L. I mængde, selv paa de høieste buer og 
pil larer. 

Ätriplex patula L. Sparsomt. 

Betula alba L. Unge expL, sparsomt. 

*Calamintha Acinos Benth. Sparsomt. 

* Campanula rotundifolia L. I mængde. 

^Cerastium vulgare Hartm. Temm. sparsomt. 

Ghelidoniwm majus L. Sparsomt. 

Chenopodium album L. Fleresteds. 

^Cystopteris fragilis Bernh. Fleresteds. • 

*I)raba incana L. Fleresteds. 

*Eryshnum hieraciifolium L. Temm. talrig. 

^Festuca ovina L. Temm. talrig. 

^Fragaria vesca L. Sparsomt. 

^Galeopsis Tetrahit L. Temm. talrig. 

"^Galium verum L. Sparsomt. 

Geranium silvaticum L. Sparsomt. 

^Hieracimn murorum L. Sparsomt. 

Leontodon autumnale L. Sparsomt. 

Linaria vulgaris L. Sparsomt. 

^Myosotis àrvensis L. Sparsomt. 

*Pim]Dineïla Saxifraga L. Temm. sparsomt. 

^Plantago media L. Temm. sparsomt. 

"^Poa nemoralis L. Temm. talrig. 

^Potentilla argenlea L. Sparsomt. 

Rubus idaeus L. Temm. sparsomt. 

R. saxatilis L. Temm. sparsomt. 

^'Rumex Acetosa L. Sparsomt. 

Salix caprea L. Kimplânter, temm. talrig. 

Sedum, acre L. I mængde. 

Silene infläta Sm. I mængde. 

Taraxacum officinale Web. Talrig. 

Trifolium pratense L. Sparsomt. 

T. repens L. Sparsomt. 



DET BIOLOGISKE SELSKAB. 1903. 51 

Urtica dioica L. Temm. sparsomt. 
Yerbascum nigrum L. Temm. sparsomt. 
^ Vicia Cracca L. Temm. sparsomt. 
"^ Viola Biviniana Rchb. Sparsomt. 

Bland t disse arter iagttoges 29 med blomst eller frugt (eller 
for bregnernes vedkommende med sporer): disse er i fortegnelsen 
mærkede med en stjerne (*). De fleste arter voksede oppe paa 
selve murene og afsatserne: andre stak frem fra sprækker og 
revner mellem bvgningstenene. Rigest saavel paa individer som 
arter var vegetationen paa murernes lavere del t^dog brod jeg 
mig ikke om at notere nogen lavere end 0,5 m. over marken). 
Kun folgende 13 voksede i større hoide end 3 m.: Antliriscus, 
Artemisia campestris, Campanula rotiindifolia. Draha incana, 
Festiica ovina. Leontodon, Pimpindla, Plautago media. Sedum 
acre, Silene infläta, Taraxacum, Trifolium pratense og Vicia 
Cracca. Af disse 13 fandtes de 12 i blomst, og den eneste. 
som jeg kun saa steril, var Leontodon, hvis blomstringstid endnu 
ikke var inde. 

Hvad angaar den maade, paa hvilken fro af de fundne 
planter maa antages bragt op til de usædvanlige voksepladse, 
kan følgende anføres. Foruden de arter (Betula, Scdix. flere 
compositer. etc), hvis frø og frugter er forsynede med fnok, 
vinger, o. 1., maa ogsaa en stor del af de andre ansees vel 
skikkede til spredning ved ^nndens hjælp. paa grund af fi'oenes 
lidenhed. ExempeMs kan nævnes Campanula, rofundifolia. 
Sedum acre. Urtica dioica, m, fl. Saftfulde frugter har ^*ist- 
nok kun 3 Œragaria vesca og de to Buhus-arteT}, men efter 
prof. R. CûLLETT's og mine egne undersogelser fortærer forskjelhge 
fugle fro og frugter af langt flere aiier (Acliillea Millefolium, Ade- 
misia campestris, Atriplex patula, Clienopodium alhum. Galeop- 
sisTetrahit. Trifolium pratense. Urtica dioica 02. Vicia Cracca).'^) 



) Je>"s Holmboe, Xotizen über die endozoische Samenverbreitung der 
Vogel. (N. M. f. X. Bd. SS. 1900). 



F. G. GADE OG JENS HOLMBOE. 



Ved myrers hjætp spredes saavel i Norge som i Sverige Cheli- 
doniuni majus^); talrige myrer saaes at vandre omkring paa 
ruinerne. Ingen af de fundne arter behøver at være ført hid fra 
nogen stor afstand; de fleste voksede i mængde paa de tørre 
silurberge ved Mjøsens bred nedenfor ruinerne. Alene Draha 
incana lykkedes det ikke at finde i de nærmeste omgivelser, 
men ogsaa den forekommer ifølge Jon Rud'^) ikke langt fra 
Hamar. 

Lignende iagttagelser som de her meddelte foreligger fra 
flere andre lande, der er rigere paa ruiner end Norge. Hvad 
vore nabolande angaar, har H. Mortensen ^) givet oplysninger 
om plantevæksten paa den gamle marmorkirke-ruin i Kjøben- 
havn, hvor han fandt 23 arter karplanter. Endvidere har C. A. 
M. Lindman'*) undersøgt vegetationen paa Visby ruiner (96 arter), 
og R. Sernander^) plantevæksten paa ruinerne af Kastellholms 
slot og Bomarsunds fæstning paa Alandsøerne (73 arter). Det 
kan have sin interesse at sammenligne artlisterne fra disse hid- 
til undersøgte ruiner; det viser sig, at Hamar domkirke har 3 
arter fælles med marmorkirken i Kjøbenhavn, 23 med ruinerne 
ved Visby og 18 med dem paa Åland. lalt er 30 af de ved 
Hamar fundne arter kjendt fra andre skandinaviske ruiner, og 
kun følgende 14 kan opføres som et tillæg til den skandinaviske 
ruinvegetation : Älchemilla ^vulgaris, Anthyllis Vulneraria, 
Betula alba, Cystopteris fragilis, Draha incana, Erysimum 
hieraciifoUuni, Qaleopsis Tetrahit, Geranium silvaticum, Li- 
naria vulgaris, Plantago media, Ruhus saxatilis, Salix ca- 



^) R. Sernander, Den skandinaviska vegetationens spridningsbiologi, p. 

289. Upsala 1901. 
^) Jon Rud, Mjøsegnens flora, p. 25. (Indbydelsesskrift til eksamen ved 

Hamar off. skole 1884). 
3) H. Mortensen, Marmorkirkens Flora (Botan. Tidsskr. 3. R. 3 Bd. 

Kjøbenhavn 1879). 
*) C. A. M. Lindman, Kärlväxtfloran på Visby ruiner. (Öfv. af K. Sv. Vet. 

Ak. Förh. 1895. No. 4). 
^) Sernander, 1. c, p. 375, flg. 



DET BIOLOGISKE SELSKAB. 1903. 53 

prea, Yerbascwm nigrum og Viola Riviniana. Flere af disse 
er paa de andre ruiner erstattet af nærstaaende arter. Ligheden 
mellem de undersøgte ruiners vegetation maa — i betragtning 
af den store afstand mellem dem — siges at være temme- 
lig stor." 



Møde torsdag den 26de marts. 

Professor dr. S. Torup holdt foredrag om io ne læren og 
dens betydning for nogle biologiske processer. — Til 
foredraget knyttedes bemærkninger af prof. dr. E. Poulsson og 
dr. med. F. G. Gade. 



Møde lørdag den 12te september. 

Mødet blev holdt paa den biologiske station i Drøbak. 

Dr. med. K. E. Schreiner holdt foredrag om genera- 
tionsorganet hos Myxine glutinosa (L.). 

Foredragsholderen gav først en almindelig karakteristik af 
generationsorganets bygning og udseende hos Myxine og viste, 
hvorledes dette ved sin længde, sin udvikling alene paa dyrets 
ene side og sin hermaphroditiske natur adskiller sig fra den 
almindelige type af generationsorganer, som man finder hos de 
fleste øvrige hvirveldyr. Efteråt foredragsholderen derefter havde 
givet en fremstilling af den nu almindelig herskende opfatning 
af hermaphroditismen hos Myxine som værende af protandrisk 
natur, saaledes at dyrene først fungerede som hanner og senere 
som hunner — en opfatning, som er grundlagt af skotlænderen 
Cunningham og vor landsmand, professor Nansen — refereredes de 
resultater, til hvilke foredragsholderen og hans hustru var komne 
efter undersøgelse af et betydeligt materiale (nemlig ca. 2500 
eksemplarer). Disse resultater gi k ud paa, at herma- 
phroditismen hos Myxine ikke er effektiv, men rudi- 



54 F. G. GADE OG JENS HOLMBOE. 

men tær, idet en del af de tilsyneladende hermaphroditer er at 
opfatte som hanner og en del som hunner. Hos de første fandt 
man generationsorganets testisdel ^mer eller mindre vel udviklet, 
medens den proximalt liggende ovarialdel er rudimentær, viser 
pathologiske forandringer af forskjellig natur og aldrig udvikler 
sig videre. Paa samme maade fmder man hos hunnerne bagen- 
for det vel udviklede ovarium et hanorgan, som er hemmet i 
sin udvikling eller viser tydelige degenerative forandringer. Over- 
gange mellem disse 2 former, som den tidligere opfatning af 
hermaphroditisme forudsætter, forekommer i virkeligheden ikke. 
Foruden hanner og hunner forekommer der desuden et ikke 
ringe antal sterile eksemplarer, hos hvem der i kjønsorganet 
enten aldeles ikke findes æg eller testisfollikler anlagt, eller hos 
hvem kjønsorganet som helhed viser hemmet eller abnorm ud- 
vikling. Forskjellen mellem de 2 kjøn er i almindelighed tydelig 
udtalt hos dyr paa en længde af 24 cm. og derover (dyrene 
naar sjelden en længde af 40 cm.) ; men den kan ogsaa ikke 
sjelden paavises hos dyr, som er ca. 20 cm. lange, i ganske 
enkelte tilfælde muligens allerede hos 17 cm. lange dyr. 
Efter en skildring af de mange variationer, som kjønsorganet 
hos Myxine kan opvise baade hvad længde angaar og med 
hensyn til udvikling og fordeling af den hånlige og hunlige 
kjønskjertelsubstans, omtaltes en række tilfælde, hvor kjønsorga- 
net var fundet at være parret. 

Samtlige ovenfor skildrede forhold demonstreredes paa et 
betydeligt antal udstillede eksemplarer. 

De kjendsgjerninger, som de refererede undersøgelser af 
Myxines biologi og kjønsorgans bygning havde bragt tilveie, talte, 
sammenholdt med tidligere undersøgeres resultater, for sandsynlig- 
heden af, at Myxinoidernes forfædre har ført et mere omstreifende 
liv og besiddet et parret hermaphroditisk kjønsorgan, som produ- 
cerede talrige blommefattige æg. Eftersom Myxinoidernes levevis 
lidt efter lidt er blevet forandret, og dyrene som saprophyter er 
blevne mere bundne til bestemte lokaliteter, har samtidig med 



DET BIOLOGISKE SELSKAB. 1903. 55 

larvernes forandrede levevis æggenes blommerigdom tillaget. 
Denne tiltagen i masse har saa ført til en aftagen i antal og til 
en forsvinden af den ene sides kjønsstræng. De talrige varia- 
tioner, man finder i det gjensidige forhold mellem testis og 
ovarium, forklaredes som for en væsentlig dels fremgaaet 
ved en udvikling fra en tidligere eksisterende effektiv herma- 
phroditisme til diöcisme. (Udførligt referat af foredraget vil 
blive trykt i „Biolog. Centralbl."). — Foredraget gav anled- 
ning til bemærkninger af prof. dr. G. A. Guldberg, prof. dr. F. 
Harbitz, prof. dr. N. Wille og dr. med. F. G. Gade. 



Møde torsdag den 24de september. 

Dr. S. Schmidt-Nielsen redegjorde i tilknytning til et tid- 
ligere foredrag om "cellens kemiske værktøi" for en af ham op- 
stillet hypothèse om de intracellulære enzymers virke- 
maade, hvorefter denne skulde være intermitterende, saaledes, 
at der i en celle samtidig ikke behøvede at være mere end et 
enzym i virksomhed. Efter nogen tids forløb vilde dette paa 
grund af ophobede stofvekselsprodukter sættes ud af virksom- 
hed, mens samtidig de fysikalske forhold blev bragt tilveie, som 
gjorde det muhgt for et andet enzym at virke. Paa denne 
maade vilde efter hverandre et tredie og fjerde og flere enzymer 
kunne træde i virksomhed. Naar saa i mellemtiden de først 
dannede produkter var transporterede bort, kunde det første 
enzym atter begynde sit arbeide. Fordelen ved denne forkla- 
ring var efter foredragsholderens opfatning den, at man ikke be- 
høvede at forudsætte nogen anden struktur hos protoplasmaet 
end den allerede kjendte, at den altsaa i modsætning til 
Hofmeister's kunde antages saavel af botanikere som zoologer. 
— Foredraget gav anledning til en diskussion, hvorunder pro- 
fessor dr. N. Wille og veterinærdirektør dr. 0. Malm i flere punk- 
ter sluttede sig til den i foredraget udviklede tanke, mens kon- 
servator Kristine Bonnevie tog af stand derfra. 



56 F. G. GADE OG JENS HOLMBOE. 

Dr. Schmidt-Nielsen refererede dernæst nogle forsøg over 
lysets virkninger paa enzymer, som han med understøt- 
telse af Nansenfondet havde foretaget i Kjøbenhavn ved Finsens 
lysinstitut. Det havde vist sig, at saavel sollys som lyset fra 
en buelampe og det koncentrerede lys, der anvendes ved lupus- 
behandlingen, virkede ødelæggende ikke alene paa enzymerne 
selv, men ogsaa paa deres uvirksomme forstadier (proenzymer) 
og paa visse stoffe i blodserum, der neutraliserer enzymerne 
(anti enzymer). Det viste sig at være lysets ultraviolette straalei-, 
hvem denne virkning skyldtes, hvorimod den synlige del af sol- 
spektret saa at sige ingen indflydelse havde. — Foredragsholderen 
omtalte tilsidst nogle forsøg, som han havde udført over Röntgen- 
og Becquerelstraaler. Mens de første havde vist sig uvirk- 
somme, kunde de sidste i nogen grad svække en enzymopløs- 
ning, I det hele taget syntes lyset at maatte kunne anvendes 
som en reagens til at studere baade enzymer, proenzymer og 
antienzymer. — I tilslutning til dette foredrag fremholdt profes- 
sor dr. N. Wille ønskeligheden af, at den enestaaende anled- 
ning, som vi om sommeren i den nordlige del af vort land har 
til at studere de forskjeUige sider af lysets virkning, i større ud- 
strækning end hidtil maatte blive benyttet. 

Dr. med. F. G. Gade demonstrerede dernæst Grayson's 
prøveplade og andre prøveobjekter for mikroskopet. 

Møde lørdag den 7de november. 

Amanuensis Thekla R. Resvoll holdt foredrag om vege- 
tationen i Schweiz, som hun havde studeret paa en reise 
sidste sommer. Saavel de lavtliggende dalførers vinberge og 
kastanjeskoge som bergregionens naaleskoge og høialpernes fro- 
dige græsmatter og urtelier blev nærmere skildret. Under fore- 
draget fremvistes talrige lysbilleder samt pressede eksemplarer 
af de for hvert enkelt plantesamfund mest typiske arter. 



DET BIOLOGISKE SELSKAB. 1903. 57 

Møde torsdag den 3die december. 

Konservator Sig Thor meddelte nogle iagttagelser an- 
gaaende 

Cellekjernens forhold til ergastoplasmaet, 
væsentlig efter nyere franske undersøgelser. 

„Man tillægger gjerne B. Solger æren for i dyriske cellers 
cytoplasma først (1894) at have beskrevet og afbildet visse 
traadformede, hémateinofile formationer, som han kaldte basal- 
filamenter. Det var i menneskets tungespytkjertler. Samme- 
steds gjenkjendfe Ch. Garnier (1897) de nævnte filamenter og 
gav dem det specifike navn ergastoplasma, omtrent samtidig 
med, at M. og P. Bonin (1898) indførte samme navn i botani- 
ken. Ergastoplasmaet kjendes, efter Garnier, paa basal be- 
liggenhed i glandulære celler, filamentær form, gruppering i 
bundter etc, samt paa sin kromatiske affinitet for safranin og 
jern-hæmatoxylin. Man har ogsaa konstateret en tydelig kro- 
matisk variation, stemmende med visse forandringer i kjernen. 
Siden har flere forskere omtalt disse formationer i forskjellige 
celler (f. eks, Theohari, Laguesse, Jouvenel, Leger, Duboscq, 
Regaud, Bensley. Vignon, M. Loyez, Renaut, Launoy). K. C. 
Schneider kalder dem „Sekretfibrillen". Det er tvivlsomt, om 
Benda's „mitochondria" ogM. Heidenhain's „pseiidochromosomer" 
kan henføres til samme gruppe. Prenant har omtalt dem under 
fællesnavnet: „protoplasma supérieur". Foredragsholderen havde 
fundet ergastoplasma i kjertelceller hos visse Acarina. Der er 
fremsat forskjellige opfatninger af disse filamenters rolle og op- 
rindelse. Enkelte anser dem for at være af cyptolasmisk, andre 
af nucleær, atter andre af dobbelt oprindelse. Foredragsholderen 
refererede et par nyere franske undersøgelser, der kaster et vist 
lys over sagen. Dr. Conte og dr. Vaney (i Lyon) fandt (1902) 
i en i vandsalamanderens tarmkanal snyltende protozo, Opalina 
intestinalis, safranofile korn, der gjennem visse aabninger i 



58 F. G. GADE OG JENS HOLMBOE. 

kjernemembranen trængte ud af kjernen og spredte sig i cyto- 
plasmaet. Denne procès benævner C. og V. „emission nucléaire", 
Siden opløser kornene sig i smaakugler, der antager en mere 
rødlig teint, svulmer op og opløser sig senere i cytoplasmaet. 
Kornene svarer til zymogen-korn, som f. eks. findes i ølgjær og 
sammenlignes med lignende dannelser, iagttagne i insekters, 
tusenbens og pattedyrs æg. 

I en anden meddelelse (trykt ^/s 1903 i "Comptes R.", 
Paris) omtaler Conte og Vaney hestebremsens larve, i hvis 
trakéceller de finder lignende kromatofile masser, dels spredt i 
cytoplasmaet, dels indesluttet indenfor kjernemembranen. Denne 
viser sig undertiden dobbelt. Den ydre kjernemembran dannes 
delvis af det cytoplasmiske net, den indre, stærkt kromatofil, be- 
staar undertiden af korte stykker; den kan ogsaa mangle. De 
nævnte stykker viser sig paa heldige præparater dannet af kjer- 
nens kromatiske tener. Disse lægger sig dels hen til den ydre 
membran og danner saaledes helt eller delvis en indre, dels 
trænger de gjennem kjernemembranens aabninger ud i cytoplas- 
maet, hvor de forgrener sig. 

I de omtalte trakéceller viser altsaa kjernen et intimt for- 
hold til de omtalte elementer, idet den danner eller ialfald del- 
tager i dannelsen af de nævnte korn og kromatiske stykker. 
Kjernemembranen synes mindre solid og simpel, end man ofte 
har fremstillet den." — Til foredraget knyttedes bemærkninger 
af prof. dr. E. Poulsson og dr. med. K. E. Schreiner, hvortil 
foredragsholderen repli cerede. 

Konservator Kristine Bonnevie holdt foredrag om sper- 
mie r nes dannelse hos en lavtstaaende, parasitisk levende 
snegl, Enteroxenos Östergreni, og fremviste tegninger af de for- 
skjellige stadier fra deres første anlæg til færdige udvikling. Hun 
sammenlignede dette dyrs spermier med de øvrige snegle samt 
høierestaaende dyr og paapegede den ved vor tids udviklede mi- 
kroskopiske teknik paaviste store overensstemmelse i spermiernes 
dannelse inden forskjellige dyreklasser. (Foredraget vil blive 



DET BIOLOGISKE SELSKAB. 1903. 59 

trykt i „Biol. Gentralbl."). — Foredraget gav anledning til en 
diskussion mellem dr. med. K. E. Schreiner og foredragsholderen. 
Cand. philos. Hj. Broch gav endel spredte meddelelser 
fra „Michael Sars"s togter sommeren 1903. Han skildrede 
det rige dyreliv i havet, som skibets fortrinlige udrustning med 
moderne fangstapparater gav saa god anledning til at studere. 
Med et eneste træk af det saakaldte „tobisvad" kunde man hente 
indtil halvanden hektoliter dyr op fra dybet. Særlig fiskeyngel og 
manæter samt den vakre, lyserøde hydroide Tuhularia larynx 
forekom i største mængde. I Danmarkstrædet stødte man paa 
store stimer af ægte "islandssild", som gik lige i vandskorpen; 
i den knappe tid, som kunde afsees, blev der gjort en rig fangst. 
Sankthansaften fik man se en flok store haier; i løbet af en 
times tid kunde man fra skibets dæk tælle 12 à 13 stykker. I 
Mjofjorden paa Island blev en netop skudt nord kaperh val under- 
søgt; den var eiendommelig derved, at dens bug var hvidfarvet. 
En kaskelot, som var bragt ind til brødr. Ellefsen's etabhsse- 
ment, havde været i kamp med en 25 — 26 fod lang kjæmpe- 
blæksprut (Architeutes) ; og at den ogsaa tidligere havde stødt 
paa slige, kunde sees af, at tre fjerdedele af dens maveindhold 
bestod af blæksprutnæb. 



Trykt den 27de januar 1904, 



Navneregister. 



Side 

Arbo, C. 49 

Bonnevie, Kristine 55, 58 

Borthen, Lyder 47 

Broch, Hj 59 

Bøckman, P. W. K. 47 

Gade, F. G 47, 53, 55, 56 

Guldberg, G. A 55 

Harbitz, F. 47, 55 

Hohnboe, Jens 47, 49 

Malm, 55 

Poulsson, E , 47, 53, 58 

Besvoll. TheUa B 47, 56 

Schmidt- Nielsen, S 55, 56 

Schreiner, K. E. . . . 53, 58, 59 

Thor, Sig 57 

Torup, S. 53 

Wille, N. 49, 55, 56 



Dyreliyet i Drøbaksund 

ved 
Hans Kiær. 



(Med Pl. II, III). 



F 



or at udføre biologiske undersøgelser i Drøbaksund havde 
jeg sommeren 1899 stipendium af det Rathkeske legat. Under 
disse undersøgelser, der delvis er udført med dr. Petersens 
interessante afhandiing om dyrelivet i Holbækfjord i Danmark 
som mønster, har dr. J. Hjorts velvillige bistand og raad været 
mig til stor nytte, ligesom ogsaa følgende videnskabsmænd delvis 
har hjulpet mig med bestemmelsen af enkelte dyregrupper, nemlig 
prof. G. O. Sårs, frk. K. Bonnevie, dr, J. Kiær og cand. A. 
WoLLEBÆK, hvorfor det her er mig en trang at udtale min tak 
for den modtagne hjælp. Jeg maa ligeledes tillade mig at bringe 
hr. prof. R. Collett min tak for den adgang jeg har haft til 
universitetets samlinger. 

De følgende undersøgelser omfatter dyrelivet og dets sammen- 
sætning paa enkelte udvalgte lokaliteter ved Drøbak, specielt de 
forskjellige dyregruppers og arters forekomst og mængdeforhold 
samt naturforholdene og disses indflydelse paa dyrelivet. 

Inden de forskjellige dele af Kristianiafjorden hersker der 
særdeles vexlende naturforhold, der forøvrigt synes at kunne 
henføres til nogle faa hovedgrupper. Ved at undersøge lokaliteter. 



HANS KIÆR. 



hvis naturforhold svarer til hver af disse hovedgrupper, vil man 
saaledes kunne faa et begreb om naturforholdene i fjorden i det 
store og hele taget. 

Mine undersøgelser ved Drøbak skulde derfor tjene til at 
belyse dyrelivets sammensætning og økonomi ikke alene paa de 
enkelte undersøgte lokaliteter, men ogsaa paa de dele a[ hav- 
bunden, hvorpaa disse lokaliteter er typer. Desuden troede jeg, 
at ethvert bidrag til forstaaelsen af naturforholdene i Drøbak- 
sund vilde være af interesse for de undersøgelser, der drives 
ved den biologiske station i Drøbak. 

lalt undersøgtes 5 forskjellige lokaliteter, der med hensyn 
til naturforhold kan karakteriseres paa følgende maade: 

1. Mudderbund — 12 meter (Sandspollen). 

2. „ ca. 100 „ (mellem Haa- og Graaoen). 

3. „ ca. 200 „ (syd for Drøbak). 

4. Sand- og fjeldbund med Laminarier (mellem Storskjær 
og „Vestlandet"). 

5. Fjeldbund med koraller og alger (Drøbaksgrunden samt 
fjeldet nord for den biologiske station). 

Jeg har væsenthg blot taget hensyn til de almindeligst fore- 
kommende laverestaaende dyrearter, men det er paa ingen maade 
min hensigt at levere en fortegnelse over alle disse paa hvert 
enkelt sted. 

Omend dette arbeide i mange henseender er meget ufuld- 
stændigt, er det dog mit haab, at mine undersøgelser over det 
lavere dyreliv som tillæg til dr. hjorts fiskeriundersøgelser, maa 
have nogen betydning til forstaaelse af, hvordan dyrelivet idet- 
hele arter sig paa de nævnte lokaliteter. 

Thalamophorerne er ikke specielt nævnt her, da disse af 
mig er behandlede i en egen afhandhng: „Synopsis on the 
Norwegian marine Thalamophora". 

Af redskaber benyttedes en otertrawl, en skrabe, samt enkelte 
gange et finmasket vad og en planktonhov. 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 



63 



Beskrivelse af de undersøkte lokaliteter og deres 

dyreliv. 

1. Sandspollen. 

Dybde: 0-12 meler. Mudderbund. 



\oo Jo 



jiaaa-e/w- ^qQ 



ülcMuvuiMdtA^ 




Sands- 
pollen er et 
indelukket 
bassin, der 
blot ved et 
smalt sund 

staar i forbindelse med 
fjorden udenfor. Sundet 
har omtrent samme dyb- 
de som selve pollen, der 
dels er omgivet af steile 
fjeldknauser, dels af flade marker, 
hvis fortsættelse danner pollens 
mere eller mindre jevnt skraanende 
havbund. I august maaned var 
temperaturen paa 10 meters dyb 
11—12° C, medens overfladetem- 
peraturen 18°.25 fandtes ned til 
en dybde af 7 meter-. 

Den inderste bugt af Sands- 
poUen danner inderst inde et lang- Fig. 1. Dybdekart over Drøbaksund. 



1 Ifølge dr. Hjorts undersøgelser d. 11. aug. 1897. 



64 HANS KIÆR. 



grundt bælte uden vegetation. Her findes tallige tuer frembragte 
af Arenicola piscatorum med lange bugtede strenge af opslyngede 
excrementer, af og til sees ogsaa de eiendommelige aabninger 
(i sandet), som skyldes Mya arenaria. 

Paa begge sider af den inderste bugt er der steile fjeld- 
knauser med nedrasede klippestykker, hvorpaa findes Littorina 
littorea i talrig mængde og i forskjellige størrelser. Langs stran- 
den svømmer enkelte exemplarer af Gottus scorpius og Palae- 
mon fabricii stødvis frem og tilbage. Enkelte smaa krabber 
(Carcinus maenas) sees ogsaa af og til. 




^ /^ i^y.^.^Au. Fig- 2. Profil af Sandspollen. 



r I ",./,..,,, j^L. I en dybde af ca. 0.5 meter begynder 

' Zosfera-vegetationen og fortssetter udover 

~~^ ^^ '^ til ca. 7 meters dybde. Overalt paa Zoste- 

raen lever i talrig mængde Bissostomia 
oçtogona og ikke faa af Rissoa albella, begge arter i forskjellige 
udviklingstrin. Äbra alba forekommer ogsaa af og til, men hører 
egentlig hjemme paa lerbunden udenfor, medens de 2 førstnævnte 
arter er karakterformer for Zoster a-bæ\te[. Enkelte smaa individer 
af Littorina littorea (af 7 — 12 milimeters længde) paatræffes ogsaa. 
Endvidere kan nævnes Nassa reticulata, Cylichna sp., begge 
enkeltvis og udvoxne, Ästerias rubens, ganske smaa og enkelte 
halvstore exemplarer, Strong ylocentrotus drøbachiensis, Bala- 
nus balanoides samt Grangon- og Palaemon-larver, Mem- 
branacea og Spirorbis, hvilke arter dog aldrig optræder i nogen 
forholdsvis stor mængde, derimod forekom der af og til en mængde 
exemplarer af Mytilus sp. i de første udviklingsstadier fastheftede 
til eller mellem sammenklæbede blade af Zostera. Til hvilken 
art disse Mytilus-unger hører, lader sig ikke afgjøre. M. edulis 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 65 

forekommer blot af og til langs stranden paa denne lokalitet, 
men da den indsamles og bruges til agn, er det nmuligt med 
bestemthed at have nogen mening om dens udbredelse. Imidler- 
tid synes Zosteraen her at være et gunstigt levested for Mytilus- 
yngelen, hvad man paa forhaand ogsaa kunde slutte sig til, da 
der paa Zosteraens blade ofte findes et rigt mikrospisk dyreliv, 
bestaaende af smaa Ärachnider, Crustaceer, specielt Ostracoder, 
samt Hy dr Older, Änguillula sp. og Infusorier. Disse mikrosko- 
piske dyr ophoidt sig især mellem höbe af sammenfiltrede alger. 

Af planktonformer findes i Sandspollen de samme som i 
fjorden udenfor. Saaledes optraadte der i juni maaned og tid- 
ligere i Kristianiafjorden og i Sandspollen, lige til de inderste 
bugter af denne, uhyre masser af Gtenophorer^ og senere af 
Noctiluca sp. En dag i juli maaned var de inderste bugter af 
Sandspollen opfyldt af Meduser (Aurélia aurita). 

Mellem rødderne af Zostera fandtes af og til et enkelt exem- 
plar af Ophioglypha lacertosa og af Aporrhais pes pelecani. 
I mudder fra bunden Insektlarver, Acariner, Turhellarier, Än- 
guillula sp., smaa Crustaceer, saaledes Ostracoder, Infusorier 
og Diatomeer. 

Ved ca. 7 meters dyb begynder barbunden, der bestaar af 
blød, graa 1ère med sorte streif, som skyldes forraadnende dele 
af Zostera, hvoraf der altid kom meget op med skraben. Der 
fandtes ogsaa næsten altid en hel del tomme skaller af Molluscer, 
enkelte træstykker, barnaale, bark, smaasten, slagger, grus og 
sand samt rør af Annellider i forskjellige størrelser. 

De almindeligste større dyreformer paa barbunden er følgende : 
Ophioglypha lacertosa, 0. albida, Aporrhais pes pelecani, 
Abra alba, Corbula rosea, samt Nephtys ciliata. 

I den ydre del af pollen paa ca. 12 meters dyb er Amphidetus 
cordatus ikke sjelden, de fundne exemplarer var udvoxne og 
kjønsmodne i august maaned. 



Mnemia (Bolina) norvegica., enkelte : Beroe (Idya) cucumis. 

Nyt Mag. f. JSTattirv. XXXXII. I. 5 



66 HANS KIÆR. 



CiUtellus pelucidus, 
Cardium edule, 
Pagurus sp., 
Littorina littorea, 
Äscidia sp , 

Boreochiton marmoreus, 
Saxicava pholadis, 
Balanus porchatus, 
Mytilus modiolus. 



Mere sparsomt forekommende var følgende arter: 
Ahra nitida, Nassa reticulata, 

Macoma baltica, 
Ästerias rubens, 
Strong, droehachiensis, 
Gyprina islandica, 
Virgularia mirabilis, 
Buccinum undatum, 
Cylichna sp , 
Xylophaga dorsalis, 
Teredo norvegica, 
Pectinaria sp., 

Alle disse arter fandtes levende paa barbunden. Saxicava 
pholadis fandtes i tomme skaller af Gyprina islandica og 
Mytilus modiolus. Udenpaa skallerne levede Boreochiton mar- 
moreus og Balanus porchatus. Paa skaller af Aporrhais saaes 
talrige Hydroider og en enkelt liden Aktinie. Alle de nævnte 
dyreformer fra barbunden fandtes altid blot som fuldt udvoxne 
med undtagelse af Nephtys ciliata, Ästerias rubens og Stron- 
gylocentrotus droebachiensis samt Gyprina islandica, dog 
heller ikke af disse fandtes ganske smaa individer. Af Gyprina 
islandica fandtes ingen fuldt udvoxne. Ophioglypha lacertosa 
var kjønsmoden i juli maaned, mange af de fundne exemplarer 
holdt da paa at afsætte sine æggekapsler, hvoraf endel fandtes 
paa træstykker og andre gjenstande (speciell 13. juli). 

For at illustrere, hvad der normalt kan bringes op ved et 
enkelt træk skal her anføres efter journalen enkelte typiske træk : 



24. august. Træk med skrabe i den inderste vig af Sands- 
pollen, fra 4 — 2 meter i Zostera-regionen. 

Bissostowhia octogona ... en mængde exemplarer. 

Rissoa albella endel „ 

Littorina littorea enkelte smaa „ 

Asterias rubens, Radius 12 og 15 mm. enkelte „ 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 67 

Mytilus sp., uhyre mængde ganske smaa exemplarer. 
Ostracoder enkelte „ 

13. juli. Træk med finmasket vad i den inderste bugt paa 
mudderbunden fra 8 — 10 meter, op paa stranden. 

Ophioglypha lacertosa 126 exemplarer. 

„ alhida 20 „ 

Ästerias rubens, 6 — 11 ems. Radius 3 „ 

Aporrhais pes pelecani, hvenåe . . . 2 „ 
„ „ „ døde .... 18 

Abra alba, levende ca. 30 „ 

„ „ døde 110 „ 

Gorbula rosea, levende 7 „ 

» « døde 4 „ 

Littorina littorea „ 3 „ 

Nassa reticulata „ 1 „ 

17. juli. 2 træk med skrabe i den y dre del af Sandspollen 
paa ca. 12 meters dy b. Mudderbund. 

Ophioglypha lacertosa 2 exemplarer. 

„ albida 1 „ 

Amphidetus cordatus, levende ... 12 „ 

Asterias rubens, 14.5 cms. længde .1 „ 

Aporrhais pes pelecani, levende . . 26 „ 

„ „ døde ... 72 „ 

Abra alba, levende 40 „ 

„ „ døde . 150 „ 

Gorbula rosea „ 4 „ 

Buccinum undatum, levende ... 4 „ 

Turritella terebra, døde 4 „ 

Nassa reticulata „ 1 „ 

Littorina littorea „ 4 „ 

Boreochiton marmorens, levende, . 5 „ 

Pectinaria sp., levende 1 „ 

„ døde 4 



68 HANS KIÆR. 



Nepthys ciliata, levende 2 exemplarer. 

Cyprina islandica, levende .... 1 „ 

„ „ døde 34 „ 

Mytilus modiolus, levende 1 „ 

Indholdet af de enkelte træk var ofte særdeles vexlende, 
hvilket tyder paa at de fleste arters forekomst er meget spredt, 
dog synes der idethele ikke at være nogen forskjel i faunaen 
paa mudderbunden i den indre og den ydre del af Sandspollen 
med undtagelse af, at Ämphidetus cordatus blot fandtes i den 
ydre del og at Ophioglypha lacertosa og alhida var talrigst i 
den indre del. NepMys ciliata var undertiden talrig tilstede, 
saaledes fandtes i et enkelt træk 22 for det meste udvoxne indi- 
vider. Virgularia mirabilis fandtes blot i den indre del af 
Sandspollen paa 10—12 meters dyb og blot en sjelden gang. 

Næsten altid fandtes en hel del tomme skaller af mollusker 
i mudderet fra bunden. Skallerne var i regelen forenede og fyldt 
med mudder, undtagen Cyprina-skaWerne, der som oftest var 
faldne fra hinanden. De tomme skaller tilhørte de samme arter, 
der fandtes levende, med undtagelse af Macoma calcarea, Peden 
septemradiatus og Turritella terehra. Disse subfossile arter 
var forholdsvis sjeldne. 

Af smaa og mikroskopiske dyr indeholder mudderet en stor 
mængde. En halv bøtte mudder fra 8 — 10 meters dyb siltes 
først gjennem sigtedug af 1 millimeters maskevidde for at fjerne 
alle grovere partikler, derpaa gjennem sigtedug af 0.5 millimeters 
maskevidde. Det residuum, der blev liggende paa den fineste 
sigtedug, udgjorde efter et løsehgt skjøn 150 à 200 cm.^ Heri 
fandtes en hel mængde levende Nematoder, endel Ostracoder, 
Gasteropoder, Annelider, Insektlarver og Thalamophorer. 

2. Mudderbunden mellem Haa- og Graaøen. 

(ca. 100 meters dyb). 

I den nævnte dybde findes et særdeles blodt, graat slam, 
der indeholder en hel del forraadnede vegetabilske substanser, 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 



69 



saasom Fucus, Zostera, træstykker, bark og løv, der er drevet 
ud fra grundt vand, af og til mindre stene, grus og sand samt 
i regelen en stor mængde lerrør af Annellider. Bundtemperaturen 
fandtes i juli maaned at være 7° C, medens temperaturen i 
overfladen var 20°. 

Dyrelivet er særdeles ensartet. De almindeligste arter er: 



Stichopus tremulus, 
Ascidia obliqua, 
Bolocera longicomis, 
Pandalus horealis, 
Glymene sp., 

Mere enkeltvis fandtes følgende arter 



Laetmonice filicornis, 
Maldane biceps, 
Pecten septemradiatus, 
„ abyssorutn. 



Astropecten andromeda, 
Archaster sp., 
Mesothuria inter stitialis, 
Ophioglypha aïbida, 
Saxicava pholadis, 
Scaphander puncto-str alius, 



Crangon Allmanni, 
Ponthophilus norvegicus, 
Hippolyte securifrons, 

„ polaris, 

Nemertes sp., 
Philine sp. 



Desuden fandtes enkelte exemplarer af Molluscer af 4 — 14 
mms. længde, forskjellige fra de ovennævnte arter samt et par 
tomme skal af Cyprina og Pectinaria. De talrige rør af Annel- 
lider havde en tykkelse af fra 1 — 12 millimeter. De fineste rør 
var ofte beboede, medens de grovere, af en kaliber af mindst 3 
millimeter meget sjelden busede Annellider. Af den groveste 
kaliber fandtes blot et par brudstykker. 

En enkelt gang bemærkedes smaa Grustace-XwaweY og Nema- 
toder i mudderet, der altid indeholdt en stor mængde TJiala- 
mophorer. 



Af fiske forekom følgende arter: 



Gadus argenteus, 
Merluccius vidgaris, 
Motella sp., 



Drepanopsetta platessoides, 
Pleuronectes cynoglossus, 
m. fl. 



70 HANS KIÆR. 



Som prøve paa, hvad trawlen kunde fange, anføres her 
resultatet af 2 træk den 23. juni: 

Stichopus tremulus 24 exemplarer. 

Boloæra longicornis 8 „ 

Laetmonice filicornis 3 „ 

Ascidia obliqua 3 „ 

Maldane biceps 3 „ 

Glymene sp 25 „ 

Pecten septemradiatus 11 „ 

„ abyssorum 27 „ 

Scaphander puncto-striatus .... 7 „ 

Grangon Allmanni 3 „ 

Pontophilus norvégiens 2 „ 

Hippolyte securifrons ....... 4 „ 

„ polaris 1 „ 

Pandalus horealis 43 „ 

Gadus argenteus, 11.5 cm 1 „ 

Merluccius vulgaris 1 „ 

Brepanopsetta platessoides .... 6 „ 

Pleuronectes cynoglossus, (10.5 — 30 cm.) 4 „ 

Holothurierne var for en stor del befængte med parasitiske 
Molluscer i tarmkanalen. Ved et træk indeholdt af 24 Stichopus 
tremulus de 11 parasiter. En Holothurie indeholdt mange, de 
fleste blot en eller nogle faa parasiter. Ved et andet træk inde- 
holdt nogle Holothurier en, mange 6 — 8, en 20 parasiter i for- 
skjellige udviklingstrin. Hver 4 Holothurie havde parasiter, i 
gjennemsnit kom 3 — 4 parasiter paa hver af disse. Holothuriernes 
tarmindhold var mørkt graat mudder. 

3. Mudderbunden mellem Drøbak og Hvidsten. 

Dybde.: ca. 200 meter. 

Paa denne lokalitet lykkedes blot 2 træk, som her hensigts- 
mæssigt anføres i sin helhed. 



DYRELIVET 1 DRØBAKSUND. 71 



19. Juni. Træk med trawl paa ca. 200 meters dyb ved 
Hvidsten. Uhyre portion mudder af brunlig kulør, hvori mange 
rør af Annellider, forraadnende tangrester, slagger og smaasten, 
de sidste tildels med fastsiddende smaa Molluscer og Ascidier. 

Pandalus horealis 25 exemplarer. 

Bolocera longicornis 1 „ 

Stichopus tremulus 40 „ 

Pecten septemradiatus 4 „ 

Ascidia obliqua 14 „ 

Clymene sp mange „ 

Desuden fandtes nogle tomme skal af Cyprina islandica 
og Scaphander puncto-striatus. Holothurierne var meget 
mindre end de paa 100 meter levende. Blot 5 eller 6 var be- 
fægte med parasitiske Molluscer. En Holothurie havde blot en, 
nogle 4 parasiter. 

15. September. Træk med skrabe mellem Drøbak og Hvid- 
sten. Dybde: ca. 200 meter. Omkring nettets nederste del 
var syet en finmasket pose for at hindre det løse mudder fra at 
sile ud under optrækningen. 

Neaera ohesa 1 exemplar. 

Portlandia lucida nogle exemplarer. 

Axinus Sarsi mange „ 

Saxicava pholadis 1 „ 

Pecten septemradiatus enkelte „ 

Nepthys ciliata nogle „ 

Trophonia plumosa „ „ 

Terebellides strömii „ „ 

Terebëlla sp „ „ 

Maldane sp. . . . -. „ „ 

Phascalosoma sp. „ „ 

Munopsis typica 1 „ 

Antalis entalis ..,..,... nogle „ 



72 HANS KIÆR. 



4. Sand- og fjeldbund med Laminarier 

(mellem Storskjær og Vestlandet^). 

Langs Vestlandet strækker sig en temmelig betydelig sand- 
afleiring bestaaende af fin mursand, hvori der paa et par steder 
er gravet meget dybt ind. Sandet indskibes i lægtere. I disse 
sandtag findes ialmindelighed ingen subfossiler, dog er der i et 
af sandtagene i en høide af ca. 6 meter over havspeilet et svagt 
fossilførende lag af grov sand og grus. Langs stranden ender 
sandafleiringerne i en høide af ca. 4 meter over havfladen i en 
næsten lodret styrtning. Lige under græstorven, der hænger ud 
over den øvre rand af denne styrtning, strækker der sig et 
stærkt fossilførende lag af ca. 30 cm. s mægtighed. De vigtigste 
subfossiler er her Cyprina islandica, Cardium edule, Mya 
truncata. 

Styrtningen ender nedentil i en lav strand, dannet af rulle- 
stene, der i almindelighed varierer fra et menneskehoveds til en 
knytnæves størrelse. Her findes enkeltvis tomme skal af de 
ovennævnte Mollusker. 

Længre ude, hvor bølgerne slaar over stranden, sidder en 
mængde Gasteropoder og Balaner [Littorina littorea og Ba- 
lanus porchatus) paa stenene. Af Gasteropoderne er det for 
det meste blot udvoxede exemplarer, der ved lavvande sidder 
over vandspeilet. Langs stranden svømmer talrige individer af 
Palaemon fahricii. Paa stene ude i våndet sees en mængde 
exemplarer af Littorina Mtorea i alle størrelser. I almindelig- 
hed er de mere eller mindre graaagtige, blot enkelte har antaget 
en lysegul kulør, der er almindelig hos den forholdsvis sjeldne 
L. obtusa. Enkelte stene er aldeles bedækket af Balanus por- 
chatus eller af Mytilus edulis. Tager man og vender en af 
de større stene, vil man i regelen se et mylder af smaa Isopo- 



^ Vestlandet er den gjængse betegnelse for Kristianiafjordens vestre 
bred. 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 73 

der [Tara marina) og AmpMpode-un^er [Gammarus locusta), 
der hurtigt kryber afsted i alle retninger. Enkelte udvoxne 
Amphipoder {G. locusta) følger ogsaa med stenene op över 
vandfladen. 

Lidt længre ude, paa ca. V2 meters dyb begynder blære- 
tangen, der voxer i tætte tuer, kun af og til afbrudt af aabne 
partier med fin graa sand, hvor de eiendommelige forhøininger, 
der skyldes Arenicola piscatorum, af og til sees. Paa sanden 
sees ogsaa undertiden et enkelt større exemplar af Asterias 
rubens. 

Lige ud for de omtalte sandtag arbeider en muddermaskine 
paa ganske grundt vand. I den fine sand, der faaes op af 
muddermaskinen forekommer blot enkeltvis større, afrundede 
stene samt tomme skal af Mya arenaria og Gyprina islan- 
dica i forskjellige størrelser, ligeledes af og til store eller mid- 
delstore exemplarer af Nereis virens. Selve muddermaskinen 
er under vandfladen tæt overgroet af blaaskjæl [Mytilus edulis) 
i alle størrelser saaledes at de mindste, et par millimeter store, 
sidder øverst, derefter følger større og større exemplarer og 
nederst kommer de største, der dog ikke er aldeles udvoxne. 

Paa stene paa ganske grundt vand, i ca. V2 meters dybde, 
forekommer ogsaa af og til halvstore og smaa exemplarer af 
Mytilus edulis (ca. 0.2—4°'^). 

Yngel saaes hele sommeren i mængdevis paa blæretang 
lige under havfladen, ligeledes en mængde smaa alger og Ser- 
tularier {S. pumila), hvilke ogsaa fandtes i stort antal paa 
Chorda filum, der paa et enkelt sted voxer sammen med Zostera 
marina paa ca. 2 meters dyb. Paa Zostera le vede Rissostomia 
odogona og Rissoa albella i forskjellige udviklingstrin. 

Paa ca. 4 meters dyb begynder Laminarierne. Blot L. 
sachharina voxer her og ofte i kjæmpemæssige exemplarer, 
som oftest tæt overgroet med mængder af Membranipora og 
Spirorbis samt enkeltvis af Balanus halanoides og Planorbu- 
lina lobatula. 



74 



HANS KIÆR. 



En mængde ganske smaa individer af Ästerias rubens saaes 
hele sommeren paa Laminarierne. Fra slutningen af juni til 
begyndeisen af august havde hovedmassen en radius af 1 — 1.5 
millimeter og vexten syntes saaledes i dette tidsrum at have 
været umærkelig. Den 7. august noteredes følgende stør- 
relser, beregnet efter individernes radius, hver prik betegner et 
exemplar. 



mm 
1 


mm 

7 . 
7.5 


mm 

16 


1.5 


17 


2 


8 .. 


18 


2.5 .. . 


8.5 


19 


3 


9 .. 


20 


3.5 . 


9.5 


21 


4 . 


10 


22 


4.5 . 


11 . 




5 


12 . 


30 


5.5 


13 . 




6 ... 


14 . 




6.5. 


15 . 


40 



Den 2. september fandtes individer af følgende størrelse: 
Radius; Radius: 



— nogle exemplarer 

— uhyre mængde 



6 

7 

8 

9 

10 



mange exemplarer 



nogle 



et exemplar 



Da disse optegnelser er gjort efter individer, som fandtes 
nogenlunde paa samme sted, maa man være berettiget til at 
slutte, at Asterias-yngeien paa dette sted i tidsrummet fra den 
7. august til den 2. september var voxet fra 1 à 1.5 milli- 
meter til 2—5 millimeter. 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 



75 



Yngletiden for Asterias rubens synes i Kristianiafjorden at 
være slutten af april eller begyndeisen af mai. lalfald ynglede 
nogle exemplarer i akvarierne paa den biologiske station i slut- 
ningen af april. 

Havbunden mellem Storskjær og Vestlandet kan karakteri- 
seres som en jevn og ensartet sandbund, der fra Vestlandets 
flade rullestenskyst langsomt synker ned til en dybde af 12—14 
meter, for derpaa ligesaa langsomt at hæve sig hist og her af- 
brudt af efterhaanden mer og mer udbredte partier af nedrasede 
klippestykker, indtil Storskjærs glat afskurede granitfjeld lidt 
efter lidt befries fra den løse sand og tilsidst kommer tilsyne 
over havfladen som en langstrakt afrundet holme. 




jcuncC 



CL o^ Û- .e/t. 



Fig. 3. Profil af sundet mellem Storskjær og Vestlandet. 



Det mikroskopiske dyreliv, der fandtes ved hjælp af en til 
skraben fastbundet planktonhov, syntes paa hele strækningen 
mellem Storskjær og Vestlandet at være temmehg ensartet, og 
bestod af smaa Annellider, Turhellarier, Gasteiopoder, Crusta- 
ceer, spee. Ostracoder, Acariner, Insektlarver, Nematoder, 
Thalamophorer, spee. Planorhulina lohatula. 

I en bugt med fint sand, der ved ebbe næsten ligger tør, 
ved nordpynten af Storskjær, saaes talrige snevre huller i san- 
den, af 2 — 4 millimeters diameter. I hvert hul fandtes i en 
dybde af 5—15°™ i regelen et 3—10°™ langt exemplar af Nereis 



76 HANS KIÆR. 

virens. I sandet saaes ogsaa sandormens tuer og eiendomme- 
lige dobbeltaabninger, som skyldes Mya arenaria, dog blot 
enkeltvis. Nogle smaa exemplarer af Ärenicola piscatorum og 
Mya arenaria fandtes, begge arter i ca. 30 centimeters dybde. 
Som exempel paa, hvad skraben kunde bringe op, kan pas- 
sende anføres følgende typiske træk: 

10. juli. 3 træk med en let skrabe fra 8—3 meter langs 
Vestlandet. En mængde Laminarier, noget Zostera samt en 
hel del forraadnede plantedele, smaasten, grus og sand. La- 
minarierne var fastheftede til tomme skal af Mytilus modiolus 
og Cyprina islandica. 

Mytilus modiolus, levende 3 exemplarer 

„ „ tomme skal ... 8 enkelte, 2 dobbelte 

Cyprina islandica, „ „ . . . 4 „ 2 „ 

Saxicava pholadis, levende ... 4 exemplarer 

Änomia ephhippium, 1 — o^™, levende 12 „ 

Äporrhais pes pelecani, døde ... 3 „ 

Nassa reticulata „ ... 4 „ 

Boreochiton ruher 4 „ 

„ marmorens, 5 „ 

Baianus porchatus, levende .... 4 „ 

„ „ døde 4 „ 

Ophioglypha alhida 1 „ 

Strong, droehachiensis, store .... 2 „ 

ca. 2^^- . . 5 

Ästerias rubens, 17 og 28°"^ .... 2 „ 

enkelte af 2°^^'* størrelse 

mange smaa, 3°^™, paa Laminarier 

Lepidonotus squamosus 1 ^ 

Nereis pelagica 6 „ 

Alcyonium digitatum, smaa .... 4 „ 

„ „ middelstore . 1 „ 

Pagurus 6p. ..,,,...... 5 „ 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 77 

Desuden fandtes enkelte smaa exemplarer af Mollusker og 
Annellider, hørende til 2 eller 3 arter, forskjellige fra de foran- 
nævnte. 

14. juli. 3 træk med skrabe fra 12 — 10 meter, sandbund. 

Gyprina islandica, levende 1 exemplar 

„ „ ca. 150 tomme skal 

Mytilus modiolus 6 „ „ 

Saxicava pholadis, 2 — 3°™, levende . 7 exemplarer 

Anomia epphippium, 1 — 2°™, levende 30 „ 

CuUellus pellucidus ........ et tomt skal (dobbelt) 

Oibbula cineraria, levende ..... 7 exemplarer 

Balanus porchatus „ 5 „ y'^^cTclay^ 

Nassa reticulata „ 2 „ /cv^o'^" >V v\ 

Buccinum undatum „ 3 „ />- ^jk -<sfc.<(&-<%^. ^^ <33 

Boreochiton ruber „ 12 „ Lu I L i ö î"^ ."• R Y i ^ 

„ marmoreus 8 „ \^\ ^*-**'^ /■^ 

Pagurus sp 3 „ \^^^^^6^^o»**^/ 

Lepidonotus squamosus 3 „ \,^^__#__^^>^ 

Nereis pelagica 8 „ 

Styela rustica 7 „ 

Corella par alellogr amma 3 „ 

Alcyonium digitatum 2 „ 

Strongylocentrotus droehachiensis, 

ca. 2°°^, levende 21 „ 

Asterias ruheus, 27°"^ 1 „ 

„ „ ca. 3°^™ mange paa Laminarier, 

hvorpaa ogsaa saaes en mængde Spirorhis og Membranipora. 
Skallerne af Mytilus og Gyprina var ofte overgroede af rør af 
Pomatocerus triqueter. Af denne Annellide fandtes mange 
exemplarer. 



78 



HANS KIÆR. 



Hvor bunden bestaar af sand, indeholder den næsten over- 
alt fra en dybde af 4 meter en stor mængde tomme skaller 
hovedsagelig af Cyprina islandica, men ogsaa delvis af andre 
Mollusker, saasom Mytilus modiolus og edulis samt Mya 
truncata. Skalterne af Cyprina og Mya har som oftest et 
meget gammelt præg. Disse Mollusk-skaWer er af stor betyd- 
ning for dyrelivet, thi en mængde dyr findes enten i eller paa 
skalterne eller paa de Laminarier og andre alger, der ofte voxer 
paa skallerne. I hvert Cyprina-sksl fandtes i regelen flere, 
undertiden 4—5 skaller af Saxicava pholadis og arctica i for- 
skjellige størrelser samt nogle exemplarer af Nereis pelagica. 
Cyprina-skaWevne var ofte aldeles overgroede med Serpula-rør, 
saa blot en ganske liden aabning var tilbage, meget mindre end 
Saxicavaerne, der altid fandtes levende inde i de saaledes vel 
tillukkede Cyprina-ska\. Gyprina-skallerne var desuden ogsaa 
i regelen halvt fyldt med mudder. 

I og paa Cyprina-skal fandtes desuden følgende dyrearter : 



Gorella parälellogramma, 
Styela rustica, 
Boreochiton ruber, 

„ martnoreus, 

Lepidopleurus cinereus, 
Tedura virginea, 
Lepela caeca, 



Gibhula cineraria, 
Baianus porchatus, 
Anomia ephhippium, 
Älcyonium digitatum, 
Pomatocerus triqueter, 
Lepidonotus squamosus, 
Ophiopholis aculeata. 



Meget almindelig forekommende var følgende arter 



Saxicava pholadis, 

„ arctica, 

Baianus porchatus, 
Styela rustica, 
Tectura virginea, 
Lepeta calca, 
Gibbula cineraria, 
Pomatocerus triqiieter, 



Boreochiton marmorens, 

„ ruber, 

Nereis pelagica, 
Anomia ephhippium, 
Strong, droebachiensis, 
Ästerias rubens, 
Lepidonotus squamosus. 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 79 



Mindre talrige var: 
Mytilus edulis, 

„ modiolus, 
Äporrhais pes pelecani, 
Buccinum undatum, 
Alcyonium digitatum, 



Nassa reticulata, 
Lepidopleurus einerens, 
Corella paralellogramma, 
Giona intestinalis, 
Pagurus sp. 



Som sjeldne kan følgende former nævnes: 



Ophioglypha albida, 
Ophiopholis aculeata, 
Gyprina islandica, 



Laetmonice filicornis, 
Littorina littorea, 
Trochus sp. 



5. Fjeldbund med uddøde koraller og alger. 

(Drøbaksgrnnden samt fjeldet nord for den biologiske station). 

Drøbaksgrunden er en næsten kredsrund undersøisk fjeld- 
knaus, der har sin basis paa den høideryg, der lidt nordenfor 
Drøbak strækker sig tvers over Kristianiafjorden. Denne høide- 
ryg, der i seilløbet ligger omtrent 40 meter under havspeilet, 
begrændses mod nord og syd af dyb paa ca. 100 meter. Drø- 
baksgrunden adskilles fra fastlandet ved en 20 — 30 meter dyb 
rende, dens top ligger omtrent 5 meter under havspeilet. 

De regelmæssige strømninger i Kristianiafjorden, der er en 
følge af flod og ebbe, kan være meget voldsomme og viser sig 
især paa Drøbaksgrunden, hvor våndet undertiden fosser afsted 
som stryg i en bred elv og næsten umuliggjør skrabning. 

Disse strømninger, der bringer friskt havvand med et rigt 
pelagisk dyre- og planteliv ind i fjorden, er af stor betydning 
for dyrs og planters trivsel. 

Paa Drøbaksgrunden findes en mængde rød- og brunalger, 
specielt Laminaria saccharina, samt et rigt dyreliv. Afrundede 
stene og skal af Mollusker, der faaes op med skraben, er ofte 
aldeles overgroede med dyr og planter. Paa enkelte steder af 
♦ grunden findes subfossile rester af en koral, Oculina proliféra, 
saaledes paa den nordvesthge skraaning i en dybde af 7—25 
meter, samt paa den sydlige skraaning paa 20 — 40 meters dyb. 



80 



HANS KIÆR. 



Undertiden kan man faa op koralstykker paa ca. 30°™"^^længde, 
men som regel er koralstokkene smuldret op i mindre stykker 
fra 1 til 5"centimers længde. Reslerne af denne koral er yndede 
opholdssteder for en stor mængde dyr, der dels er fastvoxede paa 
korallens grene, dels lever mellem eller inde i de hule grene. 



fO 30 "^0 10 








KMiamt ■ 
Brcilrak 



/0 



Fig. 4. Dybdekart over Drøbaksgrimden. 
De almindeligste dyreformer paa Drøbaksgrunden er følgende: 



Alcyoniwm digitatum, 
Ophiopholis aculeata, 
Saxicava pholadis, 
ardica. 



Strong, droebachiensis, 
Ästerias rubens, 
Nereis pelagica. 
Crania anomala, 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 



81 



Anomia epJiMppium, 

Styéla rustica, 
Lepidopleurus einerens, 
Balanus halanoides, 

„ porchatus, 
Boreochiton ruber, 

„ marmorens, 



Tnhnlaria larynx, 
Halecinm halecinum, 
Plumularia pinnata, 
Pomatocerus triqneter, 
Membranipora sp., 
Spirorbis sp. 



Mere sparsomt optrædende var følgende arter: 

Evdendrium rameum, 
Campannlaria verticillata, 
Ascidia conchilega, 
Ciona intestinalis, 
Corella paraléllogramma, 



Leodice norvegica, 
Lepidonotns squamosus 
Mytilns edulis, 
„ modiolus, 
„ phaseolinus {?), 
Astarte sulcata, 
Buccinum undatum, 



Ophiotrix fragilis. 

Stichaster roseus, 



Der fandtes ogsaa enkelte smaa Aktinier, Nemertiner, 
ganske smaa Annellider, Crustaceer, Nematoder, Acariner, 
Thalamophorer samt et enkelt exemplar af Dendronotus arho- 
rescens, af Lima Loscombii og af Pecten tigrinus. Inde i de 
hule koralstokke levede Saxicava pholadis og arctica, Mytilus 
phaseolinus (?), Nereis pelagica og enkelte Nemertiner. Mellem 
koralgrenene forekom Ophiopholis aculeata i talrig mængde. 
Det var ofte vanskeligt at faa disse dyrearter frem i uskadt 
stand, da korallerne maatte klippes itu stykke for stykke. 

Korallerne var undertiden fuldstændig overgroede med rør 
af Pomatocerus triqueter, saa det ved første øiekast var vanske- 
lig at se, hvilken gjenstand alle disse rør var fæstede til. 
Asterias rubens forekom i alle størrelser fra 3 millimeter til 
40 centimeter. Den 18de august havde hovedmassen en længde 
af 3 — 6 millimeter. 

Af de talrige skrabninger skal anføres følgende typiske 
træk: 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. I. 6 



HANS KIÆR. 



17. august. Fra 15 — 5 meter paa den nordvestlige skraaning. 
2 stykker koraller, hvert paa 30 centimeters længde og 10 centi- 
meter i gjennemsnit. 

Nereis pelagica 10 exemplarer 

Leodice norvegica 3 „ 

Saxicava pholadis 7 „ 

„ arctica 2 „ 

Mytilus phaseolinus (?).... 2 . „ 

Lepidonotus squamosus .... 8 „ 

Strong, droebachiensis 15 „ 

Ästerias rubens, 2 — 12°^^ .... 6 „ 

Tubularia larynx ....... nogle „ 

Plumularia pinnata „ „ 

Campanularia verticillata ... „ „ 

Halecium halecinum „ „ 

Aktinier „ „ 

Ophiopholis aculeata ..... mange „ 

17. august. 30—20 meter paa den nordvestlige skraaning. 
Uhyre mængde smaa løse stykker at" koraller. 

Ophiopholis aculeata 20 exemplarer 

Nereis pelagica 17 „ 

Boreochiton ruber 10 „ 

„ marmoreus .... 7 „ 

Lepidopleurus einerens .... 6 „ 

Anomia ephhippium 6 „ 

Balanus balanoides 30 „ 

Alcyoniwin digitatum 4 „ 

Plumularia pinnata nogle „ 

Tubularia larynx „ „ 

Eudendrium rameum „ „ 

Halecium halecinum ..... „ „ 

Gibbula cineraria, 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 



Lepeta caeca . nogle exemplarer 

Astarte sulcata , et exemplar. 

> 

Desuden en mængde Serpula (Pomatocerus triqueter), 

Bryozoer, Spirorbis, Nematoder, enkelte Nemertiner og Thala- 
mophorer. Paa Hydroiderne var der et rigt liv af smaa Gru- 
staceer, Nematoder og Infusorier. 

Mellem den biologiske station og Drøbaksgrunden og ad- 
skilt fra den sidste ved en 30—40 meter dyb rende synker 
grunden langsomt udover til en dybde af ca. 20 meter. Her 
findes det samme dyreliv som paa Drøbaksgrunden med und- 
tagelse af de dyreformer, der specielt er afhængige af koral- 
lerne. Inde ved land er der paa flere steder braadybt, idet 
fjeldet undertiden synker lodret ned til en dybde af 6 meter. 

I blæretangen, der som et uafbrudt bælte gror langs fjeldet, 
lever umaadelige mængder af Calliopus rathkii, Gammarus 
hyale og nilsonii, Idothea granulosa, andre Idothea-arter samt 
Copepoder. I begyndeisen af september fandtes de forskjellige 
Idothea-arier blot som unger. Paa blæretangen saaes desuden 
en mængde forskjellige fastsiddende dyrearter, saasom Spirorhis, 
Membranipora, Balanus halanoides, Mytilus edulis. Gam- 
panularia flexuosa, Glava squamata, Sertularia pumila, 
samt Spongier. Nogle expl. af Asterias rubens og S. droeba- 
chiensis fandtes af og til. 

I planktonhoven, der droges gjennem tangen fra 5 — 4 meters 
dyb, saaes enkelte smaa Grustaceer, specielt Ostracoder, An~ 
guillula sp. og Acariner. 

Langs fjeldet voxer i talrig mængde Balanus balanoides 
tildels indtil 1 fod over tanggrændsen og paa afstand sees disse 
dyrs skaller som et uafbrudt bælte med hvide pletter mod fjel- 
dets mørke baggrund. 

Søger man at komme til klarhed over de biologiske forhold 
i Kristianiafjorden, maa man først og fremst betænke, at denne 
fjord oprindelig har havt en langt større dybde end nu. De for- 



HANS KIÆR. 



andrede dybdeforhold synes at have været meget uheldige for 
mange dyrearter. Som bekjendt er den langs vor kyst levende 
koral Oculina proliféra omtrent uddød ved Drøbak. Enkelte 
Thalamophorer synes ogsaa at være uddøde. Andre dyrefor- 
mer forekommer væsentlig blot som subfossile, saaledes Cyprina 
islandica og Macoma calcarea. Da disse sid ste lever paa 
grundt vand, kan det formodentlig ikke være forandrede dybde- 
forhold, men andre omstændigheder, der holder paa at bevirke 
deres uddøen. Cyprina islandica findes subfossil dels i ringe 
dybde paa havbunden, dels paa land indtil en høide af 150 
meter over havet. I Kristianiafjorden findes for tiden meget 
sjelden fuldvoxne exemplarer, derimod oftere smaa og middel- 
store individer. 

Paa den anden side synes de omtalte dyrs uddøen at have 
bidraget til andre dyrs udbredelse. Thi netop tomme skaller af 
Mollusker og uddøde koralstokke er yndede tilholdssteder for 
mange dyr, ja endel dyrearter synes paa enkelte steder at være 
fuldstændig afhængige af de subfossile dyrelev ningers forekomst. 
Undersøger man nemlig dyrelivet paa sandbunden ved Storskjær, 
vil man finde en hel del dyrearter, der ikke er skikkede til at 
leve paa løs bund, men udelukkende knyttede til de tomme 
Mollusk-skallers forekomst. Det samme er delvis tilfældet med 
mudderbunden i Sandspollen. 

I saadanne indelukkede poller er strømningerne meget svage. 
Som følge deraf faar de talrige fine jordpartikler, der svæver om 
i våndet, tid til at bundfældes. Bunden i saadanne poller be- 
staar derfor af et blødt slik, der eftersom det afleires, dækker 
de gjenstande, der befinder sig paa bunden. Alle bunddyr be- 
finder sig i en stadig kamp for ikke at kvæles af mudderet. 
Eftersom afleiringerne tiltager i mægtighed, hæves det niveau, 
hvorpaa dyrene lever. Man vil derfor paa dette løse mudder kun 
finde faa dyrelevninger sammen med de levende dyr. Naar man 
alligevel faar adskillige tomme Mollusk-skaWev op med skraben, 
er dette et bevis paa, at denne trænger dybt ned i mudderet. 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 85 



I strømhaarde fjorde vil der ialfald paa grundt vand ikke 
kunne foregaa nogen afleiring, idet de jordpartikler, der føres af- 
sted med strømmen i alle vandlag, ikke faar tid til at afleires 
undtagen hvor gjenstande paa havbunden formaar at holde slam- 
met tilbage. Saaledes vil man ofte kunne finde Mollusk-sksàleT 
mer eller mindre fyldte med et fint mudder af samme konsistens 
som i indelukkede poller. Paa grund af den stride strøm vil der 
paa sandbund med forholdsvis grundt vand i tidernes løb ophobe 
sig større eller mindre masser af skaller af Mollusker, eftersom 
disse dør. Desuden kan ogsaa endel af de mængder af skaller, 
man finder, være udskyllede af subfossilførende gruslag paa land. 
Ser man nemlig paa profilen gjennem den af mig undersøgte 
lokalitet ved Storskjær (se nærmere fig. 3 med forklaring), ligger 
det nær at tro, at der nedenfor første terrasse (ved b) paa fast- 
landet maa være fjernet en betydelig strækning af gruslagene 
langs fastlandets kyst (partiet nedenfor terrassen ved b paa pro- 
filet). Da nemlig det fossilførende lag b indeholder en stor 
mængde af samme sort subfossiler, som findes paa 6 — 12 meters 
dyb udenfor stranden, medens selve stranden er saagodtsom 
blottet for saadanne og er en typisk rullestensstrand, synes der 
at være rimelighed for, at al sand, grus og subfossile dyrelev- 
ninger, der engang har udgjort hovedmassen af den omtalte ter- 
rasses fortsætte! se, maa være (af is eller havet selv) bragt ud 
paa dybet, medens de i eller under sand- og grusmassen lig- 
gende stene er blevet igjen og nu danner landets rullestenskyst. 

Sammenligner man de 5 af mig undersøgte lokaliteter, vil 
man finde, at der, omend disse delvis kan have meget tilfælles 
i dyrelivets sammensætning, dog inden hver af dem raader saa 
mange forskjelUgartede forhold, at hver enkelt af dem maa be- 
fragtes som et eget eiendommeligt omraade, der i biologisk hen- 
seende skarpt maa adskilles fra ethvert af de øvrige. Det dyre- 
hv, der hersker paa ethvert af disse omraader maa med god 
grund kunne kaldes et fra de øvrige forskjelligartet ko-operativt 
samfund. 



HANS KIÆR. 



Denne forskjel i biologisk henseende er mest iøinefaldende 
mellem de lokaliteter, hvor forskjellen i dybde er størst. Man 
har saaledes paa den ene side mudderbunden paa 100 og 200 
meters dyb og paa den anden side de omraader, hvor dybden 
er mindre end 20 meter. Men ogsaa inden enhver af de en- 
kelte lokaliteter hersker der en dyb og gjennemgribende forskjel, 
der skyldes de naturlige forhold, som er raadende paa hvert 
enkelt sted. 

Hvis man begynder med det grunde vand, vil man allerede 
fra den littorale region af se, hvilken indflydelse bundforholdene 
har paa dyre- og plantelivet. En sandet strand og en rulle- 
stenskyst er stadig udsat før at overskylles af bølgerne, der sæt- 
ter sanden og stenene i bevægelse og hindrer dyr og planter i 
at faa fodfæste. Derfor er der altid langs saadanne let bevæge- 
lige kyster et hælte, hvor saagodtsom ingen alger kan gro og 
hvor dyrelivet er svagt udviklet. Og alligevel træffer man paa 
sanden ingen af de dyr, der kan trives paa rullestenene, med 
undtagelse af drivende og fritsvømmende dyr, som hører hjemme 
paa de langgrunde, solvarme strande uanseet hundens beskaf- 
fenhed. 

Den faste klippekyst er derimod langs vandlinien bevoxet 
med et sammenhængende hælte med Fucus, hvor et rigt dyreliv 
kan trives. At hele dette intense dyreliv hører hjemme paa 
Fucusen, viser sig bedst derved, at de dyrearter, der findes i 
denne, naar den er dækket af sjøen, ogsaa sees i den, naar den 
ved ebbe er høit over vandspeilet. 

Lidt nedenfor ebbegrændsen er det løse bundmateriale ikke 
saa udsat som i den Httorale region for at sættes i bevægelse 
af bølgerne og strømningerne. Derfor begynder vegetationen 
først paa 0.5—1 meters dyb paa løs hund. Paa sandbund stræk- 
ker Zosteraen sig som bølgende ågre ud mod dybet, undertiden 
afbrudt af en enkelt Fucus fæstet til en sten. Paa rullestens- 
bunden voxer Fucus tildels blandet med Zostera og Chorda 
filum. Den rene fjeldbund er lige fra havspeilet af dækket af 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND, 87 



Fucus, der paa 2—4 meters dyb afløses af Laminarie-bæiiet, dette 
igjen af rødalgerne. Vegetationen optræder altid i bugnende 
overflødighed, bare den kan faa fæste. Dette rige plantedække, 
der saaledes er karakteristisk for det grunde vand, har, som dr. 
PETERSEN fremhæver, en overordentlig stor betydning derved, at 
det saa at sige multiplicerer havbunden og giver plads og næring 
for et yderst rigt dyreliv, for størstedelen bestaaende af smaa 
og delvis mikroskopiske former. Lidt større dyreformer findes i 
regelen ikke paa tangen, da de paa grund af sin tyngde træk- 
ker tangen ned mod bunden. Det mindste, specielt det mikro- 
skopiske dyreliv er rimeligvis det samme paa Zostera som paa 
Fucus. Vi finder saaledes et mylder af Infusorier, smaa Gru- 
staceer, Mytilus-ynge\ samt flere Rissoa-arier paa alslags vegeta- 
tion lige i havspeilet noget udenfor den nedre littorale grændse. 
Derimod er den store mængde af Hydroider, Gammarider og 
Spongier eiendommetig for Fucus. Helt ned til vegetationens 
nedre grændse er saavel Fucus som især Laminarierne og del- 
vis rødalgerne og Zosteraen bevoxet med en stor mængde smaa 
dyrearter som Hydroider, Serpulaer, Spirorhis, Bryozoer og 
Thalamophorer samt ogsaa tilholdssted for Nemertiner, smaa 
Annellider, Grustaceer og andre dyr samt yngel, specielt af 
Asterias, Strongylocentrotus, Annellider etc. 

Indtil en dybde af ca. 7 meter er mudderbunden bevoxet 
med et tæt hælte af Zostera, medens den udenfor denne dybde 
danner en svagt hældende vegetationslos stette med forholdsvis 
fattigt dyreliv. Sandbunden samt især den faste fjeldbund ud- 
mærker sig ved et rigt planteliv, der i høi grad bidrager til at 
udvikle det bugnende dyreliv i det smaa, som ovenfor er 
skildret. 

Paa mudderbunden paa 4 — 12 meters dyb (i Sandspollen) 
er Goelenteraterne paafaldende daarligt repræsenteret, idet blot 
en ganske enkelt Alcyonium^, endel Virgularier samt nogle 



Her sigtes til de enkelte exemplarer, ikke til arter. 



88 HANS KIÆR. 



smaa Hydroider fandtes paa Mollusk-skaWer. Det er ogsaa 
ganske rimeligt, at disse og andre fastsiddende dyr ikke kan 
trives i mudderbundens grumsede vand, men elsker de 'friske 
planktonrige strømme ude i fjorden. Desuden er der for faa 
gjenstande paa mudderbunden at voxe paa, idet de stene og 
Mollusk-akaWer, der findes, oftest er mer eller mindre dækket af 
mudder. Ude paa sandbunden paa samme dyb (ved Storskjær) 
er derimod Coelenteraterne noget rigere tilstede, om de ogsaa 
her savner gunstige voxesteder, Den faste fjeldbund er Coe- 
lenteraternes hjem. Her udfolder de sig i sin fulde yppighed 
og danner hele undersøiske skove, der delvis dækker fjeld- 
siderne og danner buskadser paa stene og Mollusk-skaWer . 
Drøbaksgrundens faste fjeld er derfor ved sin bugnende over- 
flødighed af Hydroider og Alkyonier vidt forskjellig fra den 
løse bund. 

OpMuroiderne trives derimod udmærket baade paa mud- 
derbund og paa fjeldbund, derimod er de ikke paa langt nær 
saa talrige paa sandbunden. 

Slægten Ophioglypha er eneraadende paa mudderbunden, 
medens slægten OphiopJiolis blot findes paa fjeldbund og!]del- 
vis ogsaa i sandbundens Mollusk-skaWer. 

Echinoiderne forekommer nogenlunde talrigt overaltj.paa 
4 — 12 meters dyb. Paa mudderbunden er Amphidetus tal- 
rigst, medens Strongyglocentrohis er den eneste slægt paa 
andenslags bund. Ästerias rubens findes overalt, derimod 
mangler Holothurierne aldeles. 

De øvrige dyregrupper findes omtrent i samme procentvise 
mængde overalt paa grundt vand. Dog er der i den inde- 
lukkede Sandspol andre arter end ude i den aabne fjord. 
Saa ledes lever især Nephtys, Abra, Aporrhais, Corbida i 
mudderet, medens Saxicava, Balanus, Styela, Boreochiton, 
Nereis og andre slægter er talrig i den aabne fjord paa 4—12 
meters dyb. 



DYRELIVET I DRØBAKSUND. 89 

Paa større dyb bliver dyrelivet aldeles anderledes. Mud- 
derbunden paa 100 — 200 meters dyb er Holothuriernes og de 
store Aktiniers hjem. Forøvrigt er flyndrer og ræger især al- 
mindelige paa 100 meter dy bet, medens forskjellige Vermes- 
arter blot findes paa 200 meters dyb. 

Anm. Naar der i de foregaaende fortegnelser over dyrearter ikke spe- 
cielt er nævnt, at en dyreart er fundet i død tilstand, menes der, at den 
er fundet levende. 



Figurforklaring, 



Pl. IL 



Fig. 1. Strandparti fra Sandspollen. 
„ 2. Sandspollen. Aalehaandvadet drages. 



Pl. III. 



Fig. 3. Rullestenskyst. Vestlandet ved Drøbak. 
„ 4. Fjeld med Balaner og indhugget vandstan dsmærke, lidt norden- 
for den biologiske station. 



Trykt den 9de februar 1904. 



Bryological notes on a trip in Norway 

by 
H. N. Dixon and W. E. Nicholson. 



T. 



he mosses enumerated in the following list were collected 
during a short holiday in western Norway in the summer of 
1900 between the 18*^^ July, when we landed at Stavanger, and 
the 11*^ August, when we sailed for England from Bergen. 
From Stavanger we took the boat to Sand on the Sand fjord 
and followed the overland route to Odde on the Hardanger fjord 
through the beautiful Bratlandsdal and over the Horre pass. At 
Odde we rested for a few days and explored the neighbourhood, 
especially the valley leading to the Buar Brae and its terminal 
Moraine, leaving on the 24*^' July for Vik on the Eidfjord, whence 
we explored the sombre Simodal and the Maabødal up to the 
magnificent Vøringfos. From Vik we travelled by way of Ulvik 
and Vossevangen to Gudvangen on the narrow Nærøfjoi'd, whence 
we took the boat to Lærdalsøren at the head of the Sognefjord, 
and after spending two days there we proceeded to Maristuen 
on the Fillefjeld, where we stayed for ten days and which we 
found to be a very fair centre for mosses. As one leaves the 



H. N. DIXON AND W. E. NICHOLSON. 



coast in western Norway the climate and especially the rain- 
fall becomes modified very rapidly; thus at the mouth of the 
Sognefjord there is an annual rainfall of about 80 inches, while 
on the Nærøfjord, 60 miles from the mouth, it is 31 inches, and 
at Lærdalsøren, 87 miles from the mouth, 16 inches only. We 
had hoped that Maristuen, which is only about 32 miles inland 
from Lærdalsøren, to some extent shared its climate, but since 
it rained more or less every day of our visit, we could not but 
think that we had met with an undue proportion of the rain- 
fall. To the small annual rainfall, however, was probably due 
the fact that we noticed so few mosses growing upon the tree 
■trunks at Maristuen: practically none of the common species of 
Ulota or Orthotrichum were observed, while nearer the coast 
the trunks are often thickly clothed with these mosses. 

Although the genus Grimmia is generally more partial to 
siliceous rocks, we were very much struck by their extraordinary 
development on the dry limestone rocks near Lærdalsøren, where 
if we include Goscinodon, ten species were observed after a very 
cursory examination. On the moister parts of the same rocks 
Barbula icmadopMla, Schp. was very abundant and was frui- 
ting, though poorly, in places. 

It should be added that the Sphagna of the district were 
not at all exhaustively studied. 

We are much indebted to Dr. Hagen, Herr Kaalaas, Mm, 
Renauld and Cardot and Dr. Best for assistance in the identi- 
fication of some of our specimens. 

Sphagnum teres Angst. Lower slopes of Suletind near Mari- 
stuen — a fuscous form with hardly a trace of green. 

S. acutifolium Ehrh. var. fuscwm Schp. Common about 
Maristuen, often growingwith Buhus chamœmorus. S. Lindbergii 
Schp. Common in very wet ground near Maristuen. 

Andreœa Rothii, W. & M. Var, grimsulana B. & S. Wet 
rocks on the Horre pass c. fr. Robust but scarcely so reddish 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES ON A TRIP IN NORWAY. 93 

as the var. often is. A. nivalis, Hook. Horre pass and Mari- 
stuen, common in alpine streams. 

Catharinea tenella, Røhl. Near Odde and Maristuen ; the 
o^ plant and old fruit. It was much commoner near Maristuen 
than C. undulata. 

Polytrichum sexangulare, Ehrh. Common on the moun- 
tains near Maristuen and often with fruit: fruit small. 

P. commune var. perigoniale, Schp. Bratlandsdal and 
Slutemyr near Maristuen. — The perichætial bracts and general 
habit of the variety well marked, but with the apical cell of 
the lamellae distinctly grooved and in the Slutemyr plant almost 
typical. 

Buxhaumia apliylla, L. Wood by the Laera, Maristuen, 
very sparingly. 

Ditrichum tenuifolium, Ldb. Bleja and the Nærodal. The 
Bleja plant fruiting in company with Dicranella secunda Ldb., 
the Nærodal plant more robust, but sterile. 

Rhabdoweisia denticulata, Brid. Odde c. fr., a rather 
robust form. 

Cynodontium gracilescens, Schp. Maristuen, c. fr. Leaves 
sharply papillose; some of them rather obtusely pointed; the 
capsule pale, erect, striate on a straight seta. C. torquescens, 
Limp., and C. fallax Limp, both c. fr. These two species which 
are very closely allied to C. gracilescens were found very spar- 
ingly near Maristuen. Some doubts might be raised as to 
their value as species, but the specimens agree well with the 
description given by Limpricht. C. laxirete, (Dixon) Grebe, 
(C. polycarpum var. lœvifolium, Hagen). Rocks in the valley 
below the Buar Brae, Odde c. fr. 

Dicranella secunda, Ldb. Bleja, c. fr., not very common. 

Dicranoweisia crispula, Ldb. Maabødal, Maristuen &c., 
c. fr.; very fine near Maristuen, often with the leaves markedly 
secund. 



H. N. DIXON AND W. E. NICHOLSON. 



Campylopus atrovirens, De Not. Bratlandsdal, a very 
green form with the upper cells of the leaves rather shorter than 
usual. 

Dicranodontium longirostre, B. & S. Wet rocks by the 
Laatefos: a very tall robust form quite eight inches high. 

Dicranum fulvellum, Sm. Bleja c. fr., apparently rare near 
Maristuen. D. hyperhoreum, G. M. Rocks by the Maristuen- 
fos and on the summit of the Saddel c. fr., the plant from the 
Saddel poor, the other much finer. Our specimens differ very J 
markedly from D. fulvellum, Sm. in the more robust habit 
larger leaves ending in a rigid, highly glistening bristle point, 
and much larger stouter capsule, deeply furrowed and pachyder- 
matous. The calyptra also is large, inflated, and very glossy, 
and the spores which in D. fulvellum range from 15 to 20 f.i., 
reach the size of 30 /n. in D. hyperhoreum, averaging about 25 
to 27 f,i. The British plants referred to Arctoa hyperhorea by 
the authors of the Bry, Eur. and other writers all belong to D. 
fulvellum. The confusion between the two has probably arisen 
for the most part from the description of the latter species in the 
Bry. Eur. and elsewhere, as having smooth capsules, whereas 
they are in reality always or nearly always more or less striate 
or furrowed. 

D. elongatum, Schleich. Maabødal c. fr., Maristuen c. fr. 
Common and fruiting freely on rocks by the Maristuen fos. Var. 
Sphagni (Wahlen.) an attenuated form with the upper cells of 
the leaves more elongate. 

D. fuscescens Turn. A form occurred on the Saddel with 
the cells more porous in the upper part of the leaf, which 
was almost smooth. D. Bergeri, Bland. Common in bogs, often 
sterile, but c. fr. at Slutemyr. 

Grimniia apocarpa var. alpicola H. & T. Wet rocks 
Maristuen c. fr., well marked. Var. gracilis W. & M, Fine & 
well marked near Odde; nerve rough at the back. G. conferta 
FuNCK. Simodal, c. fr. : a small delicate form. G. funalis, 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES ON A TRIP IN NORWAY. 95 

ScHP. ; with abundant fruit near Borgund, Lærdal. G. torquata, 
HoRNSCH. ; Maristuen. not infrequent. G. decipiens, Ldb. Simo- 
dal, Maabødal &c, c. fr. ; in smaller greyer more cushion-like 
tufts than G. elatior. G. elatior, B. & S. Maabødal & Lærdal c. 
fr. In large blackish spreading patches ; very fine and abundant 
in the Maabødal. 

G. Doniana, Smith. Type, and var. sudetia Wils. Rocks 
about Maristuen, c. fr. 

G. anomala, Hpe. Loose stone walls at Seljestad, Eide, 
Vossevangen, Vinje and Stalheim; also on rocks near the Buar 
Brae; widely distributed in the district which we first visited, 
w^ith a fev^ capsules at Seljestad. The capsule is shortly cyHndri- 
cal, smooth, irregularly wrinkled when dry; operculum with a 
long straight beak ; peristome teeth bright orange-red, entire or 
slightly divided above, highly papillose in the upper three fourths; 
smoother below; spores • 10 to • 016 mm. Careful comparison 
of these capsules (the first discovered in Europe) with fruiting 
specimens of G. Philibertiana, E. G. Britton, Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club, 18, 51, (1891) by European bryologists and by Mrs. Britton 
herself has established the identity of the two plants, G. Philiber- 
tiana must therefore be suppressed in favour of Hampe's name, 
published by Schimper (Syn ; Ed. II) in 1876. 

G. ovata, Sghvs^æg. : and var. cylindrica, B. & S. Rocks 
Simodal, c. fr. Common. G. commutata, Hüb, Rocks by the 
Jordalsvand, Odde, c. fr. poor. Not uncommon in the Lær- 
dal, but either sterile or with very poor fruit; a slender form 
of the c5^ plant w^ith attenuated stems and short leaves occurred 
near Husum. G. leucophœa, Grev. Common in the Lærdal, 
fruit poor. G. elongata, Kaulf. Rocks near the summits of 
the mountains round Maristuen; hair points of the leaves very 
variable and sometimes almost absent; a form occurred low 
down near the old bridge below Maristuen, growing in yellowish 
tufts and the leaves having a rather larger more elongate and 
clearer areolation. Dr. Hagen writes that he has the same form 



96 H. N. DIXON AND W. E. NICHOLSON. 

from other localities in Norway, Telemarken (st.) and Knutsteteø 
(c. fr.) and also from Styria, leg. Breidler; the plant may deserve 
varietal rank. G. atrata, Miel. On an outcrop of copper- 
bearing rocks about 3 Kilometers below Maristuen, growing in 
large blackish tufts, greener when young, with old capsules and 
immature fruit. G. unicolor, Hook. Lærdalsøren and Maabø- 
dal; in smaller denser blackish tufts. 

Bhacomitrium ramulosum, Ldb. Rocks, Maristuen c. fr.; 
with short pale capsules and the leaves with the areolation 
longer throughout than in R. heterostichum, but variable. 

Goscinodon cribrosus, Spr. Not uncommon in the Lærdal, 
occasionally fruiting. 

Hedwigia ciliata, Ehrh. Var. leucophœa, Schp. Lærdals- 
øren and rocks near the old Bridge, Maristuen — Fairly well 
marked. 

Pottia truncatula, Ldb., near Blaaflaten, Lærdal. Leaves 
of the type, but with the columella adherent to the lid, as in 
specimens which I have seen from N. America. Vide also Lesq. 
& James. 

Desmatodon latifolius, B. & S. Not infrequent about 
Maristuen c. fr. Columella sometimes exserted after the fall of 
lid, but not D. systylius from which it is readily separated by 
the papillose areolation of the leaves (var. brevicaulis, Schp.). 

Tortula aciphylla, Hartm. Seljestad, Maristuen &c. A 
Tortula also occurred at Maristuen with the lower portion only 
of the hair point bright red, which tended to connect aciphylla 
with ruralis; var. mucronata, Sendt.. Gudvangen; very like 
a form of ruralis without a hair point. T. mucronifolia, Schwgr. 
Wall near Husum, Lærdal, c. fr. 

Barhula icmadophila, Schp. Maabødal sterile, Lærdal from 
Lærdalsøren to Maristuen on limestone rocks c. fr. and o^ 
plant. Occurred sparingly at Maristuen, but quite abundantly 
near Lærdalsøren, where it was also fruiting. The fruit was 
rather poor having the appearance of being dried up by the 



Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. B. 42. 



Pl. I. 





Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 





Fig. 3. 



Fig. 4. 




Fig. 5. 



Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. B. 42. 



Pl. II. 




Fig. 1. 




Fig. 



Nyt Mag. p. Naturv. B. 42. 



Pl. TTI 




Fig. 3. 




Fig. 4. 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES ON A TRIP IN NORWAY. 97 

unusual drought of the early summer. It was found in fruit 
at Lærdalsøren some years ago, by Dr. Bryhn. 

Trichostomum fragile, Dixon. Widely distributed near 
Maristuen, but generally rather poor. 

Encalypta brevicolla, Schp. By the old bridge Maristuen 
and other parts of the Lærdal c. fr,, but rather poor. Maabødal. 
The papillosity of the back of the nerve, which can be seen 
with a pocket lens, may help to distinguish this species from E. 
ciliata, which it closely resembles in the field. 

Zygodon lapponicus, B. & S. Rocks by the Laera, Mari- 
stuen c. fr. A tall form with an illusory resemblance to Z. 
Mougeotii. 

Z. Mougeotii, B. & S. Maristuen &c. Always sterile. 

Ulota Ludwigii, Brid.; near Eide, fruiting well on alders. 

Ü. Drummondii, Brid. Nærodal &c. c. fr. Rather common 
near the coast, but rarer inland : only a single tuft was noticed 
near Maristuen. Ü. curvifolia, Brid. Maabødal and Maristuen, 
c. fr. Growing in loose blackish spreading tufts with shorter 
rounder and darker capsules than U. Hutchinsice; we noticed also 
that the tufts of this moss were usually coherent when gathered, 
while those of U. Hutchinsice somewhat readily fall apart. 

Orthotrichum rupestre, Schleich, var. Sehlmeyeri, B. & S. 
Rocks near the Maristuen fos, c. fr. Generally growing away 
from the light; a rather well marked variety with the capsule 
somewhat exserted and a very hairy calyptra. A few long hairs 
also on the vaginula. 0. anomalum, Hedw, Walls near Husum 
in the Lærdal c. fr. O. Schuhartianum, Lor. Rocks about 5 
kilometers below Maristuen c. fr. Habit of O. cupulatum, but 
with a hairy vaginula and a very rudimentary „Vorperistome". 
0. alpestre, Hornsch. Rocks, Maristuen. In very short bluish 
green tufts richly fruiting; the peristome teeth less markedly 
strate than I have seen them in Swiss specimens. 0. pallens, 
Bruch. On ash near Vossevangen c. fr. O. ohtusifolium, Schrad. 
Vossevangen. In small sterile tufts. 

Nyt Mag. t. Naturv. XXXXII. II. 7 



98 H. N. DIXON AND W. E. NICHOLSON. 

Oedipodium Griffithianum, Schwgr. Near Eide and Ulvik 
in hollows in a rocky bank c. fr. and gemmae. 

Splachnwm vasculosiim, L. Slutemyr c. fr. not infrequent. 

Tetraplodon mnioides, B. & S. Bleja and the Saddel near 
Maristuen. A small closely tufted form with a pale strongly 
urceolate capsule bearing some resemblance to that of T. urceo- 
latus. This plant is a very marked form which Dr. Hagen 
is disposed to recognize as identical with T. paradoxus, (R. 
Br.). ^) It is apparently the plant referred to by Schimper, 
Synopsis: Edit. 2 page 366 as Splachnum urceolatum, 
Hedw. T. angustatus, B. & S. Maabødal, c. fr. In large 
robust tufts. 

Dissodon Frochlichianus, Grev. & Arn. Fissures of rocks 
and rather dry peaty ground on Bleja c. fr. D. splachnoides, 
Grev. & Arn. Slutemyr and other places near Maristuen, c. fr. 

Meesia trichoides, Spr. var. alpina, Boulay. Bleja, c. fr. 
the long narrow leaves of the variety fairly well marked. 

Paludella squarrosa, Brid. Moorland bogs near Mari- 
stuen, common, but sterile. 

Aulacomnium turgidum, Schwgr. Peaty ground near 
Maristuen, generally sterile, but fruiting sparingly on Bleja. A. 
palustre, Schwgr. var. imbricatum, B. & S. Slutemyr. 

Timmia austriaca, Hedw. Simodal, Borgund and Mari- 
stuen. Fairly common, but generally rather poor; a few capsules 
near Maristuen. T. bavarica, Hessl. st. Lærdal. 

Philonoiis fontana, Brid. Wet rocks near Odde. Perigonial 
bracts sometimes pointed and sometimes obtuse, showing an 
approach to Ph. cœspitosa, Wils. A slender plant from Mari- 
stuenfos has the perigonial bracts often subacute & is probably 
the var. gracilescens Schp., (Musci Galliæ No. 530) from which 
also P. alpicola Jur. is scarcely if at all distinct. 



^) Dr. Hagen also riieiitions that his T palliclus is the same thing as T. 
paradoxus, an identity overlooked at the time of description. 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES ON A TRIP IN NORWAY. 99 



Weber a acuminata, Schp. Stutedal c. fr. W. longicolla, 
Hedw. Eide and Maristuen c. fr. W. gracilis, De Not. Road 
side by the Horre Pass, Moraine of Buar Brae. Very fine and 
ricfily fruiting; bulbils scarce. W. Ludwigii, Schp. Bratlands- 
dal. Very variable in size and general appearance but com- 
pletely sterile, Horre pass fruiting richly. W. Schimperi, G. M. 
Near the Maristuenfos. A very distinct and pretty species. 

Bryum viride, Philib. Near the Maristuenfos. A species 
close to B. arcticum, R. Brown; identified by Dr. Hagen. B. 
micans. Kaur. A synoicous species with a shining capsule 
somewhat shape of that of Leptohryum pyriforme and rather 
obtuse peristome teeth and leaves with a longly excurrent 
nerve, which grew near the Maristuenfos in very small quantity 
has been doubtfully referred to this species. B. purpurascens, 
B. & S. Slutemyr, c. fr. Distinguished from B. arcticum etc. 
by the transversely striated peristome teeth as pointed out by 
Limpricht although according to Philibert this character is not 
constantly present in B. purpurascens. B. Jørgensenii, Kaurin, 
Slutedal. Another synoicous species belonging to the section 
Ptychostomum identified by Dr. Hagen. B. cuspidatum, Schp. 
Slutemyr, c. fr. B. Sauteri, B. & S. Buar Brae. c fr. ; iden- 
tified by Dr. Hagen. B. elegans, Nees. Dry wall, Seljestad. 
B. cirratum, H. & H. Bratlandsdal, Buar Brae moraine, and 
rock crevices by the road between Vossevangen and Vinje c. fr. 
A form occurred on the Buar Brae moraine with a rather longer 
paler capsule. B. pallescens, Schleich. Blejà, c. fr. B. alpi- 
num, Huds. A small greenish form having rather obtuse leaves 
with wide cells. Rocks, Sand; possibly an extreme form of the 
var. viride, Husn. B. Milhlenbeckii, B. & S. Sand, Bratlands- 
dal, Odde, Maristuen &c. Common and variable, but rare in 
fruit, Buar Brae c. fr. Maristuen, c. fr. (poor). A remarkable 
form was gathered at Sand and in the Bratlandsdal which is 
entirely green ; in colouring analogous to the var. viride of 
B. alpinum. B. claviger, Kaurin. Rocks in streams ; Buar 



100 H. N. DIXON AND W. E. NICHOLSON. 

Brae; Laera near Maristuen; in small tufts on rocks occasionally 
overflowed by water; with somewhat the aspect of an aquatic 
form of B. argenteum. 

Two more Brya, one collected between Husum and Borgund, 
the other on Blejà, Maristuen, are still suh judice, they are re- 
garded by Dr. Hagen as hitherto undescribed species. 

Mnium affine, Bland. Odde and Maristuen. Very fine but 
sterile. M. orthorrhynchum, B. & S. Maristuen, poor. M. 
lycopodioides, Hook. Simodal and Maristuen ; the Simodal plant 
had one capsule which is curved in the neck hke that of M. 
serratum and has the cells of the exothecium much larger than 
they are in M. orthorrhynchum, as pointed out by the late Prof. 
Philibert in his excellent study of the species in Rev. Bry.: 
1895, p. 2. M. medium, B. & S. Near the Maristuenfos c. fr. 
The leaf cells are very distinctly collenchymatous and porous in 
these specimens. 

M. spinosum, Schwgr. : Simodal and Maristuen; fairly 
common, but sterile. M. stellare, Reich. Maristuen, under bushes 
of Betula nana. M. Blyttii, B. & S. Peaty ground under 
Salix &c. Blejà. This moss has a tendency to turn blue when 
bruised, like M. stellare. A single immature capsule was noticed. 
M. hymenophylloides, Hüben. Near the vein of copper below 
Maristuen and Blejà. When growing from the light the leaves 
have a marked tendency to appear distichous. M. cindidioides, 
Blytt. Maristuen, abundant, but sterile. M. subglohosiim, B. 
& S. Maristuen c. fr. 

Cinclidium suhrotundum, Ldb. Slutemyr, c. fr. 

Fontinalis dalecarlica, B. & S. Stones in a stream near 
Vinje c. fr. 

Dichelyma falcatum, Myrin. Rocks by the Laera, Maristuen ; 
fine and abundant with a few capsules mostly immature. 

Neckera oligocarpa, B. & S. Rocks by the Laera, c. fr, 
The capsule is rather more exserted than in the figure in the 
Bry. Eur. It may be remarked that N. oligocarpa is regarded 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES ON A TRIP IN NORWAY. 101 

by american bryologists as a var. of N. pennata. N. pumila, 
Hedw. Limestone rocks, Lærdalsøren; a rather robust form 
with numerous short deciduous branches with small acute leaves. 

Homalia trichomanoides, Brid. Rocks, Lærdalsøren; a 
robust form with rather strongly nerved leaves showing some 
approach to H. lusitanica, Schp. 

Leucodon sciuroides, Schvs^gr. var. morensis, B. & S. Rocks 
near Husum, Lærdal, c. fr. 

Myurella julacea, B. Sc S. Lærdalsøren, c, fr. M. apicu- 
lata, B. & S. Maristuen, mostly in tufts of Zygodon Mougeotii. 

Leskea nervosa, Myrin. Simodal, Maristuen &c. ; on rocks 
and walls often bearing gemmæ on the apices of the smaller 
branches. 

Anomodon attenuatus, Hüb. Rocks near the Buar Brae, 
poor and sterile. 

Heterocladium dimorphum, B. & S. Slutedal. 

Pseudoleskea patens, Limpr. Not infrequent near Odde c. 
fr. and more constant in its characters than P. atrovirens, B. 
& S. By the Old Road, Maristuen; Simodal. 

Ptychodium decipiens, Limp. Rocks in a wood near the 
Breifond Hotel, Horre, c. fr. This specimen was submitted to 
Herr Kaalaas who confirmed the identification. The capsules 
unfortunately were very old with only fragments of the peri- 
stome left. 

Thuidium Blandowii, B. & S. Damp wood by the Mari- 
stuenfos; fine but fruiting very sparingly. Th. delicatulum, 
Mitt. Birch wood, Blejà. 

Lescurœa striata var. saxicöla, B. & S. Rocks, Simodal, 
and several places near Maristuen. The Simodal plant and one 
gathering from Maristuen is more slender than usual with the 
branches less curved, approaching the type. Dr. Braithwaite 
indeed writes that he considers it to belong to the type. 

Camptothecium nitens, Schp. Maristuen; rather poor & 
often mixed with other mosses. 



102 H. N. DIXON AND W. E. NICHOLSON. 

Brachythecium Starkei, B, & S. Simodal. B. glaciale, B. 
& S. Blejà. c. fr. Rather variable. B. reflexum, B. & S. Rocks 
in woods, Odde and Maristuen c. fr. B. populeum, B. & S. 
var. amœnum. Rocks near Lærdalsøren. 

Plagiothecium silesiacum, B. & S. Rotten pine trunk 
Eide c, fr. P. striatellum, Ldb. Rotten birch stumps, Eide. 
P. denticulahim, var. ohtusifolium, H. & T., Blejà, c. fr. P. 
Müllerianum, Schp. Odde, Simodal Sec. A few capsules in 
the Simodal. The moss was growing at Odde on the rotten 
stump of an alder (Alnus incana) in company, with P. latebri- 
cola. P. laiebricola, B. & S. Odde, c. fr. P. piliferum, B. 
& S. ; Rocks below the Saddel, Maristuen. 

Amhlystegium Sprucei, B. & S. Cavern in the Simodal; 
a slender bright green form. 

Hypnum fluitans (exannulatum) var. hrachydidyon, Ren. 
A remakrable form of this plant occurred fruiting in the bog at 
Slutemyr. It was for the most part dioicous, but some fruiting 
stems bore c3^ flowers also. The leaves on the c/' stems and 
on the branches of all the plants were short, shortly pointed and 
subobtuse, erect or nearly so (as in f. orthophylla, Ren., var. 
orthophyllum, Milde), and with scarcely any differentiation of 
the leaves from H. pseudo-stramineum, Müll, The lower leaves 
of the fertile stems were however falcate, and of the normal 
form and structure in the exannulatum group. Mons. Renauld 
thinks it may probably deserve varietal rank, and in that case 
suggests for it the name var. Nicholsoni. 

H. incurvatum, Schrad. Near Husum, c. fr. H. Patientiœ, 
Ldb. Common in many places. H. pratense, Koch. Marshy 
ground, Blejà, rare. H.revolutum, Ldb. Blejà, rare; acumen of 
the leaves rather more serrate than in British specimens. H. 
hamulosum, B. & S. Not infrequent on rocks; also found on 
tree trunks in the Nærødal and at Maristuen. H. hadium, 
Hart. This pretty and distinct species occurred in several places 
above Maristuen at an altitude of 4 to 5000 feet. H. ardicum. 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES ON A TRIP IN NORWAY. 103 

Sommer. Stream near Maristuen c. fr. H. alpestre, Sw., steams 
near Maristuen. H. Goulardi, Schp. Blejà, c. fr. Very distinct 
in the platter-edged margin of the leaves. H. molle var.: Schim- 
perianum, Schp. Blejà, c. fr., a very slender form. H. dilata- 
tum, WiLs. Stones in streams near Odde and other places c. 
fr. H. ochraceum, Turn. Vinje, c. fr. var.: flaccidum, Milde. 
Stream in the Nærødal. H. polare, Ldb. Sandy detritus by 
the stream in the Nærødal; a form with short julaceous branches 
and the leaves not at all secund. H. Breidleri, Jur. Wet sandy 
ground by the Lower Smedalsvand, Maristuen; an unsatisfac- 
tory plant bet wen H. cordifolium and H. giganteum. These 
specimens are near to H. cordifolium in the areolation of the 
leaves. Specimens which I have examined from Carinthia show 
a closer approach to H. giganteum. 

The following species and varieties are additions to Møller 
and Bi nstead's „List of Mosses collected in the neighbourhood of 
Maristuen" (Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne XXXL II). 

Sphagnum^ teres Angstr. Suletind. 

Gatharinea undulata W. & M. Maristuen, cfr. 

Polytrichum commune var. perigoniale B. & S. Slute- 
myr, cfr. 

Ehabdoweisia fugax B. & S. Old Bridge, cfr., a robust form. 

Gynodontium fallax Limpr. Maristuen, cfr. 

Dicranella heteromalla Schpr. Old bridge, a tall form. 

Dicranum fulvellum Sm. Bleja. cfr. 

D. hyperboreum C. M. Maristuenfos, cfr. Saddel, cfr. 

D. molle WiLS. Suletind. 

D. elongatum var. Sphagni (Mühlenb.) Maristuen. 

Gampylopus flexuosus BRm. Maristuen. 

Bicranodontium longirostre B. & S. Maristuen. 

Grimmia elongata Kaulf. Maristuen. 

Gr. Doniana var. sudetica Wils. cfr. What appears to be 
a fairly well marked form of this var. was found near the „old 
bridge". 



104 H. N. DIXON AND W. E. NICHOLSON. 



Hedwigia ciliata var. leucophæa B. & S. Near 'old bridge' 
cfr. Fairly good var. 

Coscinodon cribrosus Spr. cfr. Old bridge. 

Barbula icmadophila Schpr, Maristuen. 

Zygodon Mougeotii B. & S. Maristuen. 

Ulota Drummondii Brid. Maristuen. A single tuft only^ 

Orthotrichum rupestre var. Sehlmeyeri B. & S. Mari- 
stuenfos. 

Tetraplodon paradoxus (B. Br.) Hagen. Bleja, cfr. 

Meesia trichoides var. alpina Boul. Bleja, cfr. 

Aulacomnium palustre var, imbricahim B. & S. Slutemyr. 

Timmia austriaca Hedw. Maristuen. A few^ capsules found, 
but mostly barren. 

Philonotis seriata Mitt. Old bridge. 

Wehera acuminata Schpr. Slutedal, cfr. 

Webera Ludwigii Schp. Suletind and Saddel. 

Webera Schimperi (C. M.) Schpr. Maristuenfos, cfr. 

Bryum viride Philib. Maristuenfos, cfr. 

[B. micans Kaur. Maristuenfos, cfr.]. 

B. purpurascens B. & S. Slutemyr, cfr. 

B. Jörgensenii Kaur. Slutedal, cfr. 

B. claviger Kaur. Old bridge. 

Mnium affine var. elatum B. & S. Maristuenfos. Meadow 
near 'old bridge'. 

M. lycopodioides Hook. Maristuen. 

M. punctatum var. elatum Schpr. Maristuenfos, cfr. 

Neckera oligocarpa B. & S. Maristuen, on rocks by the 
river, cfr. 

Leucodon sciuroides Schwgr. Maristuen. 

Heterocladium dimorphum B. & S. Slutedal. 

Pseudoleskea patens Limpr. Old road, Maristuen, cfr. 

P. radicosa Lesq. & James. Maristuen. 

P. rigescens Lindb. Bleja, cfr. 

Thuidium delicatulum Mitt. Bleja, in wood. 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES ON A TRIP IN NORWAY. 105 

Brachythecium glaciale ß. & S. Bleja, cfr. 

B. albicans B. & S. Maristuen. 

Eurhynchium prcelongum var. Stokesii (Turn.) Maristuen. 

Plagiothecium denticulatum var. oblusifolium H. & T. 
Bleja, cfr. 

P. piliferum B. & S. Saddel, cfr. 

Hypnwm revolutum Lindb. Bleja. 

H. ardicum Somm. Maristuen, cfr. 

H. Goulardi Schpr. Bleja, cfr. 

H. molle var. Schimperianum Schpr. Bleja, cfr. 

This list adds 41 species to the 240 recorded in the article 
above cited. Of the 26 Filefjeld species included in Hst, but not 
definitely recorded for the limited district around Maristuen 
worked by Miss Møller & the Rev. C. H. Binstead, two, viz. 
Cynodontium gracilescens and Andreœa nivalis were verified by 
us within that area, so that 257 species have now been definitely 
recorded from the 48 square kilometres lying within the limits 
defined by them. It may be added that in our case, as 'with 
them, the weather was unpropitious for any careful examination 
of the higher grounds. Dr. G. IN. Best who has published a 
Revision of the N. American species of Pseudolekea (Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club 27, May 1900) has paid much attention to the 
plants of the atrovirens group, and in the course of his investi- 
gation has studied the types of several of our European species. 
The result has been to elucidate several somewhat difficult points 
and to throw some welcome light on a very obscure group. 
What has come out most clearly is that under the term „Pseudo- 
leskea atrovirens B. & S." have been grouped, and confused, a 
number of forms, some at least of which are clearly specifically 
distinct from one another. The first to be separated was the 
plant described as Leskea? patens by Lindberg, (Soc. pro Fauna 
et Flora Fenn. 1880), subsequently defined and described by 
Limpricht as Pseudoleskea patens (Lindb.). This plant has 
proved to be widely distributed over the European and North 



106 H. N. DIXON AND W. E. NICHOLSON. 

American continents, and it transpires that it was the original of 
the H. atrovirens Dicks., and the plants usually passing as 
Ps. atrovirens among European Bryologists helong to a quite 
distinct species (or group of species). Dr. Best therefore follow- 
ing the law of 'specific' priority retains the name of P. atrovi- 
rens for the plant to which Lindberg gave the name patens; 
but the accuracy may be questioned of citing the figure in the 
Bry. Eur. as the authority for the name „Pseudoleskea atrovi- 
rens (Dicks) Bryol. Eur. 5: 2. pi. 477, 1852". It appears evident 
that some at least of the figures there given (e. g. 1,3) do not 
represent Dickson's type, i. e., Ps. patens Limpr,, and that the 
citation should at least be limited by „pro par te^^. However 
that may be, the limits of the original H. atrovirens Dickson 
(Ps. patens Limpr.) are clearly enough defined and easily under- 
stood. This species however represents but a small proportion 
of the European & American plants that have until recently 
passed under the name of P. atrovirens, and the more difficult 
task arises how to deal with the remainder. The most usual 
European form, such as that found on Ben Lawers and other 
Scotch mountains in company with Ps. patens Limpr. and more 
frequently in Scandinavia & other continental countries, has not 
been found (in its typical form at least) in North America, and 
it has not therefore, unfortunately for us, fallen to the lot of Dr. 
Best to investigate this plant fully, nor to point out the distinc- 
tions between it and others of the group with the same minu- 
teness that he has applied to the description of the North 
American forms. He suggests however that an examination of 
the type of Leskea incurvata Hedw. may probably show its 
identity with the above plant and settle the question of the 
earliest specific name. 

In addition to this typical or at any rate common plant 
there are certain forms differing in more or less important 
points, as to which opinions may vary whether they should hold 
specific rank, but at any rate forming groups separated off from 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES ON A TRIP IN NORWAY. 107 



one another and from the type by a fairly well marked tout 
ensemble of characters. Two of these at least, which find names 
in Dr. Best's Revision as P. radicosa (Mitt.) Lesq. & James, 
and P. rigescens(WiLS.) Lindb. {^Ps. stenophylla. Ren. & Card.), 
are European and Scandinavian plants, both of which we gathered 
during our visit, and it is principally in connection with these and 
to draw the attention of European bryologists to them, that these 
remarks have been made. 

P. radicosa Lesq. & James differs from the typical European 
plant in the paler, brighter green colour, often yellowish green, 
seldom blackish, the more robust habit, larger less falcate leaves 
and branches, and the larger, more pellucid cells, much less 
strongly papillose and frequently practically smooth. I have 
little doubt, from an examination of the leaves of the type spe- 
cimen 0Î Leskea hrachyclados Schwgr. from Herb Boissier, 
a slide of which was kindly lent me by Dr. Best, and from 
his description of the plant, that he is quite justified in conclu- 
ding that Schwaegrichen's plant and H. radicosum Mitt. [Ps. 
radicosa Lesq. & James) are practically identical. The plant 
which LiMPRicHT describes as P. atrovirens var. brachyclados 
Dr. Best considers to be a different plant from Schwaegrichen's. 

Ps. rigescensLmBB. is allied to and perhaps connected with 
P. radicosa, but is on an altogether smaller scale. The whole 
plant is more slender, and the leaves are not only smaller but 
distinctly narrower in outline with a longer acumen, the cell 
structure similar, the capsule smaller, suberect and almost straight, 
the segments of the inner peristome narrow linear instead of 
oblong-lanceolate as in Ps. radicosa. 

We gathered Ps. radicosa in three localities, viz. fruiting 
on a stone wall by the roadside at Seljestad, and also near the 
Maristuen Hotel; and sterile on boulders below the Buarbrae 
glacier, Jordal, near Odde. Specimens from the first named 
locahty have been submitted to Dr. Best, who while admitting 
our plant to be identical with the American P. radicosa, points 



108 H. N. DIXON AND W. E. NICHOLSON. 

out that it differs from the ordinary form of that species in 
being more rigid with straighter leaves more abruptly and more 
finely acuminate with shorter and usually somewhat wider cells, 
and comes close to his var, compacta of that species. Mons. 
Gardot writes that be possesses P. radicosa, identical with the 
American plant, from the Pyrenees. The recorded distribution 
of Leskea hr achy dados Schwgr. (as P. atrovirens var. hrachy- 
clados) must no doubt be accepted with some hesitation, as other 
forms of the group have no doubt passed under this name 

Ps. rigescens Lindb. or P. stenophylla Ren. & Card, was 
gathered twice on rocks on the side of Bleja, Maristuen, at 
4000—5000 ft., cfr. Dr. Best confirms the identification, remarking 
that it only differs from the type in its broader endostomial band 
and somewhat stouter leaves. 



Printed 24th February 1904. 



Beitrag zur Sohmetterlingsfauna Norwegens 

III. 

Von 
Embr. Strand. 



Xndem ich hiermit meinen lepidopterologischen Collegen 
den dritten Theil gegenwärtiger Arbeit übergebe, bemerke ich, 
dass derselbe, der das im Jahre 1902 gesammelte Material be- 
handelt, ein Beitrag zur Fauna des südlichen Norwegens ist, 
während die zwei ersten Theile sich hauptsächlich mit arktischen 
Arten beschäftigten. Es ist jedoch nicht meine ganze Ausbeute 
von 1902, die hier besprochen wird ; wegen Mangels an Zeit 
habe ich nämlich vorläufig einen grossen Theil der schwierigeren 
Gruppen unbearbeitet lassen müssen ; so ist meine Ausbeute an 
Coleophoren, Elachisten, Nepticulen u. m. a. ganz oder wenig- 
stens grösstentheils hier nicht mitgenommen worden. Darüber 
werde ich hoffentlich bei einer anderen Gelegenheit berichten 
können. Aus demselben Grunde, Zeitmangel, habe ich bei der 
Bearbeitung der „Macros" mich oft mit dem Bestimmen der 
Art begnügen müssen, ohne den eventuell vorliegenden Varie- 
täten und Aberrationen besondere Untersuchungen zu widmen. 
— Wie zuvor, erinnere ich noch daran, dass das lepidopterolo- 
gische Material nur einen Theil meiner Sammelausbeute bildet; 
wegen des Sammeins auch von anderen Arthropoden habe ich 
den Nachtfang so ziemlich ganz vernachlässigen rjiüssen, wess- 



110 EMBR. STRAND. 



halb besonders die Nachtfalter spärlich in meinem Verzeichniss 
vertreten sind. Besondere Aufmerksamkeit habe ich jetzt wie 
zuvor den „Microlepidopteren" gewidmet. 

Die Localitäten, wo gesammelt wurde, liegen wie gesagt 
alle im südlichen Norwegen und zwar ungefähr bei 59° n. B.; 
nur Norefjeld ist ein wenig nördlich vom 60sten Breitengrad 
gelegen. Es wurde gesammelt : 

In Smaalenenes Amt: Bei Fredrikstad 23.-27. April und 
15.-17. Mai. 

Auf Hvalöerne bei Bölingshavn (Kirkeöen) 17. —22. 
Mai, bei Skibstadsand (Asmal) 31. Mai — 7. Juni. 
In Lister und Mandals Amt: Bei Sireosen 26. Juni — 1. Juli 
und 12.-17. Juli. 

In Siredal 1.-12. Juh. 
In Stavanger Amt: Bei Tou 18. — 20. Juli. 
In Erfjord 20. Juli— 7. August. 
In Nedenœs Amt: Bei Ose (Austad in Sætersdalen) 10.— 18. 
August und 23.— -24. August. 

Bei Hœgstoil (eine ziemlich hoch im Gebirge gele- 
gene Sennhütte in Austad in Sætersdalen) 18. — 23. 
August. 
In Buskeruds Amt: Bei Norefjeld (I heils im Gebirge overhalb 
der Waldgrenze, theils bei Sandumsæter in der Nadelholz- 
region) 29. August— 6. September. 
Bei der Ausarbeitung vorliegender Abhandlung bin ich nach 
demselben Plane wie früher vorgegangen. Zuerst ein Verzeich- 
niss sämmtlicher gesammelten Arten (wo ich Arten, 'diej nur 
beobachtet, nicht gefangen, wurden, mitgenommen habe, ist darauf 
ausdrücklich aufmerksam gemacht worden), dann Bemerkungen 
über die interessanteren Arten und zuletzt eine Liste der ci tirt en 
Litteratur, worauf im Texte durch beigefügte Zahlen jedesmal 
hingewiesen wird. 



Kristiania, März 1903. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. Hl 



A. Verzeicliniss der beobachteten Arten. 



fc 



ffl 















n 






1 


• i-( 


0) 


11 








»3 

bX3 


o 




O 


O 


03 

aj 


C/J 


C/2 


H 


W 


O 


'X 



73 '^ 



1. P. 

2. P. 

3. A. 

4. C. 

5. G. 

6. P. 

7. V. 

8. V. 



Pieris Schrk. 
brassicae L. . . 
napi L. . . . . 

Aporia Hb. 



crataegi L. 



10. A. 

11. A. 

12. A. 

13. A. 

14. A. 

15. A. 

16. A. 

17. A, 



Colias F. 
palaeno L. . . , . . 
Gonepteryx Leach. 
rhamni L 

Parnassius Latr. 
apollo L. ..... 

Vanessa F. 

urticae L 

antiopa L 

Melitaea F. 

athalia Rott 

Argynnis F. 

selene Schiff. . . . 
euphrosyne L. . . . 
pales Schiff. . . . . 
arsilache Esp. ... 
ino Rott.^ ... . . 
adippe L.^ .... 
niobe L. c. v. eris Meig. 
aglaja L. . . . . . 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



Nur gesehen, nicht gefangen. 

Selten, indem nur je 2 Stück gefangen 

Ose sehr häufig war. 

Sehr häufig bei Hægstoil, bei Sireosen nur 



+ 



+ 



+ 



.4- 



wurden, während niohe bei 
ein Stück. 



112 



EMBR. STRAND. 



cS 03 



fc 



C/D 



m 



w 



18. 
19. 



21. 



24. 



26. 

27. 



30 

31 



A. lathonia L. . . . 
A. paphia L 

Erebia Dalm. 
E. lappona Esp.^ . . 
E. ligea L 

Pararge Hb. 

P. hiera F 

P. maera L 



Epinephele Hb. 

E. jurtina L 

Coenonympha Hb. 

G. pamphilus L 

ab. biocellata Strand n.ab. 
ab. caeca Strand n.ab. . 

Gallophrys Billb. 

C. rubi L 

Ghrysophanus Hb. 

Ch. phlaeas L 

f. coeruleopuncta Strand 
Ch. virgaureae L 

Lycaena F. 

L. argus L 

L. argyrognoroon Bergstr. . 

L. optilete Kn 

L. semiargus Rott 

L. icarus Rott 



Cyaniris Dalm. 



34. C. 



argiolus L. 



+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 



+ + 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ + + 



+! 



+ 

+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 
+ 

+ 



Nur gesehen, nicht gefangen. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. US 





m 


Qi 

a 

u 

■o 

"3 
> 


Ö 
0) 

m 

O 

p 


03 

-a 
CO 


o 


o 


to 

o 




2 
1 




Äugiades Hb. 




















35. 


A. comma L. . 


, 


. 




, 


. 




+ 


+ 




8ß 


A. sylvanus Esp 






+ 








+ 








Hesperia F. 
















37. 


H. malvae L 

Thanaos B. 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




• 


+ 






88 


Th. tages L 




+ 


+ 
















Mimas Hb. (Dilina Dalm.) 
















39. 


M. tiliae L. ab. maculata Mutz. 
rWllffr.l 






+ 














Choerocampa Df. (Ghaerocampa aut.) 


















40. 


Gh. elpenor L 

Hemaris Dalm. 


1 
+ 


















41. 


H. fuciformis L 




+ 


















Lophopteryx Stph. 






42. 


L. camelina L 








+ 














Pygaera 0. 










48. 


P. pigra Hfn , 






+ 
















Eriogaster Germ. 


















44. 


E. lanestris L 








1 

+ 














Lasiocampa Schrk. 










45. 


L. quercus L 






+ 
















Macrothylacia Rbr. 








46. 


M. mbi L 






+ 
















JDrepana Schrk. 








47. 


D. falcataria L 


. 


, 




+ 













Nur eine Puppe gefunden. 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXX, II. 



114 



EMBR. STRAND. 



m 



m 



o 



W o 



48. 
49. 

50. 
51. 

52. 
53. 
54. 



55. 

56. 

57. 

58. 
59. 
60. 
61. 



ÄGTonyda O. 
A. euphorbiae F. v. obscura Strøm 
A. auricoma F 



Ägrotis O. 



strigula Thbg. 



A 

A. augur F 

A. nigricans L 

A. primulae Esp. v. conflua Tr. . 
A. hyperborea Zett. v. norvegica 
Strand n. v 

Gharaeas Stph. 
Ch. graminis L 

Hadena Schrk. 
H. genimea Tr. ... Eidskogen 
H. lateritia Hfn. ^ 



Eidskogen 



Dasypolia Gn. 
D. templi Thbg. . . 

Garadrina Hb. 
G. quadripunctata L. , 

Xanthia 0. 
X. lutea Strøm .... 

Anarta Hb. 

A. myrtilli L 

Plusia 0. 

P. interrogationis L 

Prothymnia Hb. 
P. viridaria CI. ab. modesta Gar. 

Bomolocha Hb. 

B. fontis Thbg. 



+ 



+1 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



Bei Ose wurde nur ein todtes Stück gefunden. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 115 







cd 
tn 


0) 

s 

"cö 
> 


ö 

03 

o 

in 


"cö 

in 


o 


TS 
O 

y? 


O 




2 

'a) 

O 




Hypena Schrk. 




















65. 


H. proboscidalis L 

Gymatophora Tr. 


• 


• 






• 


• 


+ 






66. 


C. duplaris L 

Nemoria Hb. 


• 




• 


• 


+ 


• 


• 


• 


+ 


67 


N. viridata L 




+ 
















» 


Thalera Hb. 






6S 


Th putata L 




4- 


+ 


+ 














Äcidalia Tr. 




















69 


A incanata L . ... 










-L 


+ 


4- 






60. 


A. fumata Stph 






+ 


+ 












71 


A. bisetata Hfn 










+ 










72 


A inornata Hw 










+ 




+ 






73. 


A. remutaria Hb. . . - 






+ 


+ 










Ortholitha Hb. 




















74. 


0. limitata Sc 






+ 


. 




. 


+ 








Änaitis Dp. 




















75. 


A. paludata Thbg 


. 






• 






. 


4- 


+ 


76, 


A. plagiata L 








+ 






+ 








Lobophora Curt, 




















77. 


L. caipinata Bkh 

Lygris Hb. 


+ 


















78. 


L. populata L 

ab. musauaria Frr 

Larentia Tr. 




• 


• 


• 






+ 


+ 


+ 
+ 


79. 


L. juniperata L ^ 




















80. 


L. taeniata Stph 








. 


. 


+ 


+ 






81. 


L. truncata Hfn. . - 


• 


• 








+ 


+ 







^ Todte Exemplare Ende Decbr. in Aal gefunden. 



116 



EMBR. STRAND. 



fø 



c/) 



m 



wo 



84. 
85. 
86. 

87. 



90. 
91. 
92. 
93. 
94. 
95. 
96. 
97. 



107. 



L. munitata Hb 

L. olivata Schiff 

L. viridaria F. 

L. didymata L 

L. cambrica Gurt 

L. montanata Schiff 

L. quadrifasciaria Cl 

L.ferrugataCl. ab. spadicearia Bkh. 

L. unidentaria Hw 

L, caesiataLang v. norvegica Strand 

L. sociata Bkh 

L. hastata L 

L. minorata Tr 

L.albulata Schiff, v.dissoluta Strand 

L. bilineata L 

L. sordidata F. c. ab. infuscata 
Stgr., ab. fuscoundata Don. et ab. 
constricta Strand n. ab 



+ 

+ 

+ 



98. T. 

99. T. 

100. T. 

101. T. 

102. T. 

103. T. 

104. T. 

105. T. 

106. T. 



Tephroclystia Hb. 

venosata F. . . , 

pusillata F. . . . 

subfulvata Hw. . . 

nanata Hb. . . . 

plumbeolata Hw. . 

satyrata Hb. . . . 

helveticaria B. . . 

vulgata Hw. . . . 
conterminata Z. 



Chloroclystis Hb. 

Gh. rectangulata L. ab. nigroseri- 
ceata Hw 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 

+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 

+ 



I 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 



+ 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 117 



<Ji 



W 



OK 



108. 



Abraxas Leach. 



A. marginata L. 



f. naevaria Hb., ab. poUutaria 
Hb., ab. conflua Strand . . . 

Beüinia Hb. 

109. D. pusaria L. . . 

110. D. exanthemata Sc 

Numeria Dup. 

111. N. pulveraria L 

Metrocampa Latr. 

112. M. margaritata L. 

Gonodontis Hb. 

113. G. bidentata Gl 

Opisthograptis Hb. 

114. 0. luteolata L 

Semiothisa Hb. 

115. S. liturata Gl 

Boar mia Tr. 

116. B. punctularia Hb 

117. ß. repandata L 

Gnophos Tr. 

118. G. obscuraria Hb. ab. bivinctata 
Fuchs 

119. G. myrtillata Thbg. 

ab. anastomosis Strand n. ab. 

Pygmaena B. 

120. P. fusca Thbg 

ab. destrigata Strand n. ab. . 



ab. unistrigata Strand n. ab 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



118 



EMBR. STRAND. 





n3 
cd 
en 

ri 
'u 

V 

u 

fa 


p 

s 

:0 
> 


s 

tn 

O 

OJ 

ln 


-3 

-.H 
. .H 


o 


'H 

o 
UT- 


Ol 
B3 

O 


'o 

03 

SB 


2 

O 




Ematurga Ld. 




















121. 


E. atomaria L 

Bupalus Leach. 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 












n9, 


B. piniarius L 




-l- 


^. 


4- 














Thamnonoma Ld. 




















123. 


Th. brunneata Thbg 

Phasiane Dp. 


• 


• 


■+ 


• 


• 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


124. 


Ph. petraria Hb 




+ 


















Scodiona B. 






125 


S. fagaria Thbg 




4- 


















Sarrothripus Curt. 




















126. 


S. revayana Sc. v. degenerana Hb. 
PJiragmatohia Stph. 


• 


+ 
















127. 


Ph. fuliginosa L. v. borealis Stgr. 
Parasemia Hb. 


• 


+ 
















128. 


P. plantaginis L 








-|- 














Diacrisia Hb. 




















129. 


D. sanio L 






+ 


+ 














Ardia Schrk. 








180. 


A. caia L. ^ . . . 










4- 












Endr osa Hb. 




















131. 


E. irrorella Cl 






+ 


+ 




• 




2 

+ 






Lithosia F. 








132. 


L. lurideola Zinck 

Zygaena F. 






' 


• 


• 


+ 


+ 






188. 


Z. exulans Hochw. & Reiner . . 
V. vanadis Daîm 




• 


• 


• 


• 


• 




• 


+ 

4- 



Nur gesehen, nicht gefangen. 

Nur ein todtes Exemplar gefunden, 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 119 



I '73 



Ol 



m 



13 




u 




O 






0) 


u 


CO 


w 


O] 



K 



^ 



/wo Leagh. 
134. I. statices L. . . 



140. 
141. 
142. 
143. 
144. 
145. 

146. 
147. 
148. 
149. 
150. 
151. 



Äcanthopsyche Heyl. 

135. A. opacella H. S.i 

Pachytelia Westw. 

136. P. unicolor Hfn. s. villosella 0.^ 

Sterrhopteryx Hb. 

137. S. hirsutella Hb.i 



Phalacropteryx Hb. 
138. Ph. Graslinella B.i . , 



Hepialus F. 
139. H. hecta L. . . . 



Cr ambus F. 



ab. 



cespi- 



C. pascuellus L. 
C. ericellus Hb. 
G. alienellus Zk. 
C. pratellus F. . 
C. dumetellus Hb. 
C. hortuellus Hb. 

tellus Hb 

C. falsellus Schiff. . . . . . 

pinellus L 

myellus Hb 

margariteilus Hb 

culmellus L 

C, inquinatellus Schiff 

ab. ambiguellus Strand n. ab. 



+ 



4- 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



4- 



4- 



Nur Säcke gefunden. 



120 



EMBR. STRAND. 



> ii 
ffi co 



c« 



b' "t; 



& 



157. 
158. 
159. 
160. 

161. 

162. 
163. 

164. 
165. 

166. 

167. 



152. C. tristellus Schiff, ab. fusceli- 
nellus Stph 

ab. culmella Hb 

153. C. perlellus Se 

ab. warringtonellus Stt. . . . 



Platytes Gn. 

154. P. cerusellus Schiff. 

Ephestia Gn. 

155. E. elutella Hb. . . 

Salehria Z. 

156. S. fusca Hw. . . 



Scoparia Hw. 



S. 
S. 
S. 

s. 



ambigualis Tr. 



murana Curt. 
crataegella Hb. 
sudetica Z. . 



Diasemia Gn. 
D. litterata Se. . . . 

Pionea Gn. 
P. pandalis Hb. . . 
P. decrepitalis H. S. . 

Pyrausta Schrk. 
P. fuscalis Schiff. . . 
P. cespitalis Schiff. 

f. sordidalis Hb. . 
P. purpurahs L. . . 

f. ostrinahs Hb. 
P. porphyralis Schiff. 



Geflogenes, zweifelhaftes Stück. 
Siehe unten, 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



4- 



+ 



+ 



+ 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 121 





TS 

m 

M 
"C 

Et, 


C 
:0 


tn 
o 

01 

u 

''in 


u 


o 


u 
O 

u 
W 


co 

o 


':0 


3 

<p 
O 
fe 


Oxyptilus Z, 

168. 0. hiemcii Z. (?) 

Platyptüia Hb. 

169. P. tesseradactyla L. . . . . . 

170. P. acanthodactyla Hb 


• 


4- 

+ 

-+- 

+ 


-f 
+ 


+ 
-*- 

+ 


4- 


4- 
+ 

• 

+ 


+ 
+ 

4- 

4- 

• 


+ 




j 

Pterophorus Geoffr. 

171. P. tephradactylus Hb 

172. P. osteodactylus Z 

Stenoptilia Hb. 

173. S. bipunctidactyla Hw 

Äcalla Hb. 

174. A. Schalleriana F 


• 




175. A. mixtana Hb 






176. A. hastiana L. c. ab. psorana 
Froel. . 






Amphisa Gurt. 

177. A. prodromana Hb 

Dichelia Gn. 

178. D. gnomana Gl 

179. D. rubicundana H. S 

Cacoecia Hb. 

180. G. musculana Hb 


+ 


4- 


181. G. piceana L 

Eulia Hb. 

182. E. ministrana L 






183. E. politana Hw 




+ 
+ 




Tortrix L. 
184. T. rusticana Tr 






185. F. Forsterana F 

186. T. viburniana F 


. 


4- 



122 



EMBR. STRAND. 





'O 
cd 
In 

J4 
'C 

'O 

v 

u 


S 

> 


s 

in 
o 

CO 


'a 

T3 
Cß 


o 
o 


'S 
o 

SC 


to 

o 


to 
bo 


2 

kl 
o 


Cnephasia Curt. 

187. C. osseana Sc 

188. G. Penziana Thbg 

189. C. Wahlbomiana L. v. alticolana 
H. S 

Conchylis Tr. 

190. C. nana Hw 


• 


• 


-f 


4- 

+ 
+ 

+ 

4- 
+ 

+ 
+ 

4- 

4- 

+ 

+ 


4- 
+ 


4- 
4- 

4- 

+ 

4- 
4- 

+ 

4- 
+ 
4- 

+ 

+ 


+ 

+ 

4 
+ 


4- 

4- 

4 

-1- 

4- 
+ 


4- 

4 


191. C. ciliella Hb 








192. C. Harlmanniana Cl. .... 

193. C. dubitana Hb. v. discordana 
Strand n. v 


• 


• 


+ 
+ 

+ 

4- 

+ 
+ 

4 

+ 




Euxanthis Hb. 

194. E. angustanaHb. (cruentana aut.) 

Evetria Hb. 

195. E. duplana Hb 

Olethreutes Hb. 

196. 0. sororculana Zett 


4- 


• 




198. 0. variegana Hb. ...... 

199. 0. arbutella L 




-1- 




200. 0. mygindana Schiff 






201. 0. metallicana Hb 








202. 0. palustrana Z 

203. 0. Schulziana F 








204. 0. micana Hb. (olivana Tr.) . . 

205. 0. rivulana Sc 

ab. Stangeana Teich .... 

206. Ü. urticana Hb 








207. 0. laciinana Dp 

208. 0. lucivagana Z 

209. 0, cespitana Hb 






4- 


210. 0. bipunctana F 









BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 123 





T3 

et 

X 

-3 


Hvalöerne 
Sireosen 
Siredal 
Tou 


Erfjord 
Ose 

Hægstoil 
Norefjeld 


Steganoptycha Stph. 
211. S. cruciana L 




+ . 


• 4- 4- 


212. S. quadrana Hb. 




+ 

• + + 




213. S. vacciniana Z 






214. S. ustomaculana Curt 




... 4- 




Bactra Stph. 

215. B. lanceolana Hb 

Semasia Stph. 

216. S. hypericana Hb 


• 


. . + . 


. 4- 


EpiUema Hb. 

217. E. cana Hw Odnes 

218. E. nemorivaga Tgstr 

219. E. subocellana Don 


. 


+ + 




220. E. Penkleriana F. R 




4- 


4- 


221. E. ophthalmicana Hb. . . . 






222. E. Solandriana L. ab. sinuana Hb. 

223. E. bilunana Hw 




-j- 


. . . 4- 


224. E. tetraquetrana Hw 




+ . + 

+ 
+ 




225. E. immundana F. R 

226. E. crenana Hb 


• 




Grapholitha Tr. 
277. G. duplicana Zett 






Äncylis Hb. 
228. A. uncana Hb 




+ 
+ + 

4- -4- 




229. A. unguicella L 






230. A. myrtillana Tr 






231. A. lundana F 




J- 




232. A. siculana Hb 




+ 

. . . + 




Ehopohota Ld. 
233. Rh. naevana Hb 







124 



EMBR. STRAND. 



fa 



C/3 



Co 1 
'O j 

.a I o 

!/3 H 



HO 



öl o 



234. 
235. 



237. 



249. 

150. 
251. 



Lipoptycha Ld. 
L. plumbana Sc. . . 
Simaethis Leach. 
S. diana Hb. . . . 



239. 


A 


240. 


A 


241. 


A 


242, 


A 


243. 


A 


244. 


A 


245. 


A 


246. 


A 


247. 


A 



QlypMpteryx Hb. 
G. Haworthana Stph. . . 

Yponomeuta Latr. 
Y, Stannellus Thbg. . . . 

Swammerdamia Hb. 
S. griseocapitella Stt. . . . 

Ärgyresthia Hb. 

sorbiella Tr 

conjugella Z 

Cornelia F 

retinella Z 

pygmaeella Hb. . . . 

Goedartella L 

ab. iitterella Hw. . . . 

ab. oppositella Strand n, 

Brockeella Hb 

arceuthina Z. ..... . 

praecocella Z 

Cedestis Z. 

Gysseleniella Dp. c. ab. lativit- 

tella Strand n. ab 

C. farinatella Dp 

Plutella ScHRK. 
P. annulatella Curt. ^ . . . Aal 
P. maculipennis Curt 

f. major Strand n. f 



ab. 



C 



+ 



4- 



+ 



-I- 



+ 



+ 



+ j . 
+. + 



+ + 



+ 



+ 



+ ! 



+ 



4- 



Ein überwinterndes Exemplar wurde am 26. Decbr. 1902 inMoos an einer 
Felsenwand gefunden. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 125 



nS 














CB 
















(D 


G 


ri 










.-TJ 


7^ 

'u 

to 


4) 

> 


CO 

O 
OJ 


CS 


3" 








:0 


te 


ffi 


TD 


CO 


H 


w 





m 



ra "^ 



253. 

254. 

255. 

256. 

257. 
258. 
259. 
260. 
261. 



264. 



267. 

268. 



270. 

271. 

272. 
273. 



Gerostoma Late. 
C. vittella L. . . . 
G. radiatella Don. . . 
C. parenthesella L. 

Bryotropha Hein. 
B. terrella Schiff. . . 
B. umbrosella Z. . . 



Gelechia Hb. 
G. distinctella Z. . 
G. velocella Dp. 
G. ericetella Hb. . 
G. infernalis H. S. 



+ 



G. galbanella Z. 



G. continuella Z 

G. virgella Thbg 

G. diffinis Hw 

G. (Lita) leucomelanella Z. . . . 

G. (Lita) atriplicella F. R. v. in- 

fumatella Fs 

G. (Teleia) notatella Hb. . . . 

G. (Teleia) proximella Hb. . . . 

Äcompsia Hb. 
A. cinerella Gl 



X 



Xystophora Hein, 
tenebrella Hb. . . 

Endrosis Hb. 
E. lacteella Schiff. 

Plevrota Hb. 
P. bicostella Gl. . . 



Semioscopis Hb. 
S. strigulana Schiff. . 



4- 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



4- 



+ 



126 



EMBE. STRAND. 



ns 
















ai 


45 






























«3 




fi 










:0 


-M 


O^ 


4) 


MM 




T) 




T3 
OJ 


•.O 


03 


tö 




(-< 






03 
> 


O 


13 

a; 


n 


O 




60 


Ci- 


ffi 


c/: 


CO 


H 


w 


O 


K 






274. 



287. 



290. 
291. 



294. 

295. 



Epigraphia Stph. 
E. Steinkellneriana Schiff. 



Depressaria Hw. 

. arctica Strand 

. heracliana D, G 

. applana F Aal 

, ciniflonella Z Aal 

Borkhausenia Hb, 

. flavifrontella Hb 

, pseudospretella Stt 

tuscescens Hw. 

282. B. similella Hb 



275. 


D 


276. 


D 


277. 


D 


278. 


D 


279. 


B 


280. 


B 


281. 


B. 



283. E 



Epermenia Hb. 
chaerophyllella Goeze 
Scythris Hb. 
S. disparella Tngstr. . . 
S. variella Stph. . . . 

Pancalia Stph. 
P. Leuwenhoekella L. . 

Coleophora Hb. 
C. anatipennella Hb. . . 
C. gryphipennella Bché. . 

Elachista Tr. 
E. Gleichenella F. . . . 
E. albidella Tgstr. . . 

Gracilaria Hw. 
G. auroguttella Stph. . . 

G. elongella L 

G. syringella F. . . . 
G. alchimiella Se. . . . 
G. phasianipennella Hb. 



+ 



+ 



4- 



+ ! 



+ 



+ 



4- 



+ 



+ 



+ 



1 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 127 



m 



w 



296. 

297. 



300 
301 
302 
303 
304 

305 
306 
307 
308 
309 



Ornix Tr. 

0. avellanella Stt. . 
0. torquilella Z, 



Lithocolletis Hb. 
L. Cramerella F. . . 



alniella Z. 
alpina Fr. 
strigulatella Z. 



L. ulmifoliella Hb. 



L. spinolella Dp 

L. Blancardella F. c. ab. conjunc- 
tella Sorh. (confluella Strand) . . 

L. junoniella Z 

L. quinqueguttella Stt 

L. quercifoliella Z 

L. betulae Z 

L. stettinensis Nie. c. ab. bistri- 
gella Strand n. ab 



Lyonetia Hb. 

310. L. Glerckella L. c. ab. aereella Tr. 

Opostega Hb. 

311. 0. salaciella Tr 

Talaeporia Hb. 

312. T. tubulosa Retz 

Solenohia Dp. 

313. S. pineti Z 

Äcrolepia Gurt. 

314. A. cariosella Tr 



Boesslerstammia Z. 
315. R. Erxlebella F. . . 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



-f 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



+ 



128 



EMBR. STRAND. 



'B. 



X 



(/} 



(/2 



W 



Œ^ 



316. 

317. 

318. 

319. 
320. 
321. 

322. 



324. 



M. 



Scardia Tr. 

boleti F 

Monopis Hb. 
rusticella Hb. . . 
Trichophaga Rag. 
T. tapetzella L. . . . 

Tinea L. 
T. fuscipunctella Hw. 
T. granella L. . . . 



T. cloacella Hw. . . 
T. pellionella L. . . 

Phylloporia Hein. 
Ph. bistrigella Hw. 

Inciirvaria Hw. 
I. pectinea Hw. . . 
I. muscalella F. . . 

Nemophora Hb. 
N. Swammerdamella L. 

327. N. Schwarziella Z. . 

Adela Latr. 

328. A. cuprella Schiff. . . 

Eriocrania Z. 

329. E. Sparmannella ßosc 

330. E. fastuosella Z. . . 

Micr opter yx Hb. 

331. M. aureatella Sc. . . 



+ 



+ 



+ 



4- 



+ 



+ 



+ 



4- 



+ 



Nur ein todtes Exemplar gefunden. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 129 

B. Bemerkungen über schon bekannte und Beschreib- 
ungen neuer Formen. 

1. Ärgynnis euphrosyne L. 

Diese Art ist mir sehr spärlich vorgekommen, indem nur 
2 Stück erbeutet wurden; das eine in Siredal, das andere bei 
Hægstøil. Das letzterwähnte Stück, das also nach Mitte August 
gefunden wurde, war dennoch ziemlich frisch und dürfte dess- 
halb entweder einer zweiten Generation angehören oder auch 
sehr verspätet worden sein. 

2. Ärgynnis pales Schiff. 

Auf Norefjeld wurde ein einziges Stück erbeutet. Dies 
Stück ist insofern erwähnenswerth, als die Oberseite desselben 
mit Hübners Fig. von napaea, die Unterseite mit derjenigen 
von isis stimmt; die Flügelspannung ist 37 mm. 

3. Ärgynnis arsilache Esp. 

Auch von dieser Art wurde auf Norefjeld nur ein Unicum 
erbeutet ; die Flugzeit war ja schon weit vorgerückt, und ausser- 
dem war die Witterung für die heliophilen Arten keine günstige. 
— Bei Hægstøil flog arsilache zahlreich; keines der davon mit- 
gebrachten Exemplare misst mehr als 35 mm., die durchschnitt- 
liche Grösse ist 33 — 34 mm. Arsilache ist durchgehends kleiner 
als pales, wenigstens ist dies bei norwegischen Exemplaren der 
Fall; Wallengren (1), wohl nur älteren Verfassern (Treitschke 
(2), Herrich-Schäffer (3) u. m.) nachschreibend, giebt dagegen 
an, dass sie grösser sei. Uebrigens kann arsilache in Betreff 
der Grösse ziemhch variirend sein; die diesbezüglichen Angaben 
ausländischer Verfasser lauten etwas verschieden. Während 
Frey (4) schweizerische arsilache als „klein .... norwegischen 
Stücken sehr nahe kommend", beschreibt, erwähnt er gleich- 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXIl. II. 9 



r 



130 EMBR. STRAND. 



zeitig, dass norddeutsche Exemplare bedeutend grösser sind; die 
arsilache-Exemplave Nolckens (5) übertrafen alle pales in der 
Grösse; Hensel (6) hat dieselbe Erfahrung wie Nolcken gemacht 
und ebenso die meisten anderen mitteleuropäischen Verfasser; 
schon der alte Engramelle (7) bezeichnet arsilache als „la pales 
grande espèce", pales dagegen als „la pales petite espèce". Bei 
norwegischen Exemplaren ist dagegen wie gesagt arsilache 
kleiner ah pales; das ist die Regel, die ich sowohl durch meine 
eigene Sammlung als diejenige des Kristiania Museums bestätigt 
finde, und die auch mit den Angaben in der norwegischen Lit- 
teratur stimmt. (Cfr. Sparre Schneider (8, 9)). 

4. Argynnis niohe L. v. eris Meig. 

Flog zahlreich auf den Wiesen bei Ose, wo sie bei weitem 
die häufigste Ärgynnis-Avt war. Die Hauptform war selten ; 
unter den mitgenommenen Exemplaren gehört nur ein Zehntel 
der Hauptform an, die übrigen sind unzweifelhafte v. eris. 

5. Argynnis lathonia L. cum ah. ohscurascens Strand n. ah. 

Ist nur in zwei Stücken gesammelt worden und zwar auf 
Kirkeöen und in Erfjord. 

In der Lepidopteren-Sammlung des verstorbenen Hauptmann 
Grüner, welche Sammlung mir vor Kurzem zur Determination, 
bezw. Revision anvertraut wurde, fand sich eine eigenthümliche, 
erwähnenswerthe Aberration dieser Art. 

Dieselbe fällt mit keiner der in Staudinger-Rebels Cataloge 
aufgeführten Abänderungen zusammen, ebenso wenig mit ah. 
paradoxa Fuchs, die im Cataloge fehlt. Was die Oberseite 
betrifft, könnte sie mit ah. valdensis Esp. zusammenfallen, aber 
die Silberflecke der Unterseite sind anders. Ich werde sie dess- 
halb beschreiben, indem ich sie mit dem Namen ah. ohscura- 
scens Strand bezeichne. 

Auf der Unterseite der Hinterflügel sind keine anderen 
Abweichungen bemerkbar, als dass die zwei grossen Silberflecken 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 131 

in Zelle 8 zusammengeflossen sind, und dass die Silberflecken 
in Zelle 1 c aussen und innen deutlicher schwarz begrenzt sind. 
Die schwarzen Flecken der Unterseite der Vorderflügel sind viel 
grösser als gewöhnlich. Die Oberseite beider Flügelpaare schwarz ; 
die Vorderflügel mit der ßasalhälfte des Vorderrandes, einem 
schmalen, mondförmigen, quergestellten Flecken innerhalb der 
Mitte der Mittelzelle und einer schmalen Einfassung der Flecken 
der äusseren Reihe (der Bogenreihe) und der zwei Mittelflecken 
der nächst äusseren Fleckenreihe mehr oder weniger deutlich 
röthhch; ausserdem die Rippen z, Th. gelblich bestäubt. Mit 
Ausnahme der genannten sind alle Flecken zusammengeflossen 
und desshalb nicht zu unterscheiden. Auf den Hinterflügeln 
sind die vier Mittelflecken der äusseren Querreihe durch eine 
gelbe einfassende Linie deutlich, ebenso sind die Flecken der 
Bogenreihe durch gelbliche Aufblickung angedeutet. Sonst 
schwarz gefärbt. 

Gelegentlich der Beschreibung seiner ah. paradoxa weist 
Fuchs (10) nach, dass Arg. lathonia bisweilen als Imago über- 
wintert. Dies v^urde jedoch auch schon von älteren V'^erfassern 
angegeben; so von Meigen (11), der mit dürren Worten sagt, 
dass „Spätlinge überwintern", während von Prittwitz (12) 
glaubt, dass dies der Fall sei, es jedoch nicht mit Bestimmtheit 
behaupten darf. 

6. Erebia lappona Esp. 

Diese Art wurde auf Natlandsnuten in Erfjord, weit ober- 
halb der Waldgrenze, am 27sten Juli beobachtet, aber nicht 
gefangen. In Stavanger Amt nicht zuvor gefunden. 

7. Goenonympha pamphilus L. ahb. biocellata, albula et 
caeca Strand nn. abb. 

In Erfjord wurde eine eigenthümliche Form gefunden, welche 
sich dadurch auszeichnet, dass die Vorderflügel auf der Unter- 



iâ2 EMBR. STRAND. 



Seite mit zwei Augen versehen sind. Neben und hinter dem 
gewöhnlichen Auge findet sich nämlich ein zweites, kleineres 
Auge, welches jedoch keine weisse Pupille hat. Der Zwischen- 
raum der zwei Augen ist ein wenig kleiner, als der Durchmesser 
des kleineren Auges. Beide werden von demselben gelben Ring 
eingeschlossen. Innerhalb des kleineren Auges, zwischen dem- 
selben und dem gelben Ring, finden sich eine oder zwei schwarze 
Schuppen. Ich schlage für diese Form den Namen ah. biocellata 
Strand vor. — Das Vorhandensein eines solchen zweiten Auges 
wird übrigens auch von älteren Verfassern z. B. Herbst (VIII, 
P. 41) (13) erwähnt. 

Eine andere Form, wovon ich ein Stück aus Sireosen besitze, 
und welche im Kristiania Museum u. a. durch Exemplare von 
Ogne vertreten ist, zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass die Augen 
der Oberseite der Vorderflügel völlig fehlen. Dieselbe möge als 
ah. caeca Strand bezeichnet werden. Auch diese Form findet 
bei Herbst Erwähnung. 

Noch eine bemerkenswerthe Aberration dieser Art, bei der 
die Grundfarbe gelblich weiss statt ockergelb ist, wird erwähnt 
und beschrieben von Esper Tab. 78, 4, Herbst Tab. 187, 3 u. 4, 
und Meigen Pag. 153. Dieselbe möge den Namen ah. albula 
m. führen. 



8. Gällophrys rubi L. 

Nur ein einziges der gesammelten Exemplare hat 6 deutliche 
Augenpunkte auf der Unterseite; bei den übrigen Exemplaren 
findet sich nur einer oder zwei, indem derjenige am Vorderrande 
immer, einer bei der Mitte bisweilen, vorhanden ist. 



9. Hesperia malvae L. 

Diese gemeine Art wurde, wie oben angegeben, an vielen 
Orten gesammelt. Alle Exemplare sind ganz wie gewöhnlich 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 133 

gefärbt und gezeichnet; weder ah. Moryi Strand, noch andere 
nennenswerthe Abänderungen finden sich darunter. 

Bemerkenswerth ist, dass die Art so spät als im Juli 
(Siredalen), ja sogar im August (Ose), angetroffen wurde. Man 
möchte hier eine zweite Generation vermuthen. Zwar ist das 
einzige Exemplar, das ich von Ose besitze, stark geflogen (jedoch 
sicher bestimmbar), dass es aber der Frühlingsgeneration hätte 
angehören sollen, ist wenigstens zweifelhaft. Auch die im JuH 
gefundenen Exemplare, die obendrein ziemlich schön waren, 
können kaum im Frühjahre entschlüpft sein. Aber als sichere 
Beweise einer zweiten Generation können diese Funde nicht 
anzusehen sein; wissen wir ja, wie oft die Entwicklung der 
Schmetterlinge verspätet wird, so dass die Imagines nach den 
gewöhnlichen Zeiten erscheinen. 

Die Ansichten der Verfasser über die Flugzeit dieser Art 
sind sehr verschieden. Von nordischen Autoren geben Auri- 
viLLius (14) und Bang-Haas (15) bestimmt eine Generation an 
(Mai — Anfang Juni). — Wallengren (1. c.) giebt den Mai als 
Flugzeit an, fügt aber hinzu, dass der Falter bisweilen auch im 
Juni angetroffen wird, nur bei Siebke (16) wird eine zweite 
Generation vermuthet, indem er einmal den Falter in August 
erbeutet hat. Von mitteleuropäischen Autoren werden 2 Genera- 
tionen behauptet von u. a. Bramson (17) („Mai, August"), 
Meigen (1. c.) („fliegt im Mai und im Sommer"), Berge (18) 
(„im April und Mai und wieder vom Juli' an"), Schmid (19) („im 
Mai, hin und wieder auch im August"), Hofmann u. Herrich- 
ScHÄFFER (20) („Mai; Anfang Juni bis August"); Hauder (21) 
hat in Oberösterreich nur eine Generation (April, Mai) beo- 
bachtel, aber er fügt hinzu: „eine II Generation soll vom JuH 
bis September fliegen". Dagegen wird nur eine Generation 
erwähnt von Meyrick (22) (Mai, Juni), Frey (1. c.) („vom Ende 
April bis Ende Mai und länger in dem Tieflande ; höher im 
Gebirge noch bis tief in den Juli"), Krulikow^ski (23) („Mitte Mai 
bis Juh"), Teich (24) und Nolcken (1. c.) („April— Juni") u. s. w. 



134 EMBR. STRAND. 



Es geht hieraus zur Genüge hervor, dass die Biologie 
dieser Art noch lange nicht völlig erforscht ist, trotzdem sie 
eine so gemeine Art ist. Es sei desshalb die Aufmerksamkeit 
der Lepidopterologen auf diese Frage gelenkt. 

10. Ägrotis hyperhorea Zett. v. norvegica Strand n. v. 

Von dieser Art, die im südUchen Norwegen bisher nur auf 
Dovre von Wocke (25) gefunden war, wurden zwei Exemplare 
erbeutet, das eine (o^) am Gipfel des Gebirges Natlandsnuten 
in Erfjord, das andere (9) bei Hægstoil in Sætersdalen. 

Beide Exemplare gehören einer von der Hauptform so 
abweichenden Form an, dass sie eine nähere Besprechung ver- 
dienen. Ich werde mich darunter am meisten an das Erfjord- 
Exemplar halten, da das andere Stück etwas abgeflogen ist. 

Bekanntlich sind von dieser Art zwei Localvarietäten be- 
nannt und zwar v. alpina Humphr. et Westw. aus Schottland 
und Irland und v. carnica Her. von den Kärnthner Alpen. 
Dazu kommt die von Hüber als Ägrotis Iveni beschriebene 
Form, die jedoch nach seiner Beschreibung und Abbildung (26) 
von der Hauptform von hyperhorea, wie diese im arktischen 
Norwegen vorkommt, sich nicht trennen lässt. Der einzige 
Unterschied scheint derjenige zu sein, dass Iveni ein • wenig 
grösser sein soll; letztere Form wird als in der Grösse mit 
Ägrotis sincera übereinstimmend angegeben, also wohl zwischen 
36 und 42 mm. (das Typeexemplar von Iveni war ein Weibchen). 
Die im Kristiania Museum vorhandenen Exemplare von hyper- 
horea messen 32—33 (aus Kistrand), 36 (aus Südvaranger), 37 
(von Dovre) und 39 mm. (aus Vesteraalen); man sieht also, dass 
hyperhorea ebenso gross als Iveni sein kann. — Von den 
beiden anderen genannten Formen ist v. carnica Her. als in 
Norwegen vorkommend angegeben worden und zwar von Wal- 
lengren (27) und nach ihm von Siebke (1. c), Schøyen (28) und 
Lampa (29), Sie ist jedoch, trotzdem auf Dovre viel gesammelt 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 135 

wurde, nie wiedergefunden, und die WALLENGREN'sche Angabe, 
die sich auf ein einziges, von Boheman erbeutetes und von 
Zetterstedt als Hadena alpicola beschriebenes (30) Stück grün- 
det, muss am besten bis auf weiteres ganz unberücksichtigt 
gelassen werden, da es gar nicht erwiesen ist, dass diese Hadena 
alpicola mit carnica synonymisch ist; wahrscheinlich ist 
alpicola eine Abänderung von hyperborea, wohin sie auch im 
neuen Lepidopteren-Cataloge (mit „?") gezogen wird, aber sicher 
gedeutet worden ist sie noch nicht. Mit vollem Recht wei'den 
daher alle Angaben über das Vorkommen von carnica in 
Skandinavien unberücksichtigt gelassen sowohl von Aurivillius 
1. c. als von Schøyen in einer seiner neueren Arbeiten (31). 
Wocke, der Agrotis hyperborea auf Dovre in Mehrzahl sam- 
melte (1. c), bemerkt ausdrücklich von seinen Exemplaren, dass 
„sie gleichen durchaus den aus Finmarken". 

Uebrigens werden nordische Exemplare von Agrotis hyper- 
borea, die mit carnica Aehnlichkeit haben, meines Wissens nur 
von Schøyen (32), Tengström (33) und Reuter (34) erwähnt. 
Schøyen beschreibt ein Stück aus Vesteraalen, Tengström und 
Reuter ein finnisches; die Beschreibungen zeigen zur Genüge, 
dass die betreffenden Exemplare derselben Form wie mein 
Erfjord-Exemplar angehörten. Zu der Beschreibung Tengströms 
bemerke ich nur, dass „frånvaron af den tydliga serien af svarta 
pilfläcken å brämfältet" (das Fehlen der deutlichen Reihe schwar- 
zer Pfeilflecken im Saumfelde), welche Flecken auch bei meinem 
Exemplare, wenn auch nicht ganz fehlend, so doch höchst un- 
deutlich sind, nicht als für diese Abänderung characteristisch 
angesehen werden kann, indem diese Flecken oft auch bei 
ganz typischen Exemplaren von hyperborea fehlen. Das Exem- 
plar aus Vesteraalen, welches zu untersuchen ich Gelegenheit 
gehabt, sowie die Beschreibung Schøyens, stimmen mit meinem 
Exemplar. Die kleinen vorhandenen Verschiedenheiten be- 
schränken sich auf folgendes. Während die dunkelbraune Fär- 
bung des Erfjord-Exemplars in der Mitte und am Vorderrande 



136 EMBR. STRAND. 



(welcher nur schwach gelichtet ist) sich bis zur Wurzel verbreitet, 
so dass nur das Innenrandsfeld die grauliche Grundfarbe behält, 
ist das Wurzelfeld des Vesteraals-Exemplars grau, nur in der 
Mitte verdunkelt, und am Vorderrande dehnt sich die graue 
Grundfarbe bis zur Nierenmakel aus. Auch im Saumfelde ist 
die graue Färbung die vorhersehende beim Vesteraals-Exemplar, 
nur ist das Saumfeld ein wenig dunkler als das Wurzelfeld, und 
die Pfeilflecken sind gross und deutlich, wenn auch nicht schwärz- 
lich, sondern mehr braun oder gelblich braun. An meinem 
Exemplare dehnt die braune Färbung sich über das ganze Saum- 
feld, dessen Zeichungen kaum bemerkbar sind ; die äussere Hälfte 
des Flügels ist übrigens stark röthlich angeflogen. Bei beiden 
Exemplaren ist die Flügelfläche innerhalb und hinter der grossen 
Ringmakel, deren grauweisse Färbung gegen die dunkle Um- 
gebung scharf absticht, am dunkelsten. Uebrigens ist das 
Vesteraals-Exemplar mehr geflogen als das meinige, so dass 
dessen hellere Färbung wohl zum Theil darin begründet ist; 
vielleich auch darin, dass sie nicht gleichen Geschlechts sind. 

Mit der Varietät alpina Humphr. et Westw. kann die [nor- 
wegische Form nicht zusammenfallen. Der am meisten in die 
Augen fallende Unterschied dürfte die bei v. norvegica grosse, 
scharf markirte, weissgrau ausgefüllte Ringmakel sein, welche 
auch vorn, aber undeutlich, dunkel begrenzt ist. Dieselbe 
ist bei V. alpina sehr wenig auffallend; man vergleiche nur die 
Figuren Jenner Weir's (35). Auch die Nierenmakel ist bei 
V. norvegica sehr deutlich, scharf begrenzt, i'ostgelb ausgefüllt 
ohne dunklen Ivern, am Rande schmal gelichtet. Durch die 
deutlicheren Makeln unterscheidet sich v. norvegica sowohl von 
der Hauptform als von v. alpina. Die letztere ist weder am 
Vorder-, noch am Innenrande auffallend heller gefärbt, was 
wenigstens am Innenrande bei v. norvegica der Fall ist; auch 
ist die dunkle Färbung der Flügelfläche bei norvegica mehr 
zusammengeflossen, nicht so gestreift, wie bei alpina. Die bei 
letzterer so scharf hervortretenden, langen, schwarzen Pfeilflecken 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 137 

im Saumfelde sind bei v. norvegica nicht mehr angedeutet als 
bei der Hauptform. Was den röthlichen Anflug von v. norve- 
gica betrifft, so kann dieser als ein Unterscheidungsmerkmal 
gegenüber der Hauptform dienen, dagegen nicht gegen v. alpina, 
wo er bisweilen noch stärker ist; bisweilen fehlt er bei letzterer 
auch ganz. V. alpina ist nach allen Verfassern eine sehr vari- 
irende Form (cfr. z. B. Wheeler (36), Jenner Weih (1. c), 
„The Entom. Monthly Mag." XIII (1876), Pag. 110), wesshalb 
es schwer ist, ihr gegenüber Distinctionsmerkmale anzugeben, 
die für alle Fälle stichhaltend sind. — Die Hinterflügel sind bei 
V. norvegica ein wenig dunkler, mehr bräunlich grau als bei 
der Hauptform und wohl auch als bei v. alpina. 

Von V. carnica dürfte die norwegische Form sich u. a. 
dadurch unterscheiden, dass die kleine Basal-Querlinie bei v. nor- 
vegica ebenso wie bei der Hauptform deutlich sichtbar ist. 
Uebrigens wird sie wohl durch die oben gegebene Beschreibung 
ohne Schwierigkeit von carnica unterschieden werden können. 

In wie weit die neue Form als Aberration oder als Local- 
varietät auftritt, mögen weitere Untersuchungen entscheiden. Da 
das Exemplar von Hægstoil, sowohl was Grösse (39 mm. Ex- 
pansion) als was Färbung und Zeichnung betrifft, mit dem 
Erfjord-Exemplar gut übereinstimmt, dürfte man vielleicht schUes- 
sen können, dass die neue Form im südwestlichen Norwegen 
als Localvarietät auftritt. 

Ueber die Biologie von Ägrotis hyperhorea liegen schon 
mehrere Beiträge vor, so von Staudinger (37), Sandberg (38), 
Hellins (39), Meek (40) u. m. 

11. Hadena gemmea Tr. 

Von dieser Art gibt Sparre Schneider in seiner neuesten 
lepidopterologischen Arbeit (41) an, sie sei bisher nur in^Kri- 
stians und Akershus Amt beobachtet. Er hat dabei übersehen, 
dass ich sie zuvor sowohl in Lærdal (42) als in Aal (43) 
gefunden hatte. 



138 EMBR. STRAND. 



12. Basypolia templi Thbg. 

Diese Art führt Herr Schneider in der soeben genannten 
Abhandlung als neu für Buskerud auf. Er hat dabei vergessen, 
dass ^ich sie schon zuvor in Hallingdal gefunden hatte, was er 
sogar selbst in einer anderen Abhandlung erwähnt hat (44). 

13. Prothymnia viridaria Gl. ah. modesta Gar. 

Diese Form war bisher nicht in die Fauna Norwegens 
eingeführt worden, trotzdem die Art im südlichen Norwegen 
keine seltene ist. 

14. Cymatophora duplaris L. 

Das Erbeuten eines schönen Exemplars so spät als im Sep- 
tember kann wohl nur durch die Annahme einer zweiten Genera- 
tion erklärt werden. Eine solche muss aber bei dieser Art sehr 
selten entwickelt werden, denn nur die wenigsten Verfasser wis- 
sen etwas davon zu berichten. Nur Frey 1. c. sagt ausdrücklich: 
„Falter im Tieflande mit doppelter Generation, im höheren Gebirge 
mit einfacher". 

15. Äcidalia incanata L , hisetata Hfn. und inomata Hw. 
Alle drei Arten sind neu für Stavanger Amt. 

17. Lygris populata L. c. ah. musauaria Frr. 

Viele der bei Sandumsæter pr. Norefjeld erbeuteten Exem- 
plare sind ausgeprägte ah. musauaria Frr., dunkel rauchfarbig, 
mit undeutlichen Zeichnungen. Trotzdem die Flugzeit so weit 
vorgeschritten war, waren die Falter noch ziemlich schön. 

18. Larentia hicolorata Hfn. 

In Grüners Sammlung fand sich diese Art angeblich aus der 
Umgegend von Kristiania, woher sie bis jetzt nicht bekannt 
war (nach Schøyen (31)); in Siebke (16) steht sie als „In Tøien" 
gefunden. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGS FAUNA NORWEGENS. 139 

19. Larentia taeniata Stph. 

Die bei Ose gesammelten Exemplare waren stark abgerieben, 
so dass die eigentliche Flugzeit anscheinend schon vorüber war. 
Dieselbe soll aber nach den meisten Angaben auch den August 
umfassen. — Neu für Stavanger Amt. 

20. Larentia olivata Schiff. 

Von dieser sehr seltenen Art, die bei uns bisher nur bei 

Kristiania und in Geiranger gefunden war (Schøyen (45)), wurde 

ein einziges Stück in Erfjord erbeutet. Wahrscheinlich ist es 

gerade in den Westlandsdistricten, dass diese Art bei uns am 

häufigsten ist. 
I 
21. Larentia montanata Schiff. 

Bemerkenswerth ist es, dass diese Art in einem, obendrein 
schönen, Exemplar bei Norefjeld, also im September, gefunden 
wurde. Als Flugzeit wird ja gewöhnlich Mai— Juli angegeben; 
in diesem Falle flog also das Thier mehr als einen Monat nach 
dem Ende der gewöhnlichen Flugzeit. Aus südlicheren Gegenden 
werden zwar zwei Generationen angeführt, so z. B. von Treitschke 
und HoRMüZAKi (46), bei uns dürfte davon wohl kaum die Rede 
sein. — In Stavanger Amt muss die Art selten sein, da es mir 
nicht gelungen ist, sie dort zu finden; ebenso wenig führt Lie- 
Pettersen (47) sie in seiner Liste (von Jæderen) an. 

22. Larentia quadrifasciaria Gl. 

Ein einziges, etwas geflogenes Stück wurde bei Ose erbeutet. 
Im südwestlichen Norwegen bisher nicht beobachtet. 

23. Larentia unidentaria Hw. 
Auch diese bei uns seltene Art wurde nur in einem Stück 
gesammelt. Ihre Aehnlichkeit mit ferrugata hat früher vielleicht 
Verwechslungen verursacht, so dass sie in der That häufiger als 
angenommen vorkommt. 



140 EMBR. STRAND. 



24. Larentia caesiata Lang v. norvegica Strand. 

Weder aus Lister und Mandal noch aus Stavanger Amt 
war diese gemeine Art bisher verzeichnet. — Sie wurde meist 
ganz vereinzelt und sparsam angetroffen; so fing ich bei Sireosen 
1 Stück, bei Ose und Hægstøil je % bei Norefjeld 3 Stück; in 
Erfjord wurde sie zwar in mehreren Exemplaren gesammelt, war 
aber auch da bei weitem nicht häufig. — Ueber die Varietäts- 
rechte vergleiche man den zweiten Theil dieses „Beitrages" (48). 

25. Larentia hastata L. 

Diese Art war in der GRÜNER'schen Sammlung angeblich 
als bei Kristiania gesammelt vertreten. Ihr hiesiges Vorkommen 
wurde zwar schon von Siebke 1. c. angegeben, aber im Ver- 
zeichniss von Schøyen (31) ist sie nicht als in Akershus Amt 
vorkommend aufgenommen. — Jedenfalls muss sie hier sel- 
ten sein. 

26. Larentia sordidata F. cum ab. infuscata Stgr., ah. fusco- 
undata Don., et ah. constricta Strand n. ah. 

Von 6 Stück aus Krødsherred gehört eins zu ah. infuscata 
Stgr., drei zu ah. fuscoundata Don. (übrigens wenig ausge- 
prägt), und eins, das sich durch die in Flecke aufgelöste (abge- 
schnürte), helle Mittelbinde auszeichnet, bezeichne ich als ah. 
constricta n. ah., ganz ähnlich wie bei ah. constricta Strand 
von Larentia autumnalis Str. 

27. Tephroclystia suhfulvata Rw. 

Bei Ose wurde ein Unicum dieser bisher nur bei Næs Værk 
und Kristiania gefundenen Form erbeutet. 

28. Tephroclystia nanata Hb. 

Von dieser spärHch vorkommenden und wenig verbreiteten 
Art wurde ein schönes Stück bei Sireosen und zwei weniger 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 141 

schöne, aber dennoch sicher bestimmbare Stücke in Siredal 
gefunden. Bisher auf Jæderen (Schøyen), Dønna (Strand) und 
bei Bergen (Schneider) beobachtet. 

29. Chlor ody stis redangulata L. ab. nigrosericeata Hw. 

Unicum aus Siredal. Die Art wurde bisher nur in Akers- 
hus, Smaalenene und bei Bergen beobachtet. 

30. Ghlorodystis chloërata Mab. v. hadenata Fuchs. 

Diese Art war in Skandinavien bisher nur aus Tysfjorden 
bekannt (Strand (49)). Sie scheint aber im nördlichen Norwegen 
weit verbreitet zu sein, denn nach gefälliger brieflicher Mittheilung 
von Dr. Einar Wahlgren (Stockholm) hat er im vorigen Som- 
mer die Art in Rombaksbotn erbeutet, und Gustos Sparre 
Schneider theilte mir mündlich mit, dass er sie auch gefunden 
hätte. In wie weit die von den Herren Wahlgren und Schneider 
gesammelten Exemplare alle der v. hadenata. angehörten, weiss 
ich nicht, aber wahrscheinlich war dies der Fall ; Herr Schneider, 
der meine Exemplare sah, bemerkte ausdrücklich, dass die sei- 
nigen ganz ähnlich aussähen. 

31. Abraxas marginata L. 

Die unter den gesammelten Exemplaren vertretenen Formen 
waren die folgenden: ab. conflua Strand und ab. pollutaria 
Hb., je ein Stück ; f. naevaria Hb., wozu auch Exemplare 
gerechnet wurden, die von der Figur Hübners dadurch abweichen, 
dass sie ein oder zwei kleine schwarze Flecken in der Mitte der 
Vorderflügel besitzen, durch sechs Stück vertreten, die alle aus 
Siredal waren. Die übrigen Exemplare (3 aus Siredal, 1 aus 
Sireosen) haben ein Paar kleine schwarze Flecken auf den 
Vorderflügeln und ebenso auf den Hinterflügeln und unter- 
scheiden sich auch von Hübners Fig. 79 dadurch, dass die 
Saumbinde der Hinterflügel in der Mitte unterbrochen ist. 



142 EMBR. STRAND, 



Huene (50) beschreibt und bildet eine ah. mediofasciata 
dieser Art ab. Da aber dieser Name schon von Höfner ange- 
wandt worden ist, muss die von Huene beschriebene Form, falls 
man sie als distinct auffassen will, neu benannt werden. Ich 
schlage den Namen ah. Huenei Strand vor, 

32. Boarmia pundularia Hb. 

Diese seltene Art wurde in einem Stück auf Hvaløerne 
erbeutet. — Nach Lampa 1. c. gebührt dieser Art der Thunberg'sche 
Name scopularia. Die Beschreibung Thunbergs giebt jedoch 
keinen sicheren Aufschluss, und seine Art wurde desshalb bald 
für Larentia didymata L. (von Werneburg), bald für Boarmia 
glabraria Tr. (von Wallengren) erklärt. 

33. Gnophos ohscuraria Hb. ah. hivindata Fuchs. 

Bei Sireosen wurde ein Stück dieser bei uns sehr seltenen 
Spanner erbeutet. Die Stammform war einmal bei Kristiania 
(Schøyen (51)) gefunden, die Aberration ist neu für die Fauna. 



34. Gnophos myrtillata Thbg. cum ah. anastomosis 
Strand n. ah. 

Bei Ose wurden zwei gewöhnliche Exemplare gesammelt. 

Bei Sireosen fing ich ein Stück, das eine nähere Besprechung 
verdient. Es ist ein Männchen von gewöhnhcher Grösse und 
Grundfarbe; die beiden Querlinien der Vorderflügel sind aber 
sehr scharf schwarz und hinter der Mitte zusammenhängend, 
indem sie scharf gegen einander gebrochen sind. Die beiden 
Querlinien bilden in dieser Weise eine Acht (8-förmige Figur), 
die vorn und hinten offen ist, und deren vordere Hälfte die 
grössere ist. Die Wellenlinie, wenigstens auf den Vorderflügeln, 
sehr deutlich und innen sehr breit, tief schwarz, begrenzt; diese 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 143 



Begrenzung setzt sich auch auf den Hinterflügeln deutlich fort. 
Die Mittelmakeln gross. — Ich nenne diese Fornn ah. anasto- 
mosis Strand. 



35. Pygmaena fusca Thbg. cum ab. destrigata Strand n. ah. 
et ah. unistrigata Strand n. ab. 

Von Erfjord Tjrachte ich nur ein Unicum mit, das ich im 
Gebirge Natlandsnuten erbeutete. — Trotz der weit vorgechrit- 
tenen Flugzeit waren die auf Norefjeld gefangenen Exemplare 
ziemlich schön. 

Von Hægstoil besitze ich eine interessante Aberration, welcher 
ich den Namen ah. destrigata Strand gegeben habe. Sie zeichnet 
sich dadurch aus, dass die schwarzen Querlinien sowohl an 
Vorder- als Hinterflügeln ganz fehlen ; nur der Mittelpunct ist 
deutlich. Das Exemplar ist ganz frisch, so dass das Fehlen der 
Querzeichnungen nicht durch Abreiben entstanden ist. — Eine 
andere Aberration wurde auf Norefjeld erbeutet. Bei dieser ist 
nur die äussere der zwei Querlinien sichtbar; die innere ist ver- 
schwunden. Die äussere Querlinie ist aber sehr deutlich an den 
beiden Flügelpaaren. Der Mittelpunct wie gewöhnlich deutlich 
{ah. unistrigata Strand). 

Die von Hübner als venetaria abgebildete Form (mit ein- 
farbigen Hinterflügeln) scheint überall häufiger zu sein als die 
Form, bei der die Hinterflügel mit schwarzer Querlinie versehen 
sind. Es ist desshalb wenig berechtigt, wenn Herrich-Schäffer 
(1. c. III. P. 103) die HüBNER'sche Figur tadelt, weil diese nicht 
die letztere Form darstellt. 



36. Phasiane petraria Hb. 

Ein Stück auf Hvalöerne gefangen. — War bisher bei Kragerø 
(Ullmann sec. Schøyen (52)), in Akershus (Schøyen (31)), Øde- 
mark (Strand (53)), Ulefos (Strand (42)) gefunden. 



144 EMBR. STRAND. 



37. Scodiona fagaria Thbg. 

Ebenfalls ein Unicum von Hvalöerne. Neu für die Fauna 
Norwegens. — Da die Art im südlichen Schweden vorkommt, 
v\^ar ihr Vorkommen in den angrenzenden norwegischen Districten 
eigentlich kein auffallendes. Sie ist jedoch auch in Schweden 
sehr selten; Lampa 1. c. kannte nur den von Thunberg ange- 
gebenen Fundort Halland; seitdem ist sie auch in Skaane 
gefunden (Aurivillius 1. c). — Die Raupe an Erica, Calluna 
und Glöbularia. 



38. Sarrothripus revayana Sc. v. degenerana Hb. 

Wieder eine der seltneren norwegischen Arten und auch 
nur in einem Stück erbeutet. In Smaalenene bisher nicht 
gefunden. 



39. Lithosia lurideola Zinck. 

Das eine der bei Ose gesammelten Exemplare ist monströs, 
indem der eine Hinterflügel nur als ein sehr kleines, rundes 
Läppchen entwickelt ist. Eine ähnliche Monstrosität findet sich 
an dem einen meiner Exemplare von Grambus inquinatelhis 
Schiff, ah. ambiguellus Strand (aus Erfjord). Es ist hier der 
eine Vorderflügel, der nur als ein Läppchen (ca. V4 der Länge 
des normalen Flügels) entwickelt ist. — Eine interessante Ab- 
handlung über dergleichen Monstrositäten und deren Entstehung 
bei Lepidopteren verdanken wir Trouvelot (54). 



40. Crambus alienellus Zinck. 

Das Vorkommen dieser Art in Siredal war insofern von 
Interesse, als sie bisher nur im östlichen Norwegen, sowie in 
Saltdalen (Schøyen (55)) gefunden war. Ich fing nur ein Stück. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 145 

41. Grambus pratellus L. 

War sehr zahlreich bei Sireosen und wurde auch häufig in 
Siredal gefunden. Von Erfjord brachte ich nur ein Stück mit 
und ebenso von Ose, aber die Flugzeit war ja schon weit vorge- 
schritten. Einige wenige sehr hell gefärbte Exemplare dürften 
der ab. angustellus Wd. zuzurechnen sein, während 4 — 5 Stück 
von Sireosen sowie das Ose-Exemplar allerdings ab. obscurellus 
Mn. nahe stehen. 

42. Grambus dumetellus Hb. 

Auffallend ist, dass diese Art in Ryfylke nicht angetroffen 
wurde. Dass sie dort fehlen sollte, ist wenig wahrscheinlich. — 
Bei Sireosen und in Siredal war dieselbe ziemlich häufig; bei 
Ose dagegen wurden, wohl der vorgeschrittenen Flugzeit wegen, 
nur zwei Stück erbeutet. 



43. Grambus hortuellus Hb. c. ab. cespitellus Hb. 

Auch diese Art wurde in Ryfylke nicht gefunden, war 
dagegen bei Sireosen, in Siredal und bei Ose sehr häufig. — 
Während die Aberration bei Sireosen häufig war, wurde bei Ose 
nur ein Unicum davon erbeutet; dagegen wurde die Hauptform 
daselbst in Menge gesammelt. Die kleinsten Exemplare messen 
17, die grössten 22 mm. 



44. Grambus falsellus Schiff. 

Diese Art scheint in Ryfylke ziemlich häufig zu sein; ich 
habe sie daselbst überall angetroffen (auch in Suldal (48)), nie 
aber in grosser Anzahl. — In Nedenæs nicht zuvor gefunden. 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. II. 10 



146 EMBR. STRAND. 

45. Cr ambus pinellus L. 

Von dieser seltenen Art, die bisher bei Kristiania (Siebke), 
Geiranger, Lister u. Mandals Amt (Schøyen), Lærdal, Stryn 
(Lie-Pettersen (56, 57)), Lavik (Strand) gefunden war, wurden 
2 Stück bei Ton und 1 in Erfjord erbeutet. — Aus den bisherigen 
Localitätsangaben scheint hervorzugehen, dass die Art am West- 
lande am meisten verbreitet ist, kommt aber wohl überall spärlich 
vor. Ihre mehr nächtliche Lebensweise (cfr. Leech (38)) ist viel- 
leicht zum Theil die Ursache dazu, dass sie so selten ange- 
troffen wird. 

46. Crambus myelins Hb. 

Weder in Nedenæs noch Stavanger Amt zuvor gefunden. 
Beider Orten fing ich nur je zwei Stück; von den Ose-Exem- 
plaren war das eine ganz frisch, das andere stark abgeflogen. — 
In den Westlandsdistricten war die Art bisher in einem Unicum 
in Val dalen (Romsdal) (Schøyen (45)) und selten bei Bergen 
(Sp. Schneider (44)) gefunden. 

47. Crambus margaritellus Hb. 

Noch im Anfange September wurde diese Art fliegend 
gefunden (Norefjeld), aber in einem etwas abgeriebenen Exem- 
plar. — In der GRÜNER'schen Sammlung steckte ein Stück 
als bei Kristiania gefunden; die Art war zuvor nicht aus Akers- 
hus Amt bekannt. 



48. Crambus inquinatellus Schiff, c. ab. ambiguellus 
Strand n. ab. 

Diese Art war bei Ose und in Erfjord sehr häufig, und eine 
grosse Anzahl Exemplare wurden mitgenommen. Die kleinsten 
Stücke messen 20, die grössten 26 mm. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 147 



In Erfjord wurde eine eigenthümliche Form, welche ich als 
ab. ambiguellus m. bezeichne, gefunden. Die Grundfarbe der 
Vorderflügel bleich ockergelb wie bei der Hauptform, anscheinend 
ohne irgend andere Zeichnungen als einen kleinen dunklen Längs- 
fleck in der Falte in dem Punkte, wo dieselbe bei gewöhnlich 
gezeichneten Individuen vom inneren Schrägstreif geschnitten 
wird. Dieses Fleckchen ist keilförmig, mit der Spitze gegen die 
Wurzel. Sieht man genauer nach, bemerkt man, wenigstens 
mit Hülfe einer Loupe, Andeutung beider Schrägstreifen in der 
Innenrandshälfte der Flügel. Dieselben sind jedoch so undeutlich, 
dass sie mit unbewaffnetem Auge kaum zu sehen sind. 

Ueber das Variiren dieser Art findet sich in der Litteratur 
nur wenig. Jedoch erwähnt schon Treitschke Abänderungen, 
so u. a. auch unsere Form, welcher er ganz richtig viel Aehnlich- 
keit mit paleella Hb. zuschreibt. 

Ueber eine Monstrosität dieser Form siehe No. 39. lAthosia 
lurideola Zinck. 



49. Cr ambus tristellus Schiff, ab. fuscelinellus Stph. 
et ab. culmella Hb. 

Diese Art war an den besuchten Localitäten selten, indem 
bei Ose zwei Stück von ab. fuscelinellus, in Erfjord und Tou 
je ein Stück von ab. culmella angetroffen wurden; die Haupt- 
form (Hb. 404) wurde gar nicht gefunden. 



50. Platytes cerusellus Schiff. 

Bei Sireosen wurde diese Art, die bei uns bisher nur von 
EsMARK in den Jahren 1845 und 1848 bei Kristiania gefunden 
war, nicht selten angetroffen; ebenso besitze ich ein Stück aus 
Siredal. Sie flog an dürren, beinahe vegetationslosen, sonnen- 
warmen Localitäten, besonders auf sandigen Anhöhen. Das 



148 EMBR. STRAND. 



Weibchen scheint sehr selten zu sein, wenigstens fand ich nur 
1 Weibchen bei 44 Männchen. 

Mit der Zeit wird die Art wohl an vielen Orten im südlich- 
sten Norwegen aufgefunden werden; aber ein so kleines, un- 
scheinbar gefärbtes Ding entzieht sich ja sehr leicht der Auf- 
merksamkeit. Ihre Färbung fällt auch so gänzlich mit derjenigen 
des Bodens der Flugplätze zusammen, und da sie auch sehr 
kurz und niedrig fliegt, ist es schwer sie zu sehen. — In 
Schweden ist sie in Skaane und Gotland ziemlich gemein 
(Wallengren (59)). 



51. Ephestia elutella Hb. 

Diese Art wurde sehr spärHch gefunden und zwar je zwei 
Stück von Sireosen und Siredal und eins von Erfjord. Sie 
ist bekanntlich sehr variirend; das Exemplar aus Erfjord hat 
Aehnlichkeit mit E. cautella Wlk. {fissulella (Barr.) Leech), ist 
jedoch sicher elutella. Das eine der Siredal-Stücke misst nur 
13 mm. (Expansion). 

Diese Art war bisher nur in Akershus, Lister u. Mandal, 
und in S. Bergenhus gefunden. 

52. Salebria fusca Hw. 

An höher gelegenen Locahtäten bei Sireosen und in Siredal 
kam diese in der arctischen Region so gemeine Art stellenweise 
häufig vor. War im südlichen Norwegen bisher nur in Akers- 
hus, Smaalenene und bei Bergen beobachtet worden. 

53. Scoparia sudetica Z. 

Wurde bei Ose und in Erfjord häufig gefunden; bei Sandum- 
sæter pr. Norefjeld ein Stück, das trotz der späten Flugzeit noch 
schön war. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 149 



54. Scoparia crataegella Hb. 

Wurde in Erfjord in vielen Exemplaren gesammelt. 

Was ihr Verhältniss zu S. frequentella Sit betrifft, so 
muss ich letztere als eine Varietät von crataegella ansehen, 
wenigstens kann ich nach einer sorgfältigen Prüfung der vielen 
im Kristiania Museum, sowie in meiner eignen Sammlung, vor- 
handenen Exemplare beider Formen, kein einziges stickhaltiges 
Unterscheidungsmerkmal finden. Alle Verschiedenheiten gehen 
allmählich in einander über. Auch die Raupen sehen nach den 
vorliegenden Beschreibungen ähnlich aus oder weichen nur in 
ganz unwesentlichen Punkten ab. Ebenso ist das Raupenleben 
nach ScHMiD 1. c. bei beiden Formen gleich. In Betreff der 
behaupteten Verschiedenheiten zwischen den Faltern stimmen 
die Beschreibungen nicht überein, so z. B. ist nach deutschen 
Autoren crataegella, nach englischen frequentella die grösste 
Art. Auch sind ja schon vielfach die Artrechte von frequentella 
von berufener Seite bestritten worden, so z. B. von Staudinger 
(60), oder wenigstens angezweifelt worden, so z. B. von Frey 
l. c, ScHMm 1. c, Laharpe (61), Steudel (62) u. a. Im Gataloge 
führt aber Rebel beide Formen als distinkt auf. 



55. Pionea decrepitalis H. S. 

Im Gebirge bei Espetveit in Siredal fing ich ein leider etwas 
geflogenes Exemplar, das wahrscheinlich der angegebenen, bisher 
nur im arktischen Gebiete gefundenen Art angehört. 



56. Pyrausta cespitalis Schiff, c. f. sordidalis Hb. 

Während die Hauptform mir nur in zwei Stück (von Hval- 
øerne) begegnet ist, habe ich von sordidalis 26 gesammelt, 
wovon 2 von Hvaløerne, 1 von Tou, die übrigen aus Erfjord. 



150 EMBR. STRAND. 



Auch nach meinen früheren Erfahrungen ist sordidalis die bei 
uns häufigste Form. — Ausserdem beobachtete, fing aber nicht, 
die Art bei Fredrikstad. 

57. Pyrausta purpuralis L. 

Da diese Art im Mai und August gefunden worden ist, 
muss man wohl zwei Generationen annehmen. 

58. Pyr austa porphyralis Schiff. 

Im kahlen Gebirge bei Hægstøil fing ich am 22. August 
eine Spinne {Tarentula aculeata Gl.), die im Maule die Ueber- 
reste einer Pyr. porphyralis trug. Sowohl die Vorder- als 
Hinterflügel waren so gut erhalten, dass die Bestimmung sicher 
ist. Sonst ist mir die Art diesmal nicht begegnet. 

59. Oxyptüus hieracii Z. (?) 

Bei Ose fing ich, leider nur in einem einzigen, jedoch gut 
erhaltenen, Exemplar eine Oxyptilus-Art, die jedenfals neu für 
die Fauna ist, und die unter den bekannten Arten mit hieracii 
am nächsten verwandt ist. Ich werde ein anderes Mal auf diese 
Sache zurückkommen. 

60. Platyptilia tesseradadyla L. 

War in den Westlands-Districten bisher nur bei Bergen 
gefunden. Scheint im arktischen Norwegen am häufigsten 
zu sein. 



61. Acalla mixtana Hb. 

Von dieser für die Fauna neuen Art fing ich mehrere 
Exemplare auf Hvaler. Da die Art schon aus Skåne bekannt 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 151 

war (Wallengren (63)), war ihr Vorkommen auch im südlichsten 
Norwegen kein überraschendes. Die Raupe lebt an Heidekraut. 



62. Ämphisa prodromana Hb. 

Das Erbeuten dieser Art bei Fredrikstad war ein interes- 
santer Fund, da sie bisher nur in Odalen (Schøyen (64)), und 
bei Odnes (Strand (48)) gefunden war. Da die Art im ersten 
Frühjahr fliegt, entzieht sie sich leichter der Aufmerksamkeit der 
Sammler. 

63. Dichelia ruhicundana H. S. 

Die Heimath dieser Art ist eigentlich die arktische Region, 
wo sie weit verbreitet ist. Im südlichen Norwegen war sie 
bisher nur in Kristians Amt (Schøyen), Hol und Aal (Hallingdal) 
(Strand) gefunden worden. Es war daher interessant, noch 
eine Localität aufzufinden, indem ich ein Stück auf Norefjeld 
erbeutete. 



64. Gacoecia piceana L. 

Kristiania war bisher der einzige norwegische Fundort dieser 
Art. Dazu kann ich, wie oben angegeben, Erfjord hinzufügen, 
indem ich dort ein Stück erbeutete. 



65. Eulia politana Hw, 

Auch noch eine für dieFauna neueArt von Hvaløerne. 
Es gilt übrigens von dieser Art dasselbe wie für Äcalla mixtana 
Hb., dass ihr Vorkommen auch bei uns zu erwarten war, da 
sie schon aus Skåne bekannt war. — Die Raupe ist polyphag, 
und zwar ist sie an Potentilla, Ranunculus acris, Ledum 
palustre, Galluna etc. gefunden worden. Büttner (65) hat in 



152 EMBR. STRAND. 



Pommern zwei Generationen beobachtet, was auch schon von 
Treitchke angegeben wurde; Meyrick 1. c, Heinemann u. a. 
erwähnen nur eine Generation. 



66. Tortrix Forsterana F. 

Das Vorkommen auf Norefjeld von dieser im südlichen 
Norwegen nur an wenigen Localitäten beobachteten Art war an 
und für sich interessant genug, und ebenso bemerkenswerth ist 
es, dass sie so spät als im September und obendrein in einem 
schönen Stück gefunden wurde. Die gewöhnliche Flugzeit ist ja 
der Juni und Juli. Das Norefjeld-Exemplar wäre also mehr als 
einen Monat verspätet worden. 

67. Gonchylis nana Hw. 

Wurde in Mehrzahl bei Sireosen und Siredal gefunden. Nur 
an wenigen Localitäten im südlichen Norwegen beobachtet. 

68. Gonchylis ciliella Hb. 

Die einzige in Schøyens Verzeichniss aufgeführte Localität 
für diese Art ist Akershus, und zwar wie an einer ande- 
ren Stelle (64) berichtet wird Kristiania Umgegend. In der 
letzteren Arbeit wird aber auch Randesund als Fundort ange- 
geben. Jedenfalls ist also ciliella eine unserer seltensten Arten, 
so dass ihr Auffinden in Siredal nennenswerth ist. In 

Schweden scheint sie nach Wallengren 1. c. überall bis zu den 
Lappmarken verbreitet zu sein; sie wird jedoch nicht in einer 
von Fredberg (66) publicirten Liste aufgeführt. 

69. Gonchylis Hartmanniana Gl. 

Nur ein einziges, ziemlich geflogenes Exemplar wurde bei 
Ose erbeulet. Im südlichen Norwegen spärlich vorkommend. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 153 

70. Gonchylis dubitana Hb. v. discordana Strand n. v. 

Alle norwegischen Exemplare dieser Art, die ich gesehen 
habe, weichen von der Figur Hübner's darin ab, dass der 
schwarze Innenrandsfleck nicht in zwei Flecken, einen grössern 
wurzelwärts und einen kleineren am Innenwinkel aufgelöst 
(getheilt) ist. 

Letzterer {derjenige am Innenwinkel) fehlt immei" an norwe- 
gischen Exemplaren, allerdings findet sich dann und wann an 
dessen Stelle ein oliven farbener Fleck, der wie derjenige bei 
Hübner dargestellte gestaltet ist, nur ein wenig breiter; aber 
auch dieser Fleck ist immer undeutlich und fehlt oft ganz. Das 
Fehlen dieses schwarzen Fleckes giebt unseren Exemplaren der 
Art ein von Hübner's Form so abweichendes und characteri- 
stisches Aussehen, dass sie mit vollem Recht einen eigenen 
Varietätsnamen verdienen {v. discordana Strand), 

71. Euxanthis angustana Hb. 

Diese Art war bisher nur im südöstlichen Norwegen gefun- 
den und zwar bei Kristiania, Sarpsborg und auf Helgøen (Mjøsen). 
Bei Sireosen und in Siredal fing ich sie in Mehrzahl, und ein 
Paar Stück wurden auch aus Erfjord mitgebracht, so dass ihr 
Vorkommen auch im südwestlichen Norwegen nachgewiesen ist. 

72. Evetria duplana Hb. 

Ein einziges, aber sicheres, Exemplar wurde bei Fredrikstad 
erbeutet. Bisher war sie nur in Odalen, Akershus Amt (Schøyen 
(52, 31)), und bei Larkollen (Strand (48)) gefunden. 

73. Olethreutes dimidiana Sod. 

In der arktischen Region weit verbreitet, war diese Art im 
südlichen Norwegen bisher nur aus Hedemarken (Schøyen) und 



154 EMBR. STRAND. 



bei Bergen (Schneider) bekannt. Ich fing sie in Siredal ziemlich 
häufig, dagegen wurden bei Sireosen und Hægstøil nur Unica 
erbeutet. Die weit vorgeschrittene Flugzeit war wohl die Ursache 
dazu, dass sie so selten bei Hægstøil gefunden wurde. 



74. Olethreutes arbutella L. 

Kam sehr zahlreich sowohl auf Asmal (Hvaløerne) als bei 
Sireosen vor; an einigen Stellen wimmelte es von diesen schönen 
Thierchen. In Erfjord fing ich nur ein Stück. 



75. Olethreutes metallicana Hb. 

Weder in Lister und Mandal, Nedenæs noch Stavanger 
zuvor gefunden, demnach neu für das südwesthche Norwegen. 



76. Olethreutes palustrana Z. 

Ebenso neu für das südwestliche Norwegen. In der ark- 
tischen Region anscheinend häufiger. À 

11. Olethreutes Schulziana F. 

Diese gemeine und weit verbreitete Art kam diesmal sehr 
spärlich an den betreffenden Localitäten vor, indem ich nur ein - 
einziges Stück (bei Sireosen) auffinden konnte. In wie weit die i 
Art wirklich so spärlich im südwestlichen Norwegen vorkommt, 
mögen künftige Untersuchungen klarlegen; die vorliegenden An- 
gaben bieten wenig Aufschluss darüber. Jedenfalls ist die ark- 
tische Region die eigentliche Heimath der Art. 

78. Olethreutes rivulana Sc. cum ah. Stangeana Teich. 

Bei Ose wurden mehrere Exemplare der Hauptform erbeutet; 
in Erfjord kam mir ausser einem .Stück der Hauptform auch 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 155 

eins von v. Stangeana Teich vor. Letztere Form, die bei uns 
wohl als Aberration auftritt, ist neu für die Fauna. 



79. OletJireutes lacwnana Dp. 

Diese gemeine Art kam mir spärlich vor, indem in Siredal 
5 Stück, in Erfjord und bei Norefjeld je eins erbeutet v\^urden. 
Bemerkenswerth ist, dass die Art noch im September flog; zwar 
war aber das Exemplar ziemlich abgerieben. 

80. Olethreutes lucivagana Z. 

Nur ein Stück bei Ose gefangen. Neu für Nedenæs und 
gehört unter die wenig gemeinen Arten. — Fuchs (67) hat eine 
zweite Generation beobachtet; bei uns dürfte sie wohl immer 
nur einmal fliegen. 

81. Olethreutes cespitana Hb. 

Trat an allen oben angegebenen Localitäten in grosser 
Anzahl auf, so dass er wahrscheinlich der häufigste der dort 
vorkommenden Wickler war. 

82. Steganoptycha cruciana L. (Gyllenhaliana aut). 

Neu für Lister und Mandal, Nedenæs und Buskerud. Eben- 
falls eine der dies Jahr sehr spät auftretenden Arten, indem 
sie noch im September flog. — Kam mir überall in 1—2 Exem- 
plaren vor. 

83. Steganoptycha vacciniana L. 

Einer unserer seltensten Wickler, der auch bei Sireosen 
und in Siredal spärlich vorkam, indem ich nur je zwei Stück 
auffinden konnte. 



156 EMBR. STRAND. 



84. Steganoptycha ustomaculana Curt. 

Diese ebenfalls sehr seltene Art wurde nur in einem Stück 
erbeutet. 



85. Badra lanceolana Hb. 

Auf feuchten Waldwiesen in Siredal und bei Hægstøil stellen- 
weise in grosser Anzahl. 



86. Epiblema cana Hw, 

Bei Odnes pr. Randsfjord erbeutete ich 1901 ein bis jetzt 
unbestimmt dastehendes, weil beschädigtes, Exemplar dieser 
selten vorkommenden Art. 

87. Epihlema nemorivaga Tengstr. 

Bei Sireosen wurde diese Art zahlreich gefunden, auf dürren 
Heiden stellenweise in Menge fliegend, aber die kleinen, unschein- 
baren, niedrig fliegenden Thierchen waren desungeachtet nicht 
immer leicht zu erbeuten. Aus Lister und Mandal war die Art 
schon zuvor bekannt, dagegen nicht aus Smaalenene. Sonst ist 
sie nur in Kristians Amt (Dovre (Wocke (25)), Ringebo (Schøyen)) 
gefunden. 

88. Epiblema hilunana Hw. 

Von dieser bisher nur Bei Kristiania (Siebke) gefundenen 
Art wurde ein Stück bei Sireosen erbeutet. 

89. Epiblema crenana Hb. 

Ein Unicum von dieser, wie es scheint, immer spärlich vor- 
kommenden Art wurde auf Hvaløerne gefunden. Ihr Vorkommen 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 157 

in Smaalenene habe ich aber schon zuvor (48) nachgewiesen, 
ebenso dasjenige in Ryfylke (Suldal). Schøyen (31) giebt sie 
von Akershus, Hedemarken und Kristians Amt an. Sie ist 
demnach, wenn auch spärlich vorkommend, weit verbreitet. Da 
sie im ersten Frühlinge fliegt, entzieht sie sich leicht der Auf- 
merksamkeit. 

90. Ancylis uncana Hb. 

Vier Stück auf Hvaler erbeutet. In Schøyens Verzeichniss 
steht sie aus Hedemarken, Kristians Amt und — Finmarken 
angegeben. Seit dieser Zeit ist sie in Aal, Aasgaardstrand und 
Hatfjelddalen (Strand (43, 48, 53)) nachgewiesen, und mit der 
Zeit wird sie wohl auch in den zwischen liegenden Districten 
aufgefunden werden. — Die Raupe soll von Jourdheuille (68) 
auf Heidekraut gefunden worden sein; von Weston (69) wird 
sie jedoch auf Birken und Weiden {Salix repens) vermuthet. 

91. Ancylis siculana Hb. 

Zusammen mit der vorigen Art gesammelt. Zu den wenigen 
älteren Fundorten sind neuerdings hinzugekommen: Ulefos, 
Røikenviken (Strand (42, 48)). 

92. Bhopobota naevana Hb. 

Ein Unicum bei Ton; im südwesthchen Norwegen zuvor 
nur in Suldal (Strand) gefunden. Uebrigens neuerdings bei 
Bergen (ScHNEmER (44)) nachgewiesen; am nördlichsten in N. 
Trondhjems Amt (nicht S. Trondhjem, wie Schneider 1. c. an- 
giebt) beobachtet. 

93. Simaethis diana Hb. 

Ein einziges Stück wurde bei Sandumsæter (Norefjeld) 
gesammelt. Trotzdem es so spät flog, war es ganz frisch; die 



158 EMBR. STRAND. 



Flugzeit wird übrigens von Wallengren (59) als Juli— August 
angegeben, von anderen Autoren wird nur der Juli genannt. 



94. GlypMpteryx Haworthana Stph. 

Das Vorkommen dieser Art auf Hvaløerne war etwas über- 
raschend, da sie bisher nur in der arktischen Region, sowie auf 
Dovre, gefunden war. 

95. Yponomeuta Stannellus Thbg. 

Nur ein Stück bei Sireosen erbeutet. Bisher nur in Akers- 
hus und Kristians Amt gefunden. 

96. Argyresthia retinella Z. 

Ich fing zwei Stück in Erfjord, zahlreiche bei Hægstøil. 
Die letzteren wurden sämmtlich an Birken gefangen; Weiden 
kamen in der nächsten Nähe nicht vor. Ich möchte desshalb 
Büttner (65) beistimmen, wenn er die Raupe eher an Birken 
als an Weiden vermuthet. Auch giebtMEYRiCK 1. c. an: „Larva 
in shoots of birch"; Weiden nennt er nich. Die alte Frey- 
WocKE'sche Angabe von Sahlweiden als Raupennahrung dürfte 
desshalb nur ausnahmsweise richtig sein. Sie gründet sich viel- 
leicht nur darauf, dass Zeller (70) die Art an Sahlweiden beo- 
bachtet hatte und daraus geschlossen „dass sie ohne Zweifel 
auch als Raupe daran lebt" (1. c), also ohne den Falter erzogen 
und den Beweis für seine Vermuthung gebracht zu haben. 

97. Argyresthia Goedartella L. c. ab. litterella Hw. 
et ah. oppositella Strand n, ah. 

Unter den 42 Stücken, die ich von Tou mitbrachte, gehörten 
11 der ah. litterella Hw. an; dieselbe kam demnach ziemlich 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 159 

häufig am Orte vor. — Auch in den baltischen Provinzen ist 
diese Form (von Nolcken I. c.) ziemlich häufig beobachtet wor- 
den; andere Autoren geben sie als selten an. 

Ausserdem fand ich einige Exemplare, die der von Zeller 
1. c. als var. d. beschriebenen Form angehören. Sie zeichnet 
sich dadurch aus, dass der hintere Ast der goldbraunen Gabel- 
binde in der Mitte sich mit der Saumbinde verbindet, wodurch 
der schräge bindenförmige Raum der weissen Grundfarbe in 
zwei Gegenflecke getrennt wird. Diese Form, die bei uns 
anscheinend nicht selten ist, dürfte einen eigenen Namen ver- 
dienen; ich nenne sie ab. oppositella m. Drei Exemplare von 
Tou, sowie das einzige bei Ose gefundene, gehören der neuen 
Aberration an. Nach den Angaben anderer Verfasser sollte sie 
sehr selten sein; so kannte Zeller nur ein einziges Stück davon 
und Nolcken hatte sie nie gefunden, trotzdem er die Art „in 
manchen Jahren in ungeheuren Schaaren" (1. c.) beobachtet 
hatte. 

Arg. Goedartella wird hier zum ersten Mal aus Nedenæs 
und Stavanger angegeben. 



98. Argyresthia arceuthina Z. 

Wurde sowohl bei Sireosen als in Siredal nicht selten 
angetroffen und in vielen Exemplaren mitgebracht. War bisher 
nur von Siebke bei Kristiania gefunden worden (Schøyen (64)). 
In Schweden ist sie auch selten beobachtet v^orden: Skåne, 
Gotland (Wallgr. (71)), Dal (Fredberg 1. c). 

99. Argyresthia praecocella Z. 

Auf Hvaløerne wurden mehrere Exemplare dieser Art gefan- 
gen, was um so interessanter war, als die Art bisher nur mit 
Zweifel für Norwegen angegeben (Schøyen (64)) und in Schweden 
meines Wissens gar nicht beobachtet worden ist; aus Finnland 



160 EMBR. STRAND. 



wurde sie jedoch aufgeführt (Tengström (72)). — Nach Heine- 
mann (73) lebt sie an Wachholder, 

100. Cedestis Gysseleniella Dp. c. ah. lativittella Strand n. ah. 

Bei Sireosen wurden zwei Stück gesammelt. Das eine bildet 
eine eigenthümliche Aberration, indem die zweite, hell goldbraune 
Binde stark erweitert und zwar bis zum Querast ausgedehnt ist, 
so dass sie ungefähr die Hälfte der Flügellänge bedeckt. Sie 
ist saumwärts gerade abgeschnitten und nicht besonders scharf 
markirt. Ich nenne diese Form ah. lativittella m. 

Bisher war Ged. Gysseleniella nur bei Kristiania (Esmark 
sec. Schøyen) und in Suldal (Strand) gefunden. 

101. Cedestis farinatella Dp. 

Wurde zusammen mit der vorigen Art und zwar in mehre- 
ren (8) Exemplaren gefunden. Sonst nur von Kristiania bekannt. 

102. Plutella maculipennis Gurt. f. major Strand n. f. 

Bei Norefjeld wurde ein Stück (also von IL Gen.) gefangen, 
<îas auf den ersten Blick an P. annu^atelta erinnerte, indem es 
«o gross wie letztere war (18 mm. Exp.), bei genauerer Unter- 
suchung sich jedoch in allen Puncten als zu P. maculipennis 
gehörend erwies. Es ist dunkel, selbst am Innenrand dunkel- 
braun gefärbt; die Zeichnung ist dennoch deutlich. Für diese 
auffallende Form möchte ich den Namen /. major m. vor- 
schlagen; dieselbe ist wahrscheinlich für die zweite Generation 
characteristisch. 

103. Gerostoma vittella L. 

Von dieser bisher nur bei Kristiania gefundenen Art fing 
ich ein Stück bei Sandumsæter (Norefjeld). 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 161 

104. Cerostoma parenthesella L. 

Zwei Stück bei Ose erbeutet. — Bisher war sie bei Kri- 
stiania (SiEBKE 1. c), Bodø (WocKE (74)), in Hatfjelddalen, Lavik 
und Suldal (Strand (42, 53, 48)) gefunden w^orden. 



105. Bryotropha terrella Schiff. 

In Erfjord wurden zahlreiche Exemplare, bei Tou und Sire- 
osen einige wenige, in Siredal und bei Ose ein Paar Stück 
gesammelt. Die Exemplare von Ose sind übrigens so abgerieben, 
dass die Art nicht mit voller Sicherheit bestimmbar ist; nur so 
viel ist abgemacht, dass es eine Bryotropha von der Grösse 
der terrella gewesen ist, und es ist dann wahrscheinlich diese 
Art gewesen. 

Bryotropa decrepitella H. S. ist mir nicht vorgekommen. 
Nach SiEBKE 1. c. soll sie bei Næs in Nedenæs von ScHNErøER 
gefunden worden sein. Aus Schweden ist sie erst neuerdings 
angegeben worden (Andersson (75)); Wallengren (71) kannte 
sie nicht. 

106. Bryotropha umbrosella Z. 

Bei Sireosen wurden ein Paar Stück dieser Art gefunden. 
Sie war bisher nur aus Beiern, Maalselvdalen (ScHNEmER (8, 76)), 
Saltdalen (Schøyen (55)) und Tysfjorden (Strand (42)) bekannt 
und ist demnach neu für das südliche Norwegen. 



107. Gelechia distindella Z. 

Bei Ose wurden mehrere Exemplare dieser für die Fauna 
neuen Art gesammelt. Da sie schon längst aus dem südlichen 
Schweden bekannt war (Wallengren (71)), war es ja kein 
Wunder, dass sie auch in Norwegen gefunden wurde. Auch 
aus Finnland, den Ostseeprovinzen, Norddeutchland, Dänemark, 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. II. H 



162 EMBR. STRAND. 



England, also aus allen Nachbarländern Norwegens, war sie seit 
lange angegeben, — Ueber die Raupe ist anscheinend nichts 
sicheres bekannt; Frey 1. c. vermuthet: „vielleicht an Thymus 
serpyllum^^ Sghmid 1. c. berichtet, dass „die Raupe soll im 
April in einer Seidenröhre im Moss an Steinen leben". 



108. GelecMa ericetella Hb. 

Auf Hvaløerne wurden zahlreiche Exemplare dieser Art 
erbeutet. Die meisten gehören /". ramentella Hein. an. Einige 
Stücke fing ich bei Sireosen und viele, meist stark geflogene, in 
Siredal. 

Während G. ericetella zahlreich auf Hvaløerne vorkam, 
begegnete mir daselbst von G. velocella Dup. nur ein Unicum. 



109. GelecMa galhanella Z. 

Nur zwei Stück in Erfjord gefunden. — Es ist eine über 
das ganze Land verbreitete, aber spärlich vorkommende Art, die 
bisher an folgenden Localitäten beobachtet wurde: Kristiania 
(Siebke), Romsdal, Saltdalen (Schøyen), Alten (Wocke), Hatfjeld- 
dalen, Kaafjord und Komagfjord (Strand). — Aus den bisherigen 
Beobachtungen scheint hervorzugehen, dass sie in der arktischen 
Region am häufigsten ist; im südlichen Norwegen kommt sie 
besonders in den Westlandsdistricten vor. 



110. GelecMa continuella Z. 

Ebenso spärlich über das ganze Land verbreitet; aber in 
den Westlandsdistricten bisher nicht beobachtet. — Ihre euro- 
päische Verbreitung ist im ganzen genommen eine östliche; so 
fehlt sie in England und Frankreich, kommt dagegen in Deutsch- 
land, in den Alpen, den Ostseeprovinzen etc. vor. Im östlichen 
Russland fehlt sie nach den Arbeiten Krulikowsky's. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 163 



111. Gelechia virgella Thbg. 

Wurde auf Hvaløerne und in Siredal häufig gefunden, bei 
Sireosen und Hægstøil dagegen in bezw. ein und zwei Exem- 
plaren. Bemerkensvverth ist es, dass sie noch bei Hægstøil 
(d. h. nach Mitte August) flog. Ihre eigentliche Flugzeit ist ja 
im Vorsommer, selbst in der arktischen Region fliegt sie nur 
ausnahmsweise so spät als im Juli. Ich habe sie dort nur dreimal 
im Juli angetroffen und zwar im Gebirge Sandskarfjeldet (Susen- 
dalen) am 25. Juli 1899 (53), auf Hammerø in der ersten Hälfte 
von Juli und in Tysfjorden Mitte Juli 1900 (42); in Finmarken 
fand ich sie nur im Juni (48). Schneider hat sie, soweit ich 
aus seinen Schriften herausfinden kann, nur einmal nach dem 
1. Juli gefunden, und Schøyen fand sie in Saltdalen Anfang 
Juli. Von ausländischen Verfassern weiss, so viel ich erinnern 
kann, nur Frey 1. c. davon zu berichten, dass sie noch im Juli 
und August fliegt; dies ist aber nur in den Hochalpen der Fall. 
— Jedenfalls ist der Fund bei Hægstøil von Interesse; wären 
nicht die zwei Stück ein wenig geflogen, könnte man versucht 
sein, sie als einer zweiten Generation angehörend anzusehen. 

Nach unserem jetztigen Wissen fehlt die Art dem West- 
lande ganz. Mit der Zeit wird sie jedoch wohl auch dort auf- 
gefunden werden. 

112. Gelechia (Lita) leucomelanella Z. 

In Siredal und Erfjord selten angetroffen (bezw. 1 und 3 
Exp.). — Im westHchen Norwegen bisher in Romsdal (Schøyen 
(45), Lavik und Suldal (Strand (77)) gefunden. 

113. Xystophora tenebrella Hb. 

Diese bei uns nur selten beobachtete, aber sicherlich weit 
verbreitete, Art wurde in Siredal und bei Sireosen in Mehrzahl, 



164 EMBR. STRAND. 



an den anderen angegebenen Localitäten in Unica erbeutet. Ein 
Viertel der Exemplare war Weibchen. 

Im westlichen Norwegen bisher nur aus Romsdal ange- 
geben, 

114. Semioscopis strigulana Schiff. 

Drei Stück auf Hvaløerne erbeutet. — Zuvor nur aus Salt- 
dalen (Schøyen (85)) und Hallingdal (Strand (43)) bekannt. — 
Dass die Flugzeit in den Frühling fällt, ist oft die Ursache 
dazu, dass Arten als „selten" angesehen werden, die es gar 
nicht sind. 

115. JDepressaria arctica Strand. 

Es war mir eine grosse und angenehme Ueberraschung, 
diese bisher nur im hohen Norden (78) gefundene Art in zwei 
Exemplaren auf Norefjeld zu erbeuten. Es ist ein neues Zeug- 
niss davon, wie eng die arktische Fauna mit derjenigen der 
Hochgebirge des südlichen Norwegens verbunden ist. — Die Exem- 
plare sind ein wenig geflogen, jedoch nicht mehr, als dass die 
Bestimmung zweifellos richtig ist. Sie weichen in nichts von 



meinen Typenexemplaren ab. 



Nach mündlicher Mittheilung des Herrn Sparre Schneider 
hat auch er die Art in der arktischen Region angetroffen. 



116. Bepressaria heracliana D. G. 

Bei Bølingshavn (Kirkeøen, Hvaløerne) wurden mehrere 
Exemplare erbeutet. Sie war bisher nur bei Kristiania (Siebke) 
und in Nedenæs (Schneider) gefunden worden. 

117. Bepressaria ciniflonella Z. 

Wurde im December 1902 in mehreren Exemplaren in Aal 
erbeutet. Sie überwinterten unter der Rinde von halbverfaulten 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 165 



Espen (Poptdus tremula). — Ebenso wurde in Aal zu derselben 
Zeit D. applana gesammelt, theils unter Rinde von Kiefern und 
Fichten, theils unter Steinen. 

Depr. ciniflonella ist bis jetzt nur an wenigen Localitäten 
beobachtet worden, geht aber gegen Norden sogar bis zu Süd- 
varanger (Schneider (79)). 



118. Borkhausenia pseudospretella Stt. 

Bei Tou wurde ein Stück erbeutet, das dritte, das bis jetzt 
in Norwegen gefunden worden ist. Es ist von normaler Grösse 
und weicht in nichts von dem gevöhnlichen Aussehen der Art 
ab. (Cfr. Strand (48)). — Die anderen Fundorte der Art sind 
Kristiania (Schøyen) und Stavanger (Strand). 



119. Borkhausenia fuscescens Hw. 

Ein Stück in Erfjord gefangen. — Bisher nur in Geiranger, 
sowie in Kristians und Akershus Amt (Schøyen) gefunden. 

120. Scythris disparella Tengstr. 

Ich fing ein Stück bei Sireosen von dieser für Skandi- 
navien neuen Art. Nach Staudinger-Rebels Catalog kommt 
sie in den Alpen, Holland, Livland und Finnland vor. Sie wurde 
aber auch aus Württemberg (Steudel 1. c.) angegeben. 

121. Scythris variella Stph. 

Bei Skibstadsand auf Asmal (Hvaløerne) sammelte ich zahl- 
reiche Exemplare dieser Art. Auf sandigen Abhängen in der 
Nähe des Meeres „hüpften" sie in Menge, paarten sich und 
Hessen sich ganz ruhig einschachteln. Einige waren ganz frisch, 
andere etwas geflogen. — Die Art ist neu für die Fauna 



166 EMBR. STRAND. 



Norwegens. Wallengren führt sie (71) als in Schweden 
vorkommend auf die Autorität Zeller's hin an ; dagegen giebt 
er die nahestehende Scythris siccella Z. als in Skåne und 
Gotland gefunden an. In Rebels Gatalog wird aber diese letztere 
nur als in Mitteleuropa, Italien und fraglich in Finnland ange- 
geben, während Sc. variella als in Schweden vorkommend auf- 
geführt wird. Demnach hätte Wallengren die Arten verwechselt. 



122. Göleophora anatipennella Hb. 

Unicum in Siredal gefunden. Neu für die Fauna. — 
Aus Schweden schon längst bekannt und daselbst weit verbrei- 
tet. Die Raupe an Sahlweiden, Prunus spmosa, Tilia und 
verschiedenen Waldbäumen. 



123. Göleophora grypMpennella Bché. 

Ebenso nur ein Stück erbeutet (Tou) und gleichfalls neu 
für die Fauna. — Die Raupe soll die Blätter von Rosen aus- 
miniren. — Auch diese Art ist seit lange aus den Nachbarländern 
bekannt. 



124. Elahista Gleichenella F. 

Wurde bei Sireosen in einem Stück gefangen. In Norwegen 
bis jetzt nur aus Tysfjorden bekannt (Strand). 



125. Elachista alhidella Tengstr. 

Drei Exemplare wurden bei Sireosen gefangen. War bei uns 
bisher nur in Ørskog (Romsdal) (Schøyen (45)) gefunden; in 
Schweden kommt sie ziemlich weit verbreitet vor. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 167 

126. Gracilaria syringella F. 
In Erfjord wurden 3 Stück dieser zuvor bei Kristiania 
(Siebke), Romsdal (Schøyen), Bergen (Schneider), Sande in 
Jarlsberg, Kristiania, Lavik (Strand) gefundenen Art erbeutet. 

127. Gracilaria alchimiella Sc. 

Ein Stück auf Hvaløerne gefunden. Sonst ist sie von Kri- 
stiania (Siebke), Suldal und Kristiania (Strand) bekannt. 

128. Gracilaria pJiasianipennella Hb, 

Zwei Stück auf Hvaløerne gesammelt. War zuvor in der 
Aberration quadruplella Z. von Sandberg in Aurdal gefunden 
(Schøyen (64)). Die Hauptform wird demnach jetzt zum 
ersten mal in die Fauna eingeführt. 

129. Ornix avellanella Stt. 

Auf Hvaløerne wurden zwei Stück dieser für die Fauna 
neuen, in Schweden aber weit verbreiteten, Art gefunden. Die 
Raupe soll in Haselnussblättern leben. 

130. Ornix torquüella Z. 

Ein nicht ganz reines Stück aus Siredal scheint dieser eben- 
falls für die Fauna neuen Art anzugehören. Aus Schweden 
giebt sie Wallengren 1. c. nur aus Skåne an; ebenso wird sie 
aus Finnland aufgeführt. (Tengstrøm (72)). — Die Raupe lebt 
an den Spitzen der Schlehenblätter. 

131. Lithocolletis Gramerella F. 

Mehrere Exemplare wurden auf Hvaløerne gesammelt. Sonst 
ist sie bei Kristiania (Schøyen (80)), Kristiania, Skien, Ulefos 
(Strand (42)) gefunden worden. 



168 EMBR. STRAND. 



132. Lithocolletis alniella Z. 

Wurde in zahlreichen Exemplaren auf Asmal (Hvaler) an 
Erlengehölz gesammelt. — In Norwegen ist sie sonst nur bei 
Vallø (Strand (48)) gefunden; im südlichen Schweden ist sie 
nach Wallengren eine der häufigeren Lithocolletis- Arien. 



133. Lithocolletis alpina Frey 


dieser Art an 



Ein bei Ose gesammeltes Stück gehört wahrscheinlich 



134. Lithocolletis strigulatella Z. 

Viele Exemplare bei Ose gesammelt. 

In Rebels Catalog wird L. alpina Frey als sichere norwe- 
gische Art angeführt, dagegen wird für strigulatella Z. unter 
den Patria- Angaben „P Scand. (an alpina Frey?)" notiert. Die 
Auffassung von alpina als sichere, strigulatella als unsichere 
norwegische, bezw. skandinavische, Art gründet sich wahrschein- 
lich darauf, dass Zeller s. Z. ein von Schøyen erhaltenes 
Exemplar als Lith. alpina Frey bestimmte, unter welchem 
Namen auch das Stück in Schøyen's Uebersicht der arktischen 
Lepidopteren erwähnt wird. Aber wie Schøyen später (55) kon- 
statiren konnte, war diese ZELLER'sche Bestimmung nicht richtig; 
das Exemplar war in der That eine strigulatella. Diese Be- 
richtigung Sch0yen's hat wohl Rebel nicht gesehen oder sie 
auch als unzuverlässig angesehen, wenn er oben angeführtes in 
seinem Cataloge schreibt. Gewiss ist es dennoch, dass wie von 
WocKE (74), SiEBKE, Sghøyen, Wallengren (81) und mir ange- 
geben, die in Skandinavien weit verbreitete und gemeine Art 
der „Formenkreis" strigulatella- alpina wirklich strigulatella Z. 
ist; ob auch alpina Frey hier vorkommt, ist noch nicht ganz 
abgemacht; jedenfalls ist sie hier viel ^elinev oXs strigulatella Z. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 169 



Die Patria-Angaben im Gataloge wären daher dahin zu verbessern, 
dass strigulatella als die sichere, alpina als die unsichere skan- 
dinavische Art anzugeben wäre. 



135. Lithocolletis ulmifoliella Hb. 

Gesammelt wurden 3 Stück [in Siredal und eins auf Hval- 
øerne. Letzteres ist nicht ganz 'rein, so dass die Bestimmung 
nicht ganz sicher ist. Die Art ist zuvor von Dovre (Wogke), 
Tromsø (Schneider), Alten (Wocke), Kristiania (Strand) ange- 
geben worden. 



136. Lithocolletis spinolella Dp. 

Nur ein Stück von Hvaløerne; dasselbe ist obendrein ein 
wenig zweifelhaft, weil nicht ganz rein. Das Vorkommen auf 
Hvaløerne ist übrigens ein wenig überraschend, indem nach den 
bisherigen Angaben diese Art in der arktischen Region Skan- 
dinaviens ihre Heimath haben sollte. Sie wurde in Norwegen 
bisher bei Rognan (Schilde sec. Schøyen (55)), in Alten (Wocke), 
bei Sopnes (Strand) beobachtet. Von Wallengren wurde sie 
s. Z. (71) nur aus „Lapponia Sueciae" angegeben; in seiner 
Monographie dieser Gattung (81) giebt er sie als über das ganze 
Land verbreitet an. Die letztere Angabe ist wohl die richtigste. 

137. Lithocolletis Blancardella F. 

Ausser einigen zweifelhaften wurden 4 Stück dieser Art bei 
Skibstadsand (Hvaløerne) erbeutet; ausserdem 2 Stück der ab. 
conjunctella Sorh. (confluella Strand). In Siredal fing ich ein 
Stück. — Bisher war sie nur bei Kristiania (Schøyen, Strand) 
gefunden. 



170 EMBR. STRAND. 



138. Lithocolletis junoniella Z. 

In Erfjord wurden zwei sichere Exemplare, bei Tou ein 
zweifelhaftes (geflogenes) gefunden. Sonst ist die Art aus Alten 
(Wocke), Tysfjorden und Susendalen (Strand) bekannt. 



139. Lithocolletis quinqueguttella Stt. 

Diese war einer der besten Lithocolletis-Fünae von Hval- 
øerne, indem die Art, soweit ich herausfinden kann, neu für 
Skandinavien ist. Nur zwei Stück wurden erbeutet. Im 
Lepidopteren-Cataloge wird die Verbreitung der Art als Nord- 
deutschland, Holland, Schweiz und England angegeben. Sie 
wurde aber auch aus den baltischen Provinzen (Teich 24)) ge- 
meldet. Jedenfalls ist der Nachweis ihres Vorkommens in 
Skandinavien interessant. Die Raupe miniert nach Sorhagen 
(82) in den Blättern von Salix repens und S. fusca in unter- 
seitiger Mine. 

Die von Sorhagen 1. c. gegebene Abbildung gewährt guten 
Nutzen zur leichteren und sicheren Bestimmung der Art. 



140. Lithocolletis quercifoliella Z. 

Mehrere Exemplare auf Asmal gefangen. Sonst war sie 
nur bei Kristiania (Strand) gefunden. 



141. Lithocolletis hetulae Z. 

Ein einziges, aber zweifelloses Stück in Siredal gefunden. 
Zuvor war die Art bei uns nur in Saltdalen von Schilde ge- 
funden worden. Wallengren giebt sie nur aus dem südlichen 
Schweden an (81). 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 171 

142. Lithocolletis stettinensis Nie. cum ab. bistrigella 
Strand- n. ah. 

Wieder eine für Skandinavien neue Art. Sie kam 
auf Asmal häufig vor, so dass ich zahlreiche Exemplare ein- 
sammeln konnte. Ein Paar Stück davon, die in allem übrigen 
mit stettinensis übereinstimmen und auch zusammen mit zwei- 
fellosen Exemplaren letzterer gefunden wurden und desshalb 
wohl nur eine Aberration davon bilden, zeichnen sich dadurch 
aus, dass die Anzahl der Gostalflecke zwei statt drei ist, indem 
der äusserste (derjenige, welcher der Spitze am nächsten stehen 
sollte) verschwunden ist. Ich nenne diese Aberration bistri- 
gella m. 

Mit Ausnahme von Schweden wird die Art sonst aus den 
Nachbarländern Norwegens angegeben. Die Raupe miniert in 
Älnus glutinosa in oberseitiger Mine. 

143. Opostega salaciella Tr. 
Bei Sireosen wurden mehrere Exemplare, in Siredal, Erfjord 
und Ose Unica erbeutet. In Norwegen nur einmal zuvor ge- 
funden und zwar bei Porsgrund (Strand). In Schweden nur 
in Skåne gefunden (Wallengren (83)). 

144. Talaeporia tubulosa Retz. 
Aus einem auf Kirkeøen (Hvaløerne) am 20. Mai gefunde- 
nen Sack schlüpfte der Falter am 20. Juni. — Zuvor nur an 
ein Paar Localitäten im südlichsten Norwegen (Kragerø, Mandal 
(Schøyen (85)) gefunden. Unsere zweite Talaeporia- Art, T. 
borealis Wk., ist dagegen über das ganze Land verbreitet. 

145. Äcrolepia cariosella Tr. 
Zwei Stück in Siredal gefunden. — Nach den vorliegenden 
Beschreibungen scheint es mir, dass die Exemplare mit wenig- 



172 EMBR. STRAND. 



stens ebenso viel Recht zu Ä. arnicella Heyd. zu ziehen wären. 
Da ich inzwischen von letzterer Art kein Vergleichsmaterial 
besitze und von A. cariosella nur mit einem einzigen Stück 
vergleichen kann, ziehe ich bis auf weiteres meine Exemplare 
zu der sowohl bei uns als in den Nachbarländern gefundenen 
Art Ä. cariosella Tr. 



146. Rösslerstammia Erxlehella F. 

Neu für die Fauna. Ein Stück aus Siredal. Diese Art 
ist meines Wissens in Skandinavien seit Thunberg's Tagen 
nicht gefunden. Wallengren (71) giebt sie nämlich als schwe- 
dische Art nur auf die Autorität Thunberg's hin an. Oben- 
drein wird die TnuNBERG'sche Beschreibung seiner Tinea Erx- 
lehella von Werneburg (84) als sich auf Nemotois cupriacellus 
Hb. beziehend gedeutet; falls diese Deutung die richtige, wäre 
also die Art nie zuvor in Skandinavien gefunden worden. Da 
aber R, Erxlebella in allen Nachbarländern, wenn auch überall 
spärlich, vorkommt, wäre es auffallend, falls sie in Skandinavien 
gänzlich fehlen sollte. 



147. Scar dia holeti F. 

Ein Stück bei Sireosen. Sonst nur bei Kristiania und in 
Odalen gefunden. 



148. Phylloporia histrigella Hw. 

Ein Stück aus Siredal. — Im südlichen Norwegen war sie 
bisher nur auf Dovre (Wocke) gefunden. In der arktischen Re- 
gion ist sie weiter verbreitet; ich habe sie dort auf Hadsel und 
in Tysfjorden gefunden (77). 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 173 

149. Incurvaria peçtinea Hw. cum ah. costimaculata, ab. 

dorsimaculata, ab. demaculata, ab. analimaculata et ab. 

plicamaculata Strand nn. abb. 

Von dieser Art wimmelte es auf Kirkeøen (Hvaløerne) und 
zahlreiche (80) Exemplare wurden mitgenommen. Darunter fin- 
den sich sechsmal so viel Männchen als Weibchen. Von den 
von Zeller (86) angeführten Varietäten finden sich in diesem 
Materiale die folgenden vertreten. 

Von Var. b Z., welche sich durch weisse verloschene 
Tröpfchen auf dem Vorderrande auszeichnet, habe ich nur ein 
einziges Stück und zwar em W^eibchen, das ein weisses Tröpfchen 
bei ^/3 des Vorderrandes hat. Auch Zeller's einziges Stück dieser 
Form war weiblichen Geschlechtes. Ich nenne diese Form ab. 
costimaculata m. 

Var. c Z., die keinen Analfleck besitzt, ist durch 4 Männ- 
chen vertreten. Der Innenrandfleck ist gross und sehr deutlich; 
die einzige Andeutung eines Analflecks ist, dass die Franzén 
an der betreffenden Stelle ein wenig aufgebhckt sind. Da diese 
Form sehr characteristisch ist und anscheinend nicht eben selten 
vorkommt, möge sie mit vollem Recht einen eigenen Namen 
tragen. Ich nenne sie ab. dorsimaculata m. Auch die beiden 
ZELLER'schen Exemplare waren Männchen. 

Var. d Z., welcher der Dorsalfleck fehlt, die anstatt dessen 
dagegen einen Plicalfleck besitzen soll, ist mir nicht vorgekom- 
men. Zeller kannte davon nur ein einziges Weibchen. 

Var. e Z., die keine Flecke besitzt, also ganz einfarbig ist, 
scheint ziemlich häufig vorzukommen, indem 7 meiner Exem- 
plare dazu gehören; auch Herrn Zelle r war diese Form in 
Mehrzahl vorgekommen. Aber nur im männlichen Geschlecht 
ist sie bis jetzt bekannt. Ich schlage den Namen ab. demacu- 
lata m. für dieselbe vor. 

Ebenso häufig ist unter meinen Exemplaren eine von Zeller 
nicht gekannte Form, die einen Analfleck, aber keinen Dorsal- 



174 EMBR. STRAND. 



fleck besitzt, und die ich als ah. analimaculata m, bezeichne. 
Auch nur durch Männchen vertreten. 

Auch zwei andere von Zeller nicht beschriebene Formen 
mögen erwähnt werden. Die eine, wovon ich ein einziges 
Männchen erbeutete, besitzt Iceine der oben gedachten Flecke, 
hat dagegen in der Falte an der Stelle, wo bei der ausgebildet- 
sten Zeichnung die Spitze des Dorsalflecks ist, ein eiförmiges, 
helles Tröpfchen. Diese Form stimmt demnach so ziemlich gut 
mit Var. d Z. überein, nur dass diese letztere sich auch eines 
Analfleckes erfreut. Diese beiden Formen, die also mit Plical- 
fleck versehen, dagegen bald mit, bald ohne Analfleck sind, 
mögen mit dem Namen ab. plicamaculata m. bezeichnet werden. 
Der Plicalfleck ist offenbar als ein besonders gebildeter Dorsalfleck 
aufzufassen. 

Noch eine neue Form besitze ich, die sich dadurch auszeichnet, 
dass zwischen dem Analfleck und der Falte, dem Saume ein 
wenig näher, sich ein heller, übrigens sehr verwischter, Fleck 
findet. Diese Form hegt nur in zwei Männchen vor. 

Es ergiebt sich also, dass von meinen 80 Exemplaren 22 
mehr oder weniger von der Hauptform abweichen, während 58 
mit derselben zusammenfallen. Die Art dürfte demnach als eine 
zum Variiren ziemhch geneigte anzusprechen sein. Auch in 
Betreff der Grösse sind erhebliche Verschiedenheiten wahrnehm- 
bar. Während die Weibchen gewöhnlich 15 — 16 mm. messen, 
finden sich Exemplare, die nur 11 mm. sind; die Flügelspannung 
der Männchen schwankt zwischen 12 und 15 mm. Die Farbe 
der Kopfhaare ist in vielen Fällen schwarz oder schwärzlich. 

150. Incurvaria muscalella F. 

Ein schönes und desshalb sicher bestimmbares Männchen, 
sowie ein abgeflogenes, unsicheres, Weibchen wurden bei Sire- 
osen gefangen. Im südhchen Norwegen war diese Art bisher 
nur bei Vallø (Strand) gefunden. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 175 

151. Adela cuprella Schiff. 

Der Fang dieser Art bei Fredrikstad war insofern von In- 
teresse, als sie bisher nur bei Kristiania (Schøyen, (80)), Vallø 
und Skien (Strand (42, 48)) gefunden war. 

152. Eriocrania fastuosella Z. 

Mehrere Exemplare auf Hvaløerne erbeutet. Sonst nur bei 
Kristiania gefunden. 

153. Micropteryx aureatella Sc. 

Nur ein Stück dieser, wohl die gemeinste unserer Microp- 
terygiden, wurde in Siredal gefunden. 



176 EMBR. STRAND. 



C. Verzeichniss der citirten Litteratur. 

1. Wallengren: Skandinaviens dagfjärilar. Malmø 1853. 

2. Treitschke: Schmetterlinge von Europa, 

3. Herrich-Schäffer : Systematische Bearbeitung der Schmetterlinge von 

Europa. 

4. Frey : Die Lepidopteren der Schweiz. 1880. 

5. Nolcken: Lepidopterologische Fauna von Esthland, Livland und Kur- 

land. („Arbeiten des Naturforscher- Vereins zu Riga". N. 
F. 2-4 (1868-71)). 

6. Hensel: Ueber die Argynnis pales-F ormen. („Berliner entom. Zeit- 

schrift", H. 3-4 (1900)). 

7. Engramelle et Ernst: Insectes d'Europe. Paris 1779. 

8. Sparre Schneider: Tromsø Lepidopterfauna. („Tromsø Museums Aars- 

hefter", 15). 

9. — Oversigt over de i Nedenes Amt bemerkede Lepidoptera. 

(„Kristiania Vidensk.-Selskabs Forh." 1882). 

10. Fuchs: Macrolepidopteren der Loreley-Gegerid u. verwandte Formen 

VI. („Jahrb. d. Nassauischen Vereins f. Naturk." 52). 

11. Meigen: Systematische Beschreibung der europäischen Schmetterlinge. 

1829. 

12. V. Prittwitz: Die Generationen und Winterformen der in Schlesien 

beobachteten Falter. (Stett, entom. Zeit." (1861)). 

13. Jablonsky u. Herbst: Natursystem aller bekannten in- und auslän- 

dischen Insecten. Schmetterlinge. 1782—1804. 

14. AuRiviLLius: Nordens fjärilar. 1891. 

15. Bang-Haas: Fortegnelse over de i Danmark levende Lepidoptera. 

(„Naturhistorisk tidsskrift", 3 R. 9, 10, 13). 

16. Siebke: Enumeratio insectorum norvegicorum. III. 

17. Bramson: Die Tagfalter Europas und des Caucasus. 1890. 

18. Berge: Schmetterlingsbuch. Herausgeg. v. Steudel. 1876. 

19. ScHMiD : Die Lepidopterenfauna der Regensburger Umgegend. ('„Corre- 

spondenz-Blatt d. naturw. Vereins zu Regensburg", 39 
und 40). 

20. Hofmann und Herrich-Schäffer: Die Lepidopteren-Fauna der Regens- 

burger Umgegend, (ibid. 8 und 9). 

21. Hauder: Beitrag zur Macrolepidopteren-Fauna von Oesterreich ob der 

Enns. Linz 1901. 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 177 



22. Meyrick: Handbook of British Lepidoptera. 

23. Krulikowsky in „Bull, des Natur, de Moscau." (1898 u. 1899). 

24. Teich: Vervollständigtes Verzeichniss d. Schmett. d. baltischen Pro- 

vinzen. („Korrespondenz-Blatt d. Naturf.-Ver. zu Riga", XLII 
(1899)). 

25. Wocke: Ein Beitrag zur Lepidopterenfauna Norwegens. (Stettiner 

entom. Zeitung", 1864). 

26. Hüber: Eine neue Noctua. (Horae Societ. Entom. Rossicae" VI 

(1869)). 

27. (vacat!) 

28. Schøyen: Bidrag til Gudbrandsdalens og Dovrefjelds insektfauna. 

(„Nyt mag. f. naturv." XXIV). 

29. Lampa: Förteckning öfver Skandinaviens och Finlands Macrolepi- 

doptera. („Entom. tidsskrift", 1885). 

30. Zetterstedt: Insecta Lapponica". 

31. Schøyen: Fortegnelse over Norges Lepidoptera. („Kristiania Viden- 

skabsselskabs Forhandl." 1893). 

32. — Oversigt over de i Norges arktiske region hidtil fundne 

Lepidoptera. („Archiv for math, og naturvid." V). 

33. Tengstrøm: Nykomlingar för finska fjäril-faunaen. („Notiser ur Säll- 

skapets pro Fauna et Flora Fennica forhandl." 14 (1873)). 

34. Reuter: Förteckning öfver Macrolepidoptera funna i Finland efter är 

1869. („Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica". IX), 

35. Jenner Weir: The Macro-Lepidoptera of the Shetland Isles. („The 

Entomologist", XIII (1880)). 

36. Wheeler : List of Lepidoptera captured at Rannoch in July, 1876. 

(„The Entomologist's Monthly Mag." XIII (1876-77)). 

37. Staudinger: Reise nach Finmarken. Macrolepidoptera. („Stettiner 

entom. Zeitung", 1861). 

38. Sandberg: lagttagelser over arktiske Sommerfugles Metamorphoser. 

(„Entom. tidsskrift", 1883). 

39. Hellins: Note on the Food-plant of Pachnobia hyperborea. („The 

Entom. Monthly Mag." XIII (1876-77)). 

40. Meek: Larva and Food-plant of Pachnobia hyperborea. (ibid.). 

41. Schneider: Lepidopterologiske meddelelser fra det søndenfjeldske 

Norge. („Entom. tidsskrift", 1902. 

42. Strand: Beitrag zur Schmetterlingsfauna Norwegens („Nyt mag. f. 

naturv." 39, (1901)). 

43. — Bidrag til Hallingdals og Lyngørs insektfauna, (ibid. 37. 

(1899)). 

44. Schneider: Coleoptera og Lepidoptera ved Bergen og i nærmeste om- 

egn. („Bergens museums aarbog" 1901, no. 1). 

45. Schøyen: Lepidopterologiske undersøgelser i Romsdals amt. („Nyt 

mag. f. naturvid." XXVII). 

46. Hormuzaki: Die Schmetterlinge der Bukowina. („Verb. d. zool. -botan. 

Gesellsch. zu Wien", 1898-99). 
Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. II. 12 



178 EMBR. STRAND. 



47. Lie-Pettersen : Lepidopterologiske imdersøgelser paa Jæderen 1899. 

(„Bergens museums aarbog", 1900). 

48. Strand: Beitrag zur Schmetterlingsfauna Norwegens. II („Nyt mag. 

f. naturv." 40 (1902)). 

49. — Chloroclystis chloërata Mab. v. hadenata Fuchs, en' for 

Skandinavien ny geometer. („Entomologisk tidsskrift" 
(1902)). 

50. Huene: Aberrationen einiger esthländischen Eulen und Spanner. 

(„Berliner entom. Zeitschrift", 1901). 

51. Schøyen: Nye bidrag til Norges Lepidopterfauna. („Entomol. tids- 

skrift", (1890)). 

52. — Lepidopterologiske bidrag til Norges fauna. („Nyt mag. f. 

naturv." XXV). 

53. Strand: Lepidopterologiske undersøgelser, særligt i Nordlands amt. 

(„Archiv f. math, og naturv." XXII). 

54. Trouvelot: On Monstrosities observed in Wings of Lepidopterous 

Insects, and how they may be produced. („Proceedings of 
the Boston Society of Natural History", XI (1868)). 

55. Schøyen: Nye bidrag til kundskaben om det arktiske Norges Lepido- 

pterfauna. („Tromsø Museums Aarshefter". IV, V). 

56. Lie-Pettersen : Lepidoptera iagttagne i Lærdal sommeren 1897. („Ber- 

gens museums aarbog", 1897). 

57. — Lepidopterologiske notiser fra Nordfjord 1898 (ibid. 1898). 
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1886. 

59. Wallengren: Skandinaviens pyralider och choreutider. („Øfv. af Vet.- 

Akad. Forhandl." 1871). 

60. Staudinger: Die Lepidopterenfauna Kleinasiens. („Horae Soc. ent. 

rossicae", XV). 

61. Laharpe: Faune Suisse. Lépidoptères. („Neue Denkschriften d. all- 

gem. Schweizerschen Gesellschaft", 1853— 6i-). 

62. Steudel und Hofmann: Verzeichniss württembergischer Kleinschmet- 

terlinge. („Jahresh. d. Ver. f. vaterl. Naturk. in Württem- 
berg", 38 (1882)). 

63. Wallengren: Skandinaviens vecklarefjürilar. ("Entom. tidsskrift", 

1888-90). 

64. Schøyen: Yderligere tillæg til Norges Lepidopterfauna. („Kristiania 

Vidensk.selsk. Forh." 1887). 

65. Buettner: Die Pommerschen, insbesondere die Stettiner Microlepido- 

pteren. („Stett entom. Zeit.", 1880). 

66. Fredberg: Förteckning öfver af undertecknad funna Microlepidoptera 

inom landskapet Dal. („Entom. tidsskrift" 1891). 

67. Fuchs: Microlepidopteren des Rheingaues. („Stett, entom. Zeitg." 

1880). 

68. Jourdheuille : Calendrier du Microlépidoptériste. ("Annales de la soc. 

entom. de France, 1869-70). 



BEITRAG ZUR SCHMETTERLINGSFAUNA NORWEGENS. 179 

69. Weston: The Tortrices of Surrey, Kent and Sussex. („The Entomo- 

logist", XIII). 

70. Zeller: Die Argyresthien. („Linnaea entomologica", II). 

71. Wallengren: Species Tortricum et Tinearum Scandinaviae. ("Biliang 

till Kgl. Vet.-Akad. Handl.", 3). 

72. Tengsïrom : Catalogus Lepidopterorum Faunae Fennicae praecursorius. 

(„Notiser ur sällsk. pro Fauna et Flora Fennica förh.". 10 
(1869)). 

73. Heinemann: Die Schmetterlinge Deutschlands und der Schweiz. 

Braunschweig 1863—77. 

74. Wocke: Reise nach Finmarken. (Stett, entom. Zeit." 1862). 

75. Andersson: För svenska faunan nya Lepidoptera. („Entom. tidsskr." 

1897). 

76. Schneider: Lepidopterologiske bidrag til Norges arktiske fauna. 

(„Tromsø museums aarshefter", 3 (1880)). 

77. Strand : Bemerkungen über einige norwegische Tephroclystien und 

Tineinen. („Det kgl. norske videnskabers selskabs skrifter", 
1901, no. 8). 

78. — , Depressaria arctica Strand n. sp. („Archiv f. mathem. og 

naturv." XXIV). 

79. Schneider: Sy dvarangers Lepidoptera. („Tromsø museums aarshefter", 

18 (1895)). 

80. Schøyen: Om nogle for Norges og tildels ogsaa for Skandinaviens 

fauna nye Lepidoptera, („Kristiania Videnskabsselsk. Forh." 
1881). 

81. Wallengren: Skandinaviens arter af Tineidgruppen Lithocolletidae 

(Stt.) (Entom. tidsskrift" 1883). 

82. Sorhagen: Beitrag zur Kenntniss der Gattung Lithocolletis. ("lUustr. 

Zeitschr. für Ent." V, 1900)). 

83. .Wallengren: Skandinaviens Tineae operculatae. (Entom. tidsskrift", 

1881). 

84. Werneburg : Beiträge zur Schmetterlingskunde. I— IL Erfurt 1864. 

85. Schøyen: Tilvæxt til Norges Lepidopterfauna. („Entom. tidsskrift", 

1884). 

86. Zeller: Drei Schabengattungen: Incur varia, Micropteryx und Ne- 

mophora. („Linnaea entomologica". V). 



Trykt deu Ute April 190é, 



180 EMBR. STRAND. 



Bemerkninger til Myntmester Münsters 
„îfye norske Coleoptera". 

Av 
Embr. Strand. 



Hr. Myntmester Münster har i sin opsats om nye norske Coleoptera 
(i dette tidsskrifts 41. bind, 3. hefte) skrevet en petitanmerkning paa IV2 
side + et par mindre anmerkninger for at paavise, at mine coleopterologiske 
arbeider har liden videnskabelig værdi. I den anledning skal jeg herved 
tillade mig at komme med nogle bemerkninger, idet jeg forbeholder mig 
senere ved given leilighed at komme tilbage til sagen. Da jeg nemlig for 
tiden opholder mig i ndlandet og hverken har min samling eller synderlig 
av litteratur, i hvert fald ikke av skandinavisk eoleopterologisk littera- 
tur, til disposition og desuden er optaget med ganske andre zoologiske 
studier, saa kan jeg nu ikke i alle tilfælde give fuld udredning; dette skal 
der forhaabentlig senere blive anledning til. 

Jeg har, netop for at sikre mig, at mit materiale kunde blive saa 
rigtig bestemt som overhovedet muligt, sendt dette til Europas forste 
specialister, som f. eks. Bernhauer og Fauvel. Dette er efter hr. Münsters 
mening ganske forkjert. Hr. Münster hævder den anskuelse, hvorom han 
vistnok turde være saa temmelig alene, at bestemmelser og faunistiske 
arbeider kun kan blive paalidelige, naar de udføres av indenlandske 
fagmænd. Tiltrods for at Fauvel og Bernhauer i lange tider udelukkende 
har studeret staphylinider og vel at merke staphylinider fra de forskjelligste 
lande, saa er de dog ifølge hr. Münster ikke kompetente til at give paa- 
lidelige bestemmelser av norske staphylinider; det kan kun norske fag- 
mænd. — Konsekvenserne af dette hr. Münsters princip turde blive av en 
noksaa eiendommelig art. Saaledes vil alt hvad Bernhauer eller Fauvel 
har skrevet om respektive ikke-østerrigske eller ikke-franske arter blive at 
anse for upaalideligt; saalænge f. eks. Fauvels bestemmelser af nordafri- 
kanske staphylinider ikke „er granskede og påny gjennemgâede" av en 
afrikanei', tør hr. Münster ikke stole paa dem. 

TacMnus scapularis Stph. fra Kongsberg og Vefsen skal være T. lati- 
collis Grav. ifølge hr. Münster. Dr. Bernhauer har bestemt mig vedkom- 
mende eksemplarer som scapularis og i tillid dertil har jeg optaget dem 
i min fortegnelse i „Arch. f. math, og naturv." XXII, nr. 3, under dette 



BEMERKN. TIL MYNTMESTER MÜNSTER. 181 

navn. Hvorvidt der foreligger nogen forveksling for de til universitets- 
musæet indleverede eksemplarers vedkommende, og hvordan den kan være 
foregaaet, fra Bernhauers eller min side, derom kan jeg nu ikke sige noget 
bestemt. I hvert fald er Münsters „sic!" i dette tilfælde ganske unødven- 
digt ; thi arterne er ifølge alle forfattere nærstaaende (saaledes opfører f. 
eks. Erichson: Genera et spee. Staph., pag. 261, Tacliinus pallipes var. 
(= scapularis Stph.) som nr. 28, T. marginellus {= laticolUs Gr.) som 
nr. 31 og sammenligner begge med T. rufipes; likesaa behandles de som 
nærstaaende i Dejeans Catalogue des Coléoptères, pag. 80, og i Reitters 
katalog), hvorfor i tilfælde en forveksling vilde være baade lettere for- 
staaelig og mere undskyldelig. 

Hr. Münster fortæller, at Siebkes Tachyporus hrunneus er synonym 
med Tachyporus nitidulus Fbr. Dette skulde man saavist ikke have 
ventet; thi paa Siebkes tid var den almindelige antagelse netop den, at 
T. hrunneus rigtignok var synonym med T. nitidulus Oliv., men ikke 
med nitidulus Fbr. (= hypnorum Fbr. if. Gemminger og Harolds kat,). 
(Cfr. herom Erichson 1. c. pag. 234- og 241; Kraatz: Naturg. d. Ins. Deutsch- 
lands, II, pag. 423; Gemminger og Harolds kat. o. s.v.). At Siebke i dette 
synonymispørsmaal skulde have dannet sig en selvstændig mening, mod- 
sat nævnte autoriteters, er der ingen grund til at tro, og at han overhovedet 
opfører arten som hrunneus, tyder paa, at han ikke har anset sin form 
for synonym med nitidulus Fbr., da han i saa fald vilde brugt dette, det 
ældste, navn. Saa det er ganske ugrundet, naar hr. Münster dadler mig 
for at jeg ikke havde anelse om at Siebkes hrunneus var lik min nitidulus 
Fbr.; det havde heller ikke hr. Münster kunnet finde ud uden ved under- 
søgelse av Siebkes eksemplar. 

Saa faar vi vide, at Ocypus globuUfer Fourcr. er synonym med Ano- 
dus morio Grav., at arten allerede var opført av Siebke, og at jeg selv 
tidligere havde angivet den under navn av Oe. edentulus Bl. Til disse 
oplysninger føier saa hr. Münster en insinuation om, at jeg ikke kjender 
Reitters katalog. — Jeg kan fortælle hr. Münster, at jeg kjender meget 
godt Reitters katalog (1891), og at der staar aldeles ikke Ocypus glohu- 
Ufer og morio opført som synonymer. Likesaalidt i Grills katalog. Og 
Gemminger og Harolds katalog (p. ,584) identificerer heller ikke globuUfer 
og morio, likesaalidt Kraatz 1. c. pag. 556. — Man kan her fristes til at 
anvende Münsters egne ord om at lidt mere kritik i publikationerne vilde 
være h eldigt. 

Med hensyn til Amara torrida III. saa havde jeg, som allerede an- 
givet i vedkommende avhandling, ikke selv samlet og etiketteret vedkom- 
mende eksemplar, saa for lokaliteten kan jeg ikke indestaa. — For Stenus 
bilineatus og Falagria sulcata gjælder samme bemerkning som for 
Tachinus scapularis. 

Fremdeles kjender Myntmester Münster en hel del findesteder for 
arter, som jeg har betegnet som „sjeldne". - Jeg tviler ikke paa, at hr. 
Münster kjender endnu flere findesteder for en hel del av de av Siebke 
som „sjeldne" betegnede arter. Hvorfor saa ikke likesaa godt gjøre Siebke 
bebreidelser som mig? — Hvad der findes, eller ikke findes i Münsters 



182 EMBR. STRAND. BEMERKN. TIL MYNTMESTER MÜNSTER. 

private samling, det kan man dog ikke forudsættes at have kjendskab til, 
saalænge derom ingenting er publiceret. 

Saa erklærer hr. Münster det for „absolut uriktig", at Otiorrhyndius 
atroapterus D. G. og Nebria brevicollis Fahr, skulde kunne forekomme i 
Hallingdal, fordi de er begge udprægede maritime former. — At Ot. atro- 
apterus kan betegnes som en maritim form er sandt nok; den kan dog 
ogsaa forekomme i indlandet. Saaledes staar det i Stieblins Revision der 
europ. Otiorhynchus-Arten, pag. 103, at den forekommer „namentlich (altsaa 
ikke udelukkende!) an den Küsten". Naar det er tilfældet i andre lande, 
skulde det ikke være utænkeligt, at den ogsaa hos os kunde forekomme 
som en sjeldenhed i indlandet. I hvert fald har ikke Münster fnug av 
bevis for at min opgave om dens forekomst i Hallingdal er „absolut 
uriktig"; lidt mindre bestemte udtryk kunde derfor gjort det. — Endnu 
mindre holdbar blir hr. Münsters paastand for Nebria brevicollis Fbr.'s 
vedkommende. Det er hr. Münster forbeholdt at opdage, at dette er en 
ndpræget maritim art; andre forfattere kjender ikke til det. Jeg skal 
anføre nogle opgifter om dens forekomst. — Stukm : Deutschlands Insecten, 
III, pag. 140, siger : „Fast überall in Deutschland. Ich traf ihn .... in 
Wäldern .... oft in grosser Menge". — Dejean: Species générale . . II, 
pag. 234, anfører: „Elle se trouve très-communément dans toute l'Europe, 
sous les pierres et au pied des arbres, sous les'feuilles sèches". — Schaum: 
Naturg. Ins. Deutschlands, I, pag. 97, har kort og godt: „Ueber ganz 
Europa". — Hochhuth: Enum. d. in Kiew u. Volhynien aufgef. Käfer, pag. 
9, har fundet den „in Laubwäldej-n unter Baumrinde und faulen Blättern". 
Og Gyllenhal (II, pag. 39) skriver: „Habitat in truncis putridis, ad radices 
arborum et sub lapidibus, locis umbrosis". Fremdeies: i Reuters katalog 
mangler betegnelsen „mar." (= maritim) for denne art. 0. s. v. Ingen av 
disse autorer nævner med et ord, at denne art skulde være udpræget mari- 
tim, — Men hr. Münster tager ikke i betænkning at betegne min opgift 
om dens forekomst i et indlandsdistrikt som „absolut uriktig" ! Og det til 
trods for at han hverken har set mine eksemplarer eller selv samlet paa 
vedkommende lokaliteter eller har nogetsomhelst andet sikkert at støtte 
sin paastand til! 

Hr. Münster omtaler, ovenikjøbet to gange, temmelig umotiveret, at 
0. M. Reuter har havt noget at udsætte paa et hemipterologisk arbeide av 
mig. Hertil bemerker jeg kun, at hr. Münster burde have oppebiet mit 
svar til_ Reuter (dette var nemlig endnu ikke trykt, da Münsters avhandling 
udkom), før han opkasted sig til dommer i sagen. For dem som maatte 
interessere sig derfor henvises til „Entomologisk tidsskrift" 1903, hvor saa- 
vel Reuters „kritik" som mit svar findes. 

Marburg i Hessen, decbr. 1903. 



Trykt den Ilte April 1901. 




Om vegetationen i Granyin. 

Af 
S. K. Seiland. 



G, 



'ranvin^ hører til de inderste bygder i Hardanger. Her- 
redet er 189,04 km.^ stort og grænser mod nord og vest til 
Voss, mod syd til Ullensvang og mod øst til Ulvik. Fra den 
8 km. lange Granvinsfjord, en gren af Hardangerfjorden, og 
Granvinsvandet hæver bygden sig for det meste brat opover 
mod de fjeldstrækninger, der fører over til nabobygderne. 

Det faste underlag dannes især af grundfjeld og blødere 
skifere. Sidstnævnte er særlig fremtrædende paa vestsiden af 
Granvinsvandet, samt paa østsiden af dette i den fjeldstrækning, 
der fører over til Ulvik. De høieste fjeldtoppe i herredet naar 
op til over 1500 m. o. h., men dækkes ingensteds af store 
stedseliggende snemasser. 

Ifølge de meteorologiske iagttagelser paa den 345 m. o. h. 
liggende gaard Espeland^, i et trangt dalføre, som fører over 
til Ulvik, er aarets middeltemperatur 4,2° C. For de enkelte 
maaneder stiller forholdet sig saaledes: 



Tidligere skrivemaade Graven. 

Se „Klima" i J. Vibe, Beskrivelse over Søndre Bergenhus amt. 



s. K. SELLAND. 



Januar . 
Februar 
Mars . . 
April . . 
Mai . . . 
Juni . . . 



- 3,6° C. 

- 4,1 

- 2,4 
+ 2,7 
+ 7,8 
+ 13,0 



Juli +13,5 

August . . . +13,2 
September . + 8,8 
Oktober . 
November 
December 



+ 3,9 

- 0,1 

- 2,7 
}° C. og den'høi- 



Den laveste observerede temperatur er — 
este + 28,5 C. Den aarlige nedbørmængde er gjennemsnitlig 1442 
mm. hvoraf i 

Januar . . 150 mm. Juli .... 133 mm. 

Februar . 107 „ August . . 130 „ 

Mars ... 101 „ September 159 „ 

April ... 55 „ Oktober . 161 „ 

Mai. ... 84 „ November 146 „ 

Juni ... 69 „ December 148 „ 



I den ældre litteratur foreligger kun ganske faa og spredte 
angivelser om plantefund i Granvin. Saaledes anfører Marcus 
Schnabel i „Udkast til en Beskrivelse over Hardanger", udgivet 
af Hans Strøm 1781, fra kjendte steder i Granvin 4 plante- 
arter, nemlig Lohelia Dortmanna, Prenanthes flosculis quinis 
(== Laduca muralis), Potentilla norvegica og Alchemilla 
vulgaris. S. C. Sommerfelt nævner i sine „Bemerkninger paa 
en botanisk Excursion til Bergens Stift" (Mag. for Naturv. IX 
1828) granens forekomst paa grænsen af Granvin og Voss. I 
M. JN. og A. Blytt „Norges Flora" angives kun 17 arter, deraf 
7 hieracier, efter iagttagelse af A. Blytt, H. Greve, G. J. 
Lindeberg, Meinich, H. L. Sørensen og N. Wulfsberg. I tre 
„Nye bidrag til kundskaben om karplanternes udbredelse i 
Norge" (Christiania Videnskabsselskabs Forhandlinger 1882, 1892 
og 1897) har A. Blytt øget antallet med henholdsvis 1, 12 og 
5 arter, fundne af Craig, Jan Greve, J. Havaas, A. Landmark, 
S. K. Seeland samt ham selv. Endehg nævner S. 0. F. 
Omang i sine „Hieraciologiske undersøgelser i Norge I" en for 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 185 



Granvin ny Hieracium, samlet af nærværende forfatter. lalt 
angives saaledes i litteraturen kun 41 arter karplanter som 
fundne i Granvin; disse er i fortegnelsen merkede med en 
stjerne (*). 4 Hieracium-arier er ikke gjenfundne. 

I en aarrække har jeg leilighedsvis botaniseret i min hjem- 
bygd Granvin. Ved et offentligt stipendium blev jeg sommeren 
1901 sat istand til at gjøre undersøgelserne mere fuldstændige. 
Som indberetning om anvendelsen af dette stipendium frem- 
kommer nærværende skildring af bygdens vegetation. Eksem- 
plarer af de merkeligere fundne planter er indsendt til universi- 
tetets botaniske museum. 

Til professor, dr. N. Wille, konservator ved botanisk mu- 
seum, cand. mag. 0. Dahl, adjunkt S. 0. F. Omang og amanuensis 
Jens Holmboe, der har bistaaet mig med veiledning og bestem- 
melse af planter, frembæres min bedste tak. Ligesaa til herr 
J. Havaas, der velvillig har meddelt mig mange specielle vokse- 
steder og en del lokalnavne paa planter. 



Granvins flora tæller 557 kjendte arter af karplanter. An- 
gaaende vegetationsforholdene i sin almindelighed kan anføres 
følgende : 

Løvskogen dannes særlig af bjerk og graaor ; men ogsaa 
hassel, rogn, ask, lind, asp, heg, alm og tildels ek danner en 
vigtig del af skogbestanden og dækker de bratte, solvarme lier. 
Furuen er skogdannende særlig i Nestaas- og Kollenesaasen paa 
vestsiden af Granvinsvandet og i Espelandsdalen med nærmeste 
omgivelser. Gran fmdes enkeltvis paa de fleste gaarde, men i 
større antal kun paa gaarden Moe, som grænser ind til gran- 
skogen paa Voss^. I Nestaas- og Kollenesaasen, der skraaner 
mod nord og nordøst, har i de senere aar spiret frem en mængde 



^ Cfr. A. T. Gløersen, Vestlandsgranen og dens Indvandringsveie. (Den 
norske Forstf openings Aarbog 



186 S. K. SELLAND. 



selvsaaede granplanter, men de hugges væk efterhvert for at 
skaffe pläds for furuen. 

Lavlandsfloraen i Granvin har meget tilfælles med den øst- 
landske, paa samme tid som mange kystplanter gaar ind her. 
Af strandplanter, som vokser ved Gran vinsfjorden, kan nævnes: 
Ely mus arenarius, Car ex maritima, Blysmus ruf us, Plantago 
maritima, Armeria maritima, Haloscias scoticum, Cochle- 
aria officinalis, Silene maritima. Granvins flora tæller ogsaa 
mange kystplanter, f. eks. Polystichum Oreopteris, Blechnum 
Spicant, Holcus mollis, Carex pulicaris, C. silvatica, Luzula 
maxima, Narthecium Ossifragum, Taxus baccata, Galium 
saxatile, Lonicera Periclymenum, Digitalis purpurea, Chry- 
sosplenium, oppositifolium. 

De interessanteste botaniske felter i Granvin er de bratte 
styrtninger fra Aadnagavedln mod Granvinsfjorden ved Eide, 
Granvinsvandet, urerne under Joberget, fjeldet mellem Granvin 
og Ulvik samt strøget omkring Krokavatnet paa grænsen mel- 
lem Granvin og Voss. 

Aadnagavedln naar op til en høide af omkring 400 m. De 
bratte styrtninger, der dannes dels af lerskifer, dels af grund- 
fjeld, vender mod syd og dækkes af en frodig vegetation af 
løvtrær, de for urer almindelige vekster og en del sjeldnere arter. 
Allerede tidlig vækkes vaarplanterne af sin dvale. I slutten af 
mars findes almindelig Saxifraga oppositifolia i blomst i en 
høide af 330—350 m. o. h., og Carex digitala allerede i april. 
I disse styrtninger vokser Asplenium Breynii, A. ruta mu- 
raria, Carex muricata, G. silvatica, Epipactis Hélléborine, 
Pyrola media, P. chlorantha, Hypericum monianum, H. 
perforatum, Orohus vernus. Endvidere Hieracium hyalo- 
trichum Omang n. f. 

Granvinsvandet er 3,64 km.- stort og ligger henimod 30 m. 
over havfladen. Det modtager elvene og bækkene fra den største 
del af bygden og har afløb til Granvinsfjorden ved Eide. Dets 
største dybde er 86 m., men flere steder findes større grunde 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 187 

strækninger. Paa disse vokser Equisetum fluviatile, Isoëtes 
lacustris, I. echinospora, Phragmites communis i mængde 
ved Nesheim, Potamogeton natans, Sparganium affine, Calli- 
triche stagnalis, C. verna, Ü. hamulata, Littorella lacustris, 
Lobelia Dortmanna. Paa Nesheim ved Seimselvens udløb i 
Granvinsvandet vokser Bulliarda aquatica. Langs stranden 
vokser paa flere steder Carex vesicaria, C. ampullacea, Lysi- 
machia thyrsiflora, L. vulgaris. Ranunculus reptans, Na- 
sturtium palustre, N. süvestre, Subularia aquatica. Paa et 
enkelt sfed findes Carex pulicaris, paa et andet Iris Pseuda- 
corus. 

Mellem Joberget og Granvinsvandet ligger store sten- 
urer, dels nøgne, dels dækkede af en frodig plantevekst. De 
almindeligste urteagtige karakterplanter i disse urer er føl- 
gende: Polypodium vulgare, Woodsia ilvensis, Dactylis glo- 
merata, Festuca gigantea, Triticum^ caninum, Carex muricata, 
Urtica dioica, Polygonum dumetorum. Valeriana sambucifolia, 
Artemisia vulgaris, Tanacetum vulgaris. Lappa minor, Lamp- 
sana communis, Lactuca muralis, Äsperula odorata, Galeopsis 
TetraMt, Calamintha Acinos, C. Clinopodium, Origanum vul- 
gare, Verhascum nigrum, V. Thapsus, Scrophularia nodosa. 
Linaria vulgaris, Æthusa Cynapium, Torilis Anthriscus, Se- 
dum album, Thalictrum minus. Erysimum hieracifolium, 
Hypericum quadrangulum, Geranium Robertianum, Epilo- 
bium montanum, Gemn urbanum, Agrimonia Eupatoria, 
Lathyrus pratensis, Vicia silvatica, V. Cracca, V. sepium, 
Ervum tetraspermum. 

Paa fjeldstrækningen mellem Granvin og Ulvik findes en 
hel del skifer, og vegetationen fremviser flere af de arter, der 
fortrinsvis holder sig paa de løsere bergarter. Her er to finde- 
steder for Bryas octopetala, nemlig i Granvin i nærheden af 
Kvasshovd og paa skraaningen af Ravnanuten i Ulvik, paa 
førstnævnte sted i en høide af ca. 1100 m., paa sidstnævnte sted 
950—1000 m. o, h. Paa begge steder er følgende arter fundne 



188 S. K. SELLAND. 



sammen med Dryas odopetala: Feshwa ovina, Salix reticu- 
lata, Polygonum viviparum, Vaccinium uliginosum, V. vitis 
idœa, Ärdostaphylos alpina, Thalidrum alpinum, Silene 
acaulis, Empetrum nigrum, Alchemilla alpina. Potentilla 
verna* major. Ved Ravnanuten desuden: Selaginella spinu- 
losa, Air a alpina, Poa alpina. Gar ex capillaris, Juncus tri- 
fidus, Tofieldia horealis, Antennaria dioica, Campamda 
rotundifolia, Gentiana nivalis, G. campestris, Euphrasia offi- 
cinalis, Pinguicula vulgaris, Andromeda hypnoides, Phyllo- 
doce coerulea, Saxifraga oppositifolia, S. aizoides, Parnassia 
palustris, Cerastium alpinum, Alchemilla vulgaris* alpestris. 
Astragalus alpinus. Ved Kvasshovd: Carex saxatilis, Saus- 
surea alpina, Solidago virga aurea, Vaccinium Myrtillus, 
Andromeda polifolia. 

Krokavatnet ligger 572 m. o. h. og er 0,70 km.^ stort. 
Grænselinjen mellem Granvin og Voss gaar omtrent midt over 
våndet. Dets afløb, der gaar gjennem flere mindre fjeldvande, 
falder i Gran vinsfjord en ved Folkedal. De omliggende fjelde 
bestaar dels af haardere, dels af blødere bergarter, og særlig 
paa de sidste udfolder sig en rig plantevekst. I Krokavatnet 
vokser: Equisetum fluviatile, Isoëtes lacustris, I. echinospora, 
Carex ampullacea, Potamogeton natans, Sparganium affine, 
S. hyperhoreum, Lohelia Dortmanna, Utricularia minor. I 
flere tjern, som dannes af den fra våndet rindende elv, vokser 
Nuphar pumilum, ved elvekanten Lycopodium inundatum. 
Nær Krokavatnet ligger sæteren Nyastøl (Sellandsstøl), hvor der 
paa et indhegnet stykke mark findes Equisetum hyemale (kun 
en enkelt tue ; ellers ikke bemerket i Granvin), Hieracium scan- 
dicum N. & P. (= H. aurantiacum ß glaucescens) og Dentaria 
hulhifera. Paa vestsiden af Krokavatnet hæver Skaandalshorgen 
sig til en høide af 1024 m. o. h. Størstedelen hører Voss til, 
men en del af dens sydøstlige skraaninger ligger i Granvin. 
Skifer, gneis og blaakvarts veksler. Thalictrum minus, der 
sedvanlig holder sig i de laveste egne, vokser her i en høide af 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 189 

800 m. o. h. I samme høide vokser Vicia silvatica, Adœa 
spicata, Arenaria serpyllifolia, Rosa villosa (med h vide blom- 
ster), Sedum album, Viburnum Opulus og Verbascum Thap- 
sus. Her findes endvidere Woodsia hyperborea, Arabis petræa, 
Draba hirta; paa underlag af blaakvarts vokser den af adjunkt 
S. 0. F. Omang som ny form betegnede Hieracium perlanatum, 
ca. 800 m. o. h. 

Nesheimshorgen kaldes den fjeldiyg, som gaar fra Kroka- 
vatnet over til Skjervet ved gaarden Moe. Her vokser Carex 
rufina, Poa ïacca (sparsomt), Gentiana purpurea ; længere nede 
vokser Adoxa moschatellina i en høide af ca. 900 m. o. h. 
Paa de nordlige grænsefjelde mod Voss, der for det meste dan- 
nes af haarde bergarter, findes Carex rufina og Poa laxa i 
mængde. Her vokser endvidere Lunula arcuata og Viscaria 
alpina. 



Fortegnelse over de i Granvin fnndne karplanter. 

Equisetciceæ D. C. 

Equisetum arvense L, Almindelig. 

E. pratense Ehrh. Sjelden: Ystaas 300 meter over havfladen; 

ved Granvins vand. 
E. sylvaticum L. „Kjeringarokk" ^. Alm. 
E. palustre L. Flere steder. 
E. fluviatile L. Alm. 
E. hyemale L. „Skavgras". Sj.: Nyastøl, 590 m. o. h. Kun 

en liden tue. 



1 De norske plantenavne, der bruges i bygden, er overalt tilføiede i 
anførselstegn; deres skrivemaade er lagt saa nær udtalen, som det har 
været muligt. 



190 S. K. SELLAND. 



Filîces L. 

Polypodium vulgare L. „Siseljerot". Alm. 

P. Phegopteris L. „Fuglaburtn". Aim. 

P. rhœticum L, Alm. 

P. Bryopteris L. Alm. 

Woodsia ilvensis R. Br. Alm, 

*W". hyperborea R. Br. Sj.: Skaandalshorgen og ved Kroka- 

vatnet. 
Aspidium Lonchitis Sw. Alm. 
*A. angidare W, K. Alm. 
Polystichiim Oreopteris D. C. Alm. 
P. Filix mas Roth. Alm. 
P. spinidosum D. C. Alm. 
P. dilatatum Bl. Hist og her. 
Cystopteris fragilis Bernh. Alm. 
Äsplenium Filix femina Bernh. „Burtn". Alm. („Burtn" 

bruges ogsaa som fællesnavn for de fleste bregner). 
A. Trichomanes L. Alm. 

A. viride Huds. Ikke saa alm. som foregaaende. 
A. septentrionale Sw. Alm. 
A. Breynii Retz. Sj.: Aadnagavedln. 
A. ruta muraria L. Sj. : Ved Krokavatnet; Aadnagavedln; 

Nestaasgeilane (J. Havaas). 
Pteris aquilina L. „Einstabbe". Alm. 
Blechnum Spicant Roth. Alm. 
Struthiopteris germanica Willd. Alm. 

Allosurus crispus Bernh. „Hestaspreng". „Torrbola". Alm. 
BotrycMum Lunaria Sw. Hist og her. 

Isoeteæ Rich. 

Isoëtes lacustris (L.) Dur. Findes baade i Granvinsvandet og 

flere af fjeldvandene. 
*/. echinospora Dur. Ligesaa. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 191 



Lycopodia^ceæ D. C. 

Lycopodium Selago L. „Lusagras". Alm. 

*L. inundatum L. Flere steder. 

L. annotinum L. Alm. 

L. alpinum L. „Javne". Alm. 

L. clavatum L. Alm. (L. annotinum og L. clavatwn gaar 

under navn af „kraokefot"). 
Selaginella spinulosa A. Br. Ahn. 

Gnimineæ Juss. 

Alopecurus pratensis L. I kunstig eng. 
A. geniculatus L. Alm. 
Phleum pratense L. Især i kunstig eng. 
P. alpinum L. Alm. 

/i commutatum Gaud. Sj.: Nesheimshorgen (J. Havaas). 
Phalaris arundinacea L. Alm. 

Holcus mollis L. Flere steder paa vestsiden af Granvinsvandet. 
H. lanatus L. I kunstig eng. 
Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Alm. 
Milium effusum L. Paa østsiden af Granvinsfjorden. 
Agrostis spica venti L. I kunstig eng (J. Havaas). 
A. vulgaris With. Alm. 
A, alba L. Flere steder. 
A. canina L. Alm. 
A. rubra L. Alm. 

Calamagrostis Epigeios Roth. Flere steder. 
C. Pseudophragmites (Link) Rchb. Alm. 
Phragfnites communis Trin. Granvinsvandet ved Nesheim. 
Aira cæspitosa L. Alm. 
A. alpina L. Alm. 
A. flexuosa L. Alm. 

ß montana L. Flere steder tilfjelds. 
Vahlodea atropurpurea Fr. Mange steder. 



192 S. K. SELLAND. 



Trisetum flavescens P. B. Nesheim i kunstig eng. 

Triodia decumbens P. B. Alm. 

Poa annua L. Alm. 

P. läxa Haenke. Paa de høieste fjelde, især alm. paa de 

nordlige af dem. 
P. alpina L. Alm. ; i Aadnagavedln gaar den ned til 35 m. o. h. 
P. trivialis L. Alm. 
P. nemoralis Wahlenb. Alm. 
P. glauca Vahl. Nesheimshorgen. 
P. cœsia Sm. Alm. 
P pratensis L. Alm. 
Glyceria fluitans Wahlenb. Alm. 
Melica nutans L. Alm. 

Molinia ccerulea Moench. „Flisagras". Alm. 
Badylis glomerata L. Mange steder. 
Cynosyrus cristatus L. Af og til i kunstig eng. 
Festuca ovina L. Alm. 

ß vivipara. Alm. 
F. rubra L. Alm. 
F. elatior L. Mange steder. 
F. gigantea Villars. Er funden i urerne under Joberget og i 

Nestaasberget. 
Bromus inollis L. Alm. 

*Brachypodium sylvaticum R. & S. Mange steder. 
Lolium perenne L. I kunstig eng. 
Triticum repens L. Mange steder. 
T. caninum Schreb. Alm. 
Elymus arenarius L. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 
Nardus strida L. „Fintopp". Alm. 

Cyperaceæ D. C. 

Carex dioica L. Alm. 

C. puUcaris L. Sj. : Lines ved Granvinsvandet. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 193 

G. pauciflora Lightf. Alm. 

G. microstachya Ehrh. Sj. : En myr nedenfor Nesheimshorgen, 
ca. 760 m. o. h., i selskab med C. dioica, G. canescens, 
G. vulgaris og G. irrigua. 

G. helvola Bl. Funden ved Geituren og mellem Hondaisnuten 
og Augnasæt i Granvin. 

G. muricata L. Aadnagavedln ; urerne under Joberget; Nes- 
heimslien. 

G. lagopina Wahlenb. Alm. 

G. leporina L. Alm. 

G. stellulata Good. Alm. 

G. Persoonii Sieb. Alm. 

G. canescens L. Alm. 

G. rufina Dr. I mængde paa Stavaskardnut ca. 1180 m. o. h. ; 
Kvasshovd ; Hondalsnut paa grænsen mellem Granvin og 
Voss; Nesheimshorgen og Smøreggen (J. Havaas). 

G. alpina Sv^. Geituren. 

G. atrata L. Alm. 

G. saxatilis Gunn. Alm. 

G. pulla Good. Kvasshovd og nedenfor Hondalsnuten. 

G. vulgaris Fr. Alm. 

G. juncella Th. Fr. Især ved Granvinsvandet. 

G. maritima Müller. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 

0. pilulifera L. Alm. 

G. flava L. Alm. 

G. Oederi Ehrh. Alm. 

C. vaginata Tausch. Alm. 

G. panicea L. Alm. 

G. pallescens L. Alm. 

G. limosa L. Flere steder. 

G. irrigua Sm. Alm. 

G. sylvaiica Huds. Sj. : Aadnagavedln. 

G. capillaris L. Alm. 

G. digitala L. Alm. 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. III. 13 



194 S. K. SELLAND. 



C. filiformis L. Flere steder. 

G. vesicaria L. Granvinsvandet. 

C. ampullacea Good. „Stôrgras". Alm. 

Bhynchospora alba Vahl. Kun funden i Espelandsdalen o^ 

paa fjeldet niellem Granvin og Ulvik. 
Blysmus rufus Link. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 
Scirpus cœspitosus L. Alm. 
S. pauciflorus Lightf. Ved Granvinsfjorden, 
Heleocharis palustris R. Br. Flere steder. 
H. uniglumis Koch. Alm. 
EriopJiorum alpinum L. Flere steder. 
E. vaginatum L. Alm. 
E. capitatum Host. Alm. 
E. angustifolium Roth. „Fivedl". Alm. 



Alismaccæ R. Br. 

Triglochin maritimum L. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 
T. palustre L. Flere steder. 
Scheuchzeria palustris L. Flere steder. 



JuncEiceæ Agardh. 

Juncus conglomeratus L. Sj. : Espelandsdalen; Folkedal. 

J. filiformis L. Alm. 

J. castaneus Smith. Sj.: Mellem Krokavatnet og Skaandals- 

horgen; nedenfor Nesheimshoi-gen. (J. Havaas). 
J. biglumis L. Alm. 
J. triglumis L. Alm. 
J. tri fidus L. Alm. 
J. articulatus L. Alm. 
J. alpinus Vill. Alm. 
J". bulbosus L. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 
J. buffonius L. Alm. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 195 

J. supinus MoENGH. Aim. 

Luzula pilosa Willd. Aim. 

L. maxima Desv. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 

L. campestris D. G. Aim. 

L. arcuata Hook. Sj.: Stavaskardnut ; Hondalsnut paa græn- 

sen mellem Granvin og Voss^. 
L. spicata Desv. Alm. 



MeJanthaceæ R. Br. 



Narthecium Ossifragum Huds. Alm. 
Tofieldia horealis Wahlenb. Alm. 



Lilia^ceæ Juss. 
Gagea lutea Schult, Alm. 

Smilaceæ R. Br. 

Paris quadrifolia L. „Trodlagras". Alm. 

Convallaria verticillata L. Alm. 

C. Polygonatum L. „Sentogerot". Alm. 

G. majalis L. „Blaosarespire". Gjeitøyra. Alm. 

Majanthemum bifolium D. C. Alm. 

Irideæ R. Br. 

^Iris Pseudacorus L. Sj. : Nesheim ved Granvinsvandet. Den 
angives af Blytt i „Norges Flora" at skulle vokse ved 
Eide; dens voksested der har det ikke lykkedes mig at 
gjenfinde. 



1 L. hyperborea R. Br. er funden nær grænsen af Granvin paa Grimsnut 
i Ulvik 1200 m. o. h. 



196 S. K. SELLAND. 



Orchideæ R. Br. 
Malaxis paludosa Sw. Sj.: Storemyr paa Havaas, ca. 540 

ni, 0. h. 
Gorallorhûa innata R. Br. Flere steder. 
Orchis mascula L. Mange steder. 
0. niaculata L. „Marihaand". Alm. 
Gymnadenia conopsea R. Br. Flere steder. 
Platanthera bifoUa Rchb. Mange steder. 
Peristylis viridis Lindl. Mange steder. 

ß hracteata. Sj. : Nesheimshorgen. 
P. albidus Lindl. Sj. : Aasene. 
Listera cordata R. Br. Flere steder. 
Epipadis Hellehorine Gr. Sj. : Aadnagavedln. 
* Good l/era repens R. Br. Sj. : Kollenes- og Nestaasaasen. 

Potameæ Juss. 
Potamogeton natans L. Alm. 

Typhaceæ D. G. 

Sparganium affine Schnitzl. Alm, 

Ä glomeratiim Læst. En form i Seimselven ved dens udlob i 

Granvinsvandet synes at tilhøre denne art. 
S. hyperhoreum Læst. Alm. i fjeldvandene. 

Cupressineæ Rich. 
Juniperus communis L. „Brakje". Alm. 

Abietineæ Rich. 

Pinus silvestris L. „Fura". Alm. 

*Picea excelsa Link. „Grön". Hist og her enkeltvis; i større 
antal paa gaarden Moe, der grænser til granskogen paa Voss. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 197 

Ta,xineæ Rich. 
Taxus haccata L. „Barlind". Barlindskaar paa vestsiden af 
Granvinsfjord ; Barlindskaar paa Haugse; Kjerlandsskaa- 
rane; Hamre; Folkedal. Kun faa eksemplarer paa hvert 
sted. 

Callitrichaceæ Lindl. 
Callitriche stagnalis Scop. Gran vins vand et. 
0. verna Kützg. Alm. 

*0. hamulata Kützg. I vasdraget fra Moevandet til Granvins- 
vandet. 

Myriceæ Rich. 
Myrica Gale L. „Post". Flere steder, især i den østlige del 
af bygden. 

Betulaceæ Bartl. 
Betula verrucosa Ehrh. Mange steder. 

B. odorata Becust. Alm. Fællesnavn for jBe^ttïa-arter: „Bjørk". 
B. intermedia Thom. Hist og her. 
B. alpestris Fr. Hist og her. 
B. nana L. Mange steder. 
Alnus incana D. C. „Orr". Alm. 
A. glutinosa Gærtn. „Svartorr". Sj.: Ved Gran vinsfjorden. 

Cupuliferæ Rich. 
Quercus pedunculata Ehrh. „Eik". Mange steder. 
Gorylus Avellana L. „Hatl". Alm. 

Ulmsiceæ Mirb. 
Ulmus montana Sm. „Alm". Alm. 



198 S. K. SELLAND. 



Urticaceæ Endl. 

Urtica dioica L. „Brennenaata", Alm. 
U. urens L. Flere steder. 

Cannabineæ Endl. 

Humulus Lupulus L. „Humle". Hunplanten findes flere steder ; 
blev tidligere dyrket. 

Salicineæ Rich. 

Salix caprea L. „Selja". Alm. 

S. aurita L. Mange steder. 

S. repens L. Alm. 

S. hastata L. Mange steder. 

S. phylicifolia (L.) Sm. Eksemplarer fra Havaas synes at til- 
høre denne art. 

S. nigricans Sm. Mange steder. 

S. glauca L. Alm, 

Ä lapponum L. Eksemplarer fra Stavaskardnut synes at til- 
høre denne art. 

S. lanata L. Flere steder. 

Ä herbacea L. Alm. 

S. polaris Wahlenb. Sj. : Kvasshovd (J. Havaas). 

S. reticulata L. Mange steder. 

/S. myrsinites L. Flere steder. De fleste Salix-arieif gaar under 
navn af „vier". 

Populus tremula L. „Osp". Alm. 

SaJsoIaceæ Moq. 

Chenopodium album L. Alm. 

ß viride (L.). Alm. 
Atriplex patula L. Mange steder. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 199 

Folygoneæ Juss. 
Oxyria reniformis Hook. Alm. 
Rumex ohtusifolius L. Sj.: Nesheim. 
B. crispus L. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 
R. domesticus Hartm. „Høymola". Alm. 
R. Acetosella L. „Taksyra". Alm. 
R. Acetosa L. „Syra". „Syrestylk". Alm. 
Polygonum aviculare L. Alm. 
P. Hydropiper L. Alm. 
P. Persicaria L. Alm. 
P. lapathifolium L. Flere steder. 
P. viviparum L. „Bakkarot". Alm. 
P. Convolvulus L. Alm. 
P. dumetorum L. Flere steder i urer. 
Fagopyrum tataricum Gærtn. Flere steder. 

Plantagineæ Vent. 
Littorella lacustris L. Granvinsvandet. 
Plantago major L. „Lækjesblokka". Alm. 
P. lanceolata L. Alm. 
P. maritima L. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 

Plumb agineæ Vent. 
J.rmerm maritima Willd. Ved Granvins:^orden. 

Valerianeæ D. C. 
FaZeWcma samhucifolia Mik an. Alm. 

Dipsaceæ Juss. 
Knautia arvensis Coult. Alm. 
Succisa pratensis Moench. Alm. 



200 S. K. SELLAND. 



Compositæ Vaill. 
Tussilago Farfara L. Alm. 
Solidago virga aurea L. „Spanskuit". Alm. 

ß alpestris Rchb. Tilfjelds. 
Erigeron acre L, Hist og her. 
E. alpinum L. Alm. 

/ leucocephalum Fr. Sj.: Nesheimshorgen. 
E. uniflorum L. Sj.: Kvasshovd (J. Havaas). 
Bellis perennis L. Forvildet paa Eide. 
Gnaphalium silvaticum L. Alm. 
G. norvegicum Gunn. Alm. 
G. iiliginosum L. Alm. 
G. supinum L. Alm. 
Antennaria dioica Gærtn. Alm. 

ß hyperhorea G. Don. Sj.: Skaandalshorgen; Aadnaga- 
vedln. 

/ corymbosa Hn. Alm., især tilfjelds^. 
Artemisia vulgaris L. Alm. 
Tanacetum vulgare L. „Reinfann". Findes plantet paa flere 

gaarde; vildtvoksende i urerne under Joberget. 
T. Leucanthemum Schz. Mange steder. 
Matricaria inodora L. „Kaiinasoleia". Alm. 
Anthémis tinctoria L. Af og til i kunstig eng. Første gang 

funden 1890. 
A. arvensis L. I kunstig eng (J. Havaas). 
Achillea Millefolium L. „Rylik". Aim. 
A. Ptarmica L. I kunstig eng (J. Havaas). 
Senecio vulgaris L. Aim. 
Cirsium lanceolatum Scop. Aim, 
G. palustre Scop. Aim. 

C. heterophyllum All. „Hestablokke". Aim, 
C. arvense Scop. Flere steder. 



' Ä. alpina Gærtn. er funden nær grænsen af Granvin paa Midtfjeld 
i Ulvik. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 201 



Carduus crispus L. Alm. (Cirsium lanceolatum, G. palustre 
G. arvense og Garduus crispus kaldes „tistedl"). 

Gentaurea Jacea L. Alm. 

Saussurea alpina D. C. Alm. 

Lappa minor D. G. Alm. 

Lampsana communis L. Mange steder. 

Leontodon autumnale L. Alm. 

(3 Taraxaci Hartm. Alm. tilfjelds. 

Taraxacum officinale Web. „Kjæsoleia". „Kvellsvæva". Alm. 

"^Lactuca muralis Fres. Alm. 

Sonchus asper Vill. Flere steder. 

S. arvensis L. Flere steder. 

Mulgedium alpinum, Less. „Turta". Flere steder. 

Soyeria paludosa Godr. Alm. 

Hieracium. Granvins hieracier er endnu for lidet undersøgte. 
Jeg har indsamlet følgende arter og former, der er bestemte 
af adjunkt S. 0. F. Omang: 

H. pilosella L. f. Gaarden Seiland. 

H. auricula L. Seiland og flere steder. 

H. scandicum N. & P. (= H. aurantiacum L. v. glaucescens 
Lbg.). Nyastøl og flere steder. 

H. suhpræaltum Lbg. Nyastøl. 

H. hyalotrichum Omang n. f. in litteris. Tilhører gruppen 
Gymosa. Fra de beslegtede former udmerker den sig ved 
meget smaa svøb, tæt glinsende haarklædning paa svøb 
og stængelbasis, fuldstændig mangel af glandeler, samt 
smale svøbblade. Findested: Aadnagavedln. 

H. perlanatum Omang n. f. in litteris. Nær besiegtet med 
foregaaende, fra hvilken den især afviger ved bladenes 
form. Den udmerker sig navnlig ved meget tæt, uld- 
lignende haarklædning paa stængel, kurvstilke og svøb. 
Findested : Skaandalshorgen. 

H. glomeratum Froel. suhsp. Nyastøl. 



s. K. SELLAND. 



H. Schmidtii Tausch, formœ. Flere steder. 

V. Hardangerense Omang n. v. Aadnagavedln. („Udmerket 

ved grove, mørke haar paa svøb og rigelige glandeler paa 

kiirvstilkene". Omang in litteris). 
H. Lindeberga Nym. f. Nyastøl; under Joberget. 
H. saxifragum Fr. v. nemorosum Lbg. Ystaas. 

v. hasifolium Lbg. Ystaas. 

v. ariglaucum Omang. Nyastøl. 
H. trichopleum Omang. Under Joberget; Nedre Vatsenden. 
H. stenolepis Almqu. Modif. Aadnagavedln. 
H. cæsiiflorum Almqu. f. Gjermundstrædet. 
H. incanatum Omang n. /", in litteris. Tilhører gruppen Sil- 

vatica. Nedre Vatsenden. 
H. trianguläre Almqu. Gjermundstrædet; Aadnagavedln. 
H. philanthraæ Stenstr. Aadnagavedln. 
H. galhanum Dahlst. formæ. Havaas; Kollenes. 
H. gravastellum Dahlst. /. Nyastøl. 
H. hasifolium (Fr.) Almqu. f. Ystaas. 
H. angustatum Lbg. Nyastøl; Ystaas. 
*iy. nitens Lbg. /. Ystaas; Nyastøl; Kollenes; Kjerland. 
H. diaphanoides Lbg. Gjermundstrædet. 

*iZ". subramosum Lönnb. v. xanlhostylum Dahlst. Gjer- 
mundstrædet. 
H. subrigidum Almqu. Seiland^. 
H. rigidum Hn. /. Seiland. 

subsp. Stuvanes; Prestgardstveit. 

v. spaniophyllum Omang {ad. int.). Kjerland. 
H. tridentatum Fe. f. Ystaas. 
H. dovrense Fr. v. pachycephalum Lbg. Nyastøl. 

v. lasiolepium Omang {ad. int.) Nyastøl. 
*Jï. prenanthoides Vill. f. Nesheimshorgen. 



1 Cfr. S. 0. F. Omang, Hieraciologiske undersøgelser i Norge I. p. 243 
(N. Mag. f. Naturv. B. 39). 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 



H. alpinum (L.) Bagkh. Modif. Nesheimshorgen. 
H. crispum Elfstr. f. Stavaskardnut. 
H. corymhosum Fr. /. Ved Krokavatnet. 

f. hirtellum Lindeb. Eide (Blytt). 
H. angustum Lbg. Ved Krokavatnet. 
H. umhellatum L. Mange steder. 

V. lineare Lbg.^. 

Lobeliaceæ Bartl. 
*Lohelia Dortmanna L. Alm. saavel i Granvinsvandet som i 
fjeldvandene (f. eks. Krokavatnet, 572 m. o. h.). 

Campanalaceæ Bartl. 
Campanula latifolia L. „Kvita røvabjødle". Mange steder. 
C. rotundifolia L. „Bjødle". „Fmgerbjør". Alm. 

Rubiaceæ Juss. 
Galium boreale L. „Mauragras". Alm. 
G. palustre L. Alm. 

ß decipiens Hn. Aasene. 
G. Mollugo L. Sj.: Kollenestveiten i kunstig eng, hvor den 

har holdt sig adskillige aar. 
G. verum L. Mange steder. 
G. saxatile L. Eide; Skaalsæte, 550 m. o. h. 
G. uliginosum L. Alm. 
G. Aparinè L. „Tene". Alm. 
Asperula odorata L. Mange steder. 

Capri folia^ceæ A. Rich. 
Linnœa borealis L. Alm. 

Lonicera Periclymenum L. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 
Viburnum Opulus L. „Beinve(d)". Alm. 

^ Cfr. S. 0. F. Omang, Hieraciologiske undersøgelser i Norge II. p. 365 
(N. Mag. f. Naturv. B. 41). 



204 S. K. SELLAND. 



Olea^ceæ Lindl. 
Fraxinus excelsior L, „Ask". Aim. 

Gentianaceæ Lindl. 

Gentiana purpurea L. „Søterot". Mange steder. 
G. nivalis L. Mange steder. ^ 

G. campestris L. Flere steder. 
Menyanthes trifoliata L. „Bukkabla(d)". Aim. 

Labia^tæ Juss. 
Mentha arvensis L. „Krusemynta". Alm. 
Äjuga pyramidalis L. Alm. 
Stachys silvatica L. „Fulenöta". Mange steder. 
S. palustris L. Mange steder. 
Lamium purpureum L. Alm. 
Galeopsis TetraMt L. Alm. 
G. speciosa Mill. „Dæe". Alm. 
G. Ladanum L. Som ugræs paa Eide 1903. 
*Calamintha Äcinos Clairv. Alm. 
C. Clinopodium Benth. Alm. 
^Origanum vulgare L. „Kiing". Mange steder. 
Prunella vulgaris L. Alm. 
Scutellaria galericulata L. Alm. 

Asperifoliæ L. 
Echium vulgare L. Funden flere gange; første gang 1883. 
Myosotis lingulata Schultz. Ved Granvinsvandet. 
M. silvatica Hoffm. Mange steder. 
M. arvensis Roth. Alm. 
^Echinospermum deflexum Lehm. Mange steder. 

Solsbnaceæ Bartl. 
Solanum nigrum L. Eide som ugræs i en liave 1901—1903. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 205 

ScrophulcLTiciceæ Lindl. 
Verhascum nigrum L. Mange steder i den nordlige del af 

bygden. 
V. Thapsus L. Mange steder. 
Scrophidaria nodosa L. Alnn. 
Linaria vulgaris Mill. Alm. 
Digitalis purpurea L. „Røvabjødla". Flere steder. 
Veronica arvensis L. Flere steder. 
V. serpyllifolia L. Alm. 
Y. saxatilis L. Mange steder. 
V. alpina L. Alm. 
V. officinalis L. Alm. 
V. Ghamædrys L. Alm. 
*y. scutellata L. Sj. : Sellandshagen. 
Euphrasia officinalis L. 

— tenuis (Brenn.) Wettst. Alm. 

— minima Jacqu. Alm. paa myrer tilfjelds. 
Bartsia alpina L. Alm. 

Alectorolophus minor W. et Gr. „Pengagras". "Engjakadl". 

Alm. 
Pedicularis palustris L. Alm. 
Melampyrum pratense L. Alm. 
M. silvaticum L. Alm. 

Lentibula^riaceæ Lindl. 
Pinguicula vulgaris L. Alm. 
Utricularia minor L. Alm. ; jeg har kun seet den steril. 

Primulaceæ Vent. 
'^Primula scotica Hook. Sj. : Smøreggen. 
P. officinalis Jacq. Lillegraven i eng 1903. 
Glaux maritima L. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 
Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. Ved Granvinsvandet. 



206 S. K. SELLAND. 



L. vulgaris L. Sj. : Ved Granvinsvandet og elven nedenfor. 
Trientalis europœa L. Alm. 

Ericaceæ Endl. 
Vaccinmm MyrtiUus L. „Blaobær". Alm, (De sorte, ikke 

blaaduggede bær kaldes „ravnabær"). 
V. uliginosum L. „Blokkebær". Alm. 
y. vitis idæa L. „Tytebær". Alm. 
Oxycocciis palustris Pers. ß microcarpus Rupr. „Myrabær". 

Alm. 
Arctostaphylos uva ursi Spreng. Mange steder. 
A. alpina Spreng. „Rjupebær". Alm. 
Andromeda polifolia L. Alm. 
A. hypnoides L. Mange steder. 
Phyllodoce caerulea Gr. et Godr. Alm. 
Azalea procumbens L. Alm. 

Erica Tetralix L. Sj. : Helgasætfj eldet (J. Havaas). 
Galluna vulgaris Salisb. „Beiteslyng". Alm. 

Hypopitya,ceæ Klotsch. 
Pyrola minor L. Alm \ 
P. media Sw. Sj.: Styrtningerne fra Aadnagavedln mod Gran- 

vinsf jorden; Aasene (J. Havaas). 
P. chlorantha Sw. Sj.: Styrtningerne fra Aadnagavedln mod 

Gran vinsfjorden. 
Monesis uniflora Patze. Sj.: Aasene. 
Bamischia secunda Gke. Alm. 

Umbelliferæ Juss. 
Ægopodium Podagraria L. Eide; Holven. 
Carum Carvi L. „Karve". Alm. 



^ P. rotundifoUa L. er funden nær grænsen af Granvin paa Ravnanut 
i Ulvik. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 207 

Pimpinella Saxifraga L. Aim. 

Haloscias scoticum Fr. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 

Æthusa Gynapium L. Sj. : Urerne under Jobergeti 

Heracleum sibericum L. Aim. 

Angelica silvestris L. „Geitaul". Aim. 

Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. „Fiellkvanna". Flere steder. 

^ Torills Änthriscus Gmel. Nestaasberget; urerne under Joberget 

i mængde; Kløve. 
Myrrhis odorata Scop. Sj. : Haugse; Kjerland. Oprindelig 

plantet. 
Änthriscus silvestris Hoffm. „Hundasleikja". Aim. 

Ara^liaceæ Juss. 

*Adoxa moschatellina L. Mange steder, især paa vestsiden af 
Granvinsvandet ; gaar i Nesheimshorgen op til en høide 
af ca. 900 m. o. h. 

Cornaceæ Lindl. 
Cornus suecica L. „Hønsabær". Alm. 

Cra^ssulaceæ D. C. 

Bulliarda aquatica D. C. Sj.: Nesheim. 
Sedum Rhodiola D. C. „Smørbukk". Alm. 
S. annuum L. „Vortegras". Alm. 
S. album L. Mange steder. 
S. acre L. Mange Steder. 

Sa>xifra,gaceæ D. C. 

Saxifraga Cotyledon L. „Lilja". Alm. 

S. stellaris L. Alm. 

S. nivalis L. Mange steder. 



208 S. K. SELLAND. 



S. oppositifolia L. Alm. 
S. aizoides L. Alm. 

ß aurantia Fl. D. Hist og her. 
S. rivularis L. Alm. 
S. cœspitosa L. Mange steder. 
Ghrysosplenium alternifolium L. Alm. 
C. oppositifolium L. Sj.: Nesheim, ca. 400 m. o. h. 

Ribesiaceæ Endl. 

Bihes Grossularia L. „Stikkelsbær". Flere steder forvildet. 
B. rubrum L. „Vinbær". Ligesaa. 

Rsinunculaceæ Juss. 

Thalidrum alpinum L. Alm. 

*T, minus L. Alm.; ved Skaandalshorgen gaar den op til en 

høide af ca. 800 m. o. h. 
Anemone nemorosa L. „Symra". Alm. 
Ranunculus platanifolius L. Mauge steder; ved Eide gaar 

den næsten ned til havets overflade^. 
B. reptans L. Alm. 
B. pygmæus Wahlenb. Flere steder. 
B. repens L. „Traunskesoleia". Alm. 
B. acer L. „Smørsoleia". Alm. 
B. auricomus L. Alm. 
B. Ficaria L. Alm. 
CaltJia palustris L. „Myrasoleia". Alm. 
Aquilegia vulgaris L. Sj. : Lines ved Granvinsvandet. 
Aconitum septentrionale Koll. Flere steder i den mod Ulvik 

grænsende del af bygden. 
Actæa spicata L. Mange steder. 



^ Banunculus glacialis L. er funden paa fjeldet Oksen i Ullensvang 
nær grænsen med Granvin. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 209 

Fumariaceæ D. G. 

^Corydalis fabacea Pers. Mange steder. 
Fumaria officinalis L. Ligesaa. 

Cruciferæ Adans. 
Nasturtium palustre D. G. Ved den øvre del af Granvins- 

vandet. 
'■'N. silvestre R. Br. Langs den øvre del af Granvinsvandet fra 

Nesheim til Granvins kirke. 
Barharea vulgaris R. Br. Flere steder i kunstig eng. 
jB. strida Fr. I kunstig eng (J, Havaas). 
^Turritis glabra L. Mange steder. 
Arabis hirsuta Scop. Mange steder. 
A. Thaliana L. Alm. 
A. petræa Lam. Sj.: Skaandalshorgen. 
A. alpina L. Flere steder. 
Cardamine pratensis L. Alm, 
(7. hirsuta L. Alm. 

C. bellidifolia L. Mange steder. 

*Dentaria bulbifera L. Nyastøl, 590 m. o. h. ; nær Skaalsæte, 

550 m. o. h.; styrtningerne paa vestsiden af Granvins- 

fjorden lige ned til sjøen (J. Havaas). 
^Berteroa incana D. G. Flere steder i kunstig eng. Funden 

første gang 1888. 
Draba hirta L. Sj.: Stein sætehorgen ; Nesheimshorgen (J. 

Havaas); Skaandalshorgen. 

D. incana L. Flere steder. 

Cochlearia officinalis L. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 
Thlaspi arvense L. Flere steder. 
^Erysimum hieracifolium L. Flere steder. 

E. cheiranthoides L. Funden 1890 i kunstig eng. 
Camelina silvestris Wallr. I kunstig eng (J. Havaas). 
Gapsella bursa pastoris Moench. Alm. 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII III. 14 



210 s. K. SELLAND. 



*Lepidiu'm perfoliatum L. I kunstig eng (J. Havaas). 

Brassica asperifolia Lam. Funden 1890 i en ager. 

Sinapis arvensis L. Flere steder. 

S. alba L. Mange steder. 

Raphanus Raphanistrum L. Af og til som ugræs i ågre. 

De tre sidstnævnte kaldes „mustar". 
Subularia aquatica L. Findes baade ved Granvinsvandet og 

igeldvandene. 

NymphæBiceæ Salisb. 
Nuphar pumilum Sm. I flere fjeldvande. 

Drosera,ceæ D. C. 
Drosera rotundifolia L. Alm. 
D. longifolia L. Alm. Begge arter kaldes „ringormegras". 

ß obovata Koch. Sj.: Havaas. 
Parnassia palustris L. Alm. 

Violaceæ Juss. 
Viola palustris L. „Kjeringøyra". Alm. 
V. biflora L. Mange steder. 
F. Riviniana Rghb. Alm. 
V. canina L. Alm. 
V. tricolor L. „Dag og natt". „Taksoleia". Alm. under flere 

former, f. eks. f. typica Wittr. og f. versicolor Wittr. 

En form fra Eide nærmer sig f. aureobadia Wittr. 
V. arvensis Murr. Eide, som ugræs i en have 1903. 

Portulacaceæ Lindl. 
Montia fontana L. 

CC minor Gmel. Alm. 

ß rivularis Fr. Sj.: Krossdalen paa Ystaas. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 211 

Paronychieæ St. Hil. 
Scleranthus annuus L. Flere steder. 

Alsinaceæ Bartl. 
Spergula arvensis L. Alm. 
Sagina procumbens L. Alm. 
S. saxatilis Wimm. Mange steder. 
Alsine biflora Wahlenb. Sj. : Kvasshovd. 
"^Moéhringia trinervia Clairv. Alm. 
Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Flere steder. 
Stellaria nemorum L. Alm. 
S. media Vill. „Vassarve". Alm. 
S. graminea L. Alm.; tindes især under formen Pacheri 

WOHLF. 

*S. Friesiana Ser. Sj.: Nesheimshorgen ; Skjervet. 
S. uliginosa Murr. Alm. 
Cerastiwm alpinum L. Alm. 
C. trigynum Vill. Alm. 
C. vulgatum L. Alm. 

Silenaceæ Lindl. 
Silene infläta Sm. „Smedlegras". Alm. 
S. maritima With. Ved Granvinsfjorden og i de lavere dele 

af bygden. 
S. rupestris L. Alm. 
aS. acaulis L. Mange steder. 
Agrostemma Glthago L. Af og til som ugræs. 
Lychnis flos cuculi E. I kunstig eng. 
Viscaria vulgaris Roehl. Flere steder. 
V. alpina Fr. Sj.: Stavaskardnut ; Hondalsnut. 
Gypsophila vaccaria. Eide, i kunstig eng 1903. 
Melandrium diurnum Fr. Alm. 
M. vespertimim Fr. Eide, i kunstig eng 1903. 



212 S. K. SELLAND. 



Tiliaceæ Juss. 
Tilia parvifolia Ehrh. „Lind". Alm. 

Hypericaceæ Lindl, 

'^Hypericum montanum L. Sj. : Aadnagavedln. 

H. quadrangulum L. „Harbein". Alm. 

H. perforatum L. Sj.: Aadnagavedln; Nesheimslien. 

Polygalaceæ Lindl. 
Polygala vulgaris L. Alm. 

Rha^mnaceæ Lindl. 

Rhamnus Frangula L. „Hundabærhegg". „Trodlabærbegg". 

Alm. • 

I 

Empetreæ Nutt. 

Empetrum nigrum L. „Krækjebær". Alm. 

Gerania^ceæ D. C. 

Geranium silvaticum L. Alm. 

G. Rohertianum L. Alm. 

G. lucidum L. Sj. : Nesheimslien ; urerne under Joberget. 

*G. columbinum L. Sj.: Ved veien langs Granvinsvandet 

under Joberget. 
^Erodium cicutarium Herit. Sj,: Spilde. 

Linaceæ Lindl. 

Linum catharticum L. Alm. 

L. usitatissimum L. Eide, i kunstig eng 1902. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 213 



Oxcblidciceæ Lindl. 

Oxalis Acetosella L. „Gaukasyra". Alm. 
ß lilacina Lge. Sj.: Havaas. 



Bcilsa^minciceæ Lindl. 
Impatiens noli tangere L. Alm. 

Onagraceæ Lindl. 

Epilobium angustifolium L. „Geitskje". Alm. 
E. montanum L. Alm. 

ß collinum Koch. Eide. 
E. anagallidifolium Lam. Mange steder. 
E. lactiflorum Haussen. Ligesaa. 
E. Hornemanni Rchb. Ligesaa. 
E. palustre L. Alm. 
Circæa alpina L. Alm. 

HaJorageæ R. Br. 

Hippurus vulgaris L. Flere steder. 
Myriophyllum alterniflorum D. C. Alm. 

Pomaceæ Lindl. 

Pyrus Malus L. „Surapall". Hist og her. 

Sorhus Aucuparia L. „Raun". Alm. 

S. fennica Kalm. „Asald". Flere steder. 

S. Aria Crantz. Flere steder. 

Cratcegus monogyna Jacq. Sj.: Urerne under Joberget; Nest- 

aasberget (J. Havaas). 
Cotoneaster vulgaris Lindl. Mange steder. 



214 S. K. SELLAND. 



Rosaceæ Juss. 

*Älchemilla vulgaris L. „Fediestakk". Aim. under flere former: 

— filicaulis Bus. 

— alpestris Schmidt. 

— dbtusa Bus. 

A. alpina L. Aim. 

Agrimonia Eupatoria L. Sj.: Under Joberget. 
Rosa canina L. Denne og den følgende art kaldes „klungr". 
Alm. 

B. villosa L. Alm. 

Ruhus idæus L. „Bringjebær". Alm. 

B. suberedus Ands. „Bjødnabær". Alm. 

R. cæsius L. Ved Gran vinsfjorden. 

R. saxatilis L. „Taogabær". Alm. 

R. Chamæmorus L, „Molta". Alm. 

Bryas odopetala L, Sj.: Nær Kvasshovd. 

Sihhaldia procumbens L. Alm. 

Geum rivale L. Alm. 

G. intermedium Ehrh. Sj. : Eide. 

G. urbanum L. Alm. 

Comarum palustre L. Alm. 

Potentilla anserina L. „Mura". Mange steder. 

— argentea Bl. Ved Granvinsfjorden. 
*P norvegica L. Flere steder. 

P. argentea L. Alm. 

P. verna L. a) m,ajor Wählend. Mange steder. 

P. Tormentilla Scop. „Almegras". „Grisagras". Alm. 

Fragaria vesca L. „Jarbær". Alm. 

Spiræa Ulmaria L. „Meurta" (udt.: Me-urta). Alm. 



Drnpaceæ D. C. 
Prunus Padus L. „Hegg". Alm. 



OM VEGETATIONEN I GRANVIN. 215 

Papilionciceæ L. 

Anthyllis vulneraria L. Mange steder. 

Trifolium agrarium L. I kunstig eng (J. Havaas). 

T. repens L. „Kvitklyver". Alm. 

T. hyhridum L. I kunstig eng. 

T. pratense L. „Rau(d)klyver". „Blaohatt". Alm. 

Lotus corniculatus L. Alm. 

Orohus vernus L. Sj.: Aadnagavedln ^. 

Lathyrus pratensis L. Flere steder. 

Vida silvatica L, Mange steder. 

V. Cracca L. „Musertragras". Alm. 

V. sepiiim L. Alm. 

V. sativa L. Eide, i kunstig eng 1903. 

Ervum tetras permum L. Sj.: Under Joberget. 



De s. 85 nævnte 4 Hieracium-arler, som tidligere er fundne 
i Granvin, men ikke senere gjenfundne, og som derfor ikke er 
opført i foregaaende fortegnelse er følgende: 

H. canescens Schleich? 

H. oreades Fr. 

H. protractum Fr. 

H. crocatum Fr. 



0. tuberosus L. og Astragalus alpinus L. er fundne nær grænsen af 
Granvin; den førstnævnte i Ullensvang ved Utnesfjorden, den sidst- 
nævnte paa Ravnanut i Ulvik. 



Trykt den 14de April 1904. 



Motion au Congrès international de Botanique 
Deuxième Session. Vienne 1905. 



L. 



les soussignés se permettent de présenter les dispositions 

suivantes au vote de l'assemblée: 
I. Afin d'établir le droit de priorité sur de nouvelles 
espèces et variétés morphologiques parmi les vé- 
gétaux thallophytes, il faudra à l'avenir publier, 
non seulement une description, mais une repré- 
sentation figurée de l'organisme considéré, suffi- 
samment claire pour faire comprendre la diagnose 
de l'espèce. 
II. Afin de maintenir ce même droit de priorité sur 
des genres nouveaux parmi les thallophytes, il 
faudra, outre la description, présenter aussi (ou 
se référer à) la figuration, comme pour l'espèce, 
d'une espèce aumoins parmi celles composant le 
genre considéré. 

III. Ces dispositions entreront en vigueur au l^'^ jan- 
vier 1906. 

Exposé des motifs. 

Quiconque s'occupe de la détermination d'organismes micro- 
scopiques reconnaît bientôt qu'il est souvent fort difficile d'iden- 
tifier une espèce rien que sur une description, si bonne qu'elle 
puisse être. 



218 N. WILLE ET V. WITTROCK. 

Dans certains groupes d'algues, les desmidiacées, les oedo- 
goniacées, les cladophoracées, les diatomacées etc., il est même 
souvent impossible d'identifier une espèce, si l'on n'a pas l'occa- 
sion de la comparer avec des planches ou avec des exemplaires 
originaux. 

Plus à l'avenir parmi les thallophytes, on s'occupera des 
espèces élémentaires, plus on trouvera de difficultés à les iden- 
tifier uniquement sur des descriptions. Le nombre des attribu- 
tions erronées augmentera dans une proportion inquiétante. 

Sans vouloir méconnaitre la valeur des exemplaires origi- 
naux, il convient cependant de faire remarquer que chez les 
thallophytes, ils ne peuvent pas toujours suppléer à l'absence 
de bonnes planches. Par la méthode de conservation encore 
usitée généralement pour les algues, c. a. d. la dessication, de 
nombreux groupes d'algues, p. ex. les volvocacées, les ulothri- 
cacées, les cladophoracées etc. se trouvent fréquemment si modi- 
fiées qu'il n'est désormais pas possible de les identifier: alors 
même qu'on les conserve dans les meilleurs liquides conservateurs, 
il se produit chez nombre d'espèces des changements tels, qu'il 
devient difficile ou impossible de les identifier. Ajoutons 
qu'il peut souvent être difficile d'être fixé sur ce qui constitue 
l'exemplaire original d'une espèce; c'est ce qui a surtout lieu, 
quand l'espèce en question se présente en peu d'exemplaires 
dans un mélange composé de beaucoup d'autres algues plus ou 
moins voisines, comme p. ex. desmidiacées et diatomacées. 

Enfin, lorsqu'une espèce n'est représentée que par un petit 
nombre d'exemplaires originaux, elle sera plus exposée à la de- 
struction et sera plus difficile à expédier (sans compter que cer- 
tains musées ne prêtent pas leurs exemplaires au dehors) que 
des planches qui généralement seront imprimée en nombre, et 
pourront d'ailleurs toujours être photographiées. 

Aussi une planche soigneusement exécutée pourra-t-elle, en ce 
qui concerne bien des groupes de thallophytes, offrir un meilleur 
moyen d'identification d'une espèce que des exemplaires ori- 
ginaux. 



MOTION AU CONGRES INTERNAT. BOTAN. VIENNE 1905. 219 

Il va sans dire que tout cela suppose que l'espèce sera re- 
présentée d'une façon si exacte, qu'elle soit facile à recon- 
naître et qu'au moins les plus importants des caractères micro- 
scopiques sur lesquels on fonde la diagnose de l'espèce, seront 
bien mis en évidence par la figure, dont les proportions devront 
être exactes, et dont le grossissement devra être indiqué en 
chiffres. 

Pour les lichens, les grandes phéosporées et les grandes 
floridées, il est clair qu'à cet égard de bonnes planches analy- 
tiques prises après examen microscopique des conditions de re- 
production pourront suffire à établir la priorité pour une espèce, 
une variété, nouvelles, mais même alors même il serait désirable 
qu'on y jolguît aussi une représentation macroscopique exacte 
(de préférence une photographie). 

Pour les espèces dites élémentaires qui ont été érigées en 
dernier lieu dans certains groupes, comme p. ex. les bactéries, 
les mycédinées etc., on ne peut naturellement pas faire valoir 
les mêmes arguments, ces espèces n'étant pas, basées sur des 
caractères morphologiques. 

Si l'on exige désormais que les descriptions de genres, 
d'espèces et de variétés de thallophytes soient accompagnées de 
planches, il en résultera probablement les conséquences suivantes, 
favorables au progrès de la science: 

1) Il sera bien plus aisé d'identifier les espèces à l'aide de 
figures qu'à l'aide de descriptions. 

2) Ces figures seront à l'avenir exécutées avec plus de soin 
encore, afin que le nom qu'on leur impose ne perde pas 
son droit de priorité. On observa avec une précision d'au- 
tant plus grande les caractères de l'espèce, et l'on arrivera 
par là à des diagnoses plus tranchées. 

3) On évitera des „descriptions provisoires" destinées à cou- 
vrir le droit de priorité : elles peuvent avoir de l'intérêt pour 
l'amour-propre personnel, mais dans la littérature scientifique, 
elles font plus de mal que de bien; attendu qu'en général 



N. WILLE ET V. WITTROCK. 



elles ne sont pas poussées bien à fond, et sont même pu- 
bliées avant que les recherches soient achevées. C'est pour- 
quoi l'on trouve souvent dans les descriptions accompagnant 
de pareilles communications provisoires un certain nombre 
d'inexactitudes, et qu'il convient de les corriger lorsque paraît 
la description plus approfondie. 

Christiania (Norvège) et Stockholm (Suède) Mai 1904. 
Dr. N. Wille. Dr. V. Wittrock. 



Trykt den 30te Mai 1904. 



A study on trout and young salmon. 

(Report on researches concerning the migrations of young salmon 
1898-1902) 

by 
Knut Dahl 

director of the biological station, Trondhjem. 
(With 3 plates and 7 tables.) 



Introduction. 

Ever since Linné in the year 1766 published his Systema 
Naturae, the treatment of the genus, to which trout and salmon 
belong, has thrown considerable difficulties in the way of syste- 
matical investigation, because these species or forms are very 
closely related as well in external and internal caracters as in 
their habits of hfe. 

Linné distinguished the following species: 
Salmo salar = salmon. 
„ eriox = sea trout. 
„ trutta = river trout. 
„ fario = brook trout. 
„ lacustris = lake trout. 
These Linnés 5 species have in the course of time encoun- 
tered quite a remarkable fate. 

During the past century a series of naturalists have occu- 
pied themselves in investigating their right as distinct species. 
Swedish scientists principally have closely studied these species, 
although other european savants f. ex. Guvier, Pallas' 
Agassiz sen., Kröyer, Siebold, Günther, Day and Yarrel 



KNUT DAHL. 



also have dealt with them. Among the swedish investigators 
the principal ones are Nilsson, Widegren, Liljeborg, Fries 
Ekström and Sundewal, besides F. A. Smitt. I will not here 
in detail pursue the fate of Linnés 5 species under the hands 
of all these men. 

His first species, the salmon, Salmo salar, has endured all 
trials; contrary to this his 4 species of trout have encountered 
very variable conditions. The great variation among trouts, 
which is the fundament of Linnés species has on closer study 
made the distinction between species and non species very diffi- 
cult. As every one knows, who has paid attention to these 
things, the trout of even closely connected waters, may differ 
considerably in certain respects, for instance in colour and the 
form of the body. To begin with, this circumstance caused 
the proposition of still more species than Linné originally did 
propose. 

However on this fundament there would apparently be no 
end to the constitution of new species and very soon we notice 
a tendency to reduce the number of species, a closer investi- 
gation showing that the peculiarities whereon the descriptions 
of the species were founded mainly were peculiarities which 
every trout under given circumstances could acquire. 

The latest swedish naturalists, f. ex. Liljeborg, nominate 
now only two species: 

Salmon [salmo salar). 
Trout [Salmo trutta). 

Still more exacting in his reduction is F. A. Smitt, who 
only nominates one species, salmo salar, and as a variety 
thereof s. trutta. 

LiLjEBORG thus asserts, that the proper sahiion [salmo 
salar) in all stages of its life may be distinguished fi-om any 
other salmonid form. 

The Trout [salmo trutta), which is found in the fi-esh 
waters as well as in the sea, varies highly and he does not find 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 

that it is possible to distinguish its many local forms as diffe- 
rent species. They must be considered as varieties produced by 
varying sourroundings. 

Also, he asserts that the trout in all stages of its life can 
be distinguished from the salmon. However he admits, that it 
is the oldest and the youngest stages that are most readily 
distinguished in the tw^o species. As regards the half grown 
stages (betw^een fry and grilse, by Liljeborg denoted as „forell 
og öring-stadier") he acknowledges that they only with difficulty 
are to be distinguished. 

F. A. Smitt, probably the man, who up to date has dis- 
posed of the largest material and who has undertaken very 
comprehensive examinations in order to sift the system of the 
salmonidce, does not find himself able to uphold more than one 
species, salmo salar. According to the environs of develope- 
ment the species may appear, now as salmon {forma typica), 
now OS trout {forma trutta), and fry of one form thus have 
a chance of by force of circumstances to develop into the 
other form. 

Here in Norway, the question remarkably enough newer 
has been subjected to a thorough serious investigation although 
fishermen and people interested in fisheries from time to time 
have subjected it to a lively discussion, and adequate knowledge 
of this question obviously is fundamental to any rational legis- 
lation tending to regulate the fishing for these species. 

In our country there has from olden time, besides the 
salmon-fisheries proper, been practised a fishery, whose object 
was the catching of smaller salmonid fislis, so called „sjøørret" 
(sea trout) varying in length from 20 — 40 — 50 cm. The gear 
employed was usually small seines and ground nets. 

As regards the species of these fish, which according to 
locality were named „smaalaks", „sjøørret", „sjøblege", „kludd", 
„høstblege" etc. the opinion of fisherman and people interested 
in the fisheries has been highly divided. We here encounter 



KNUT DAHL. 



the very same views, which have governed scientific research on 
these matters. 

While some fishermen assert, that these different names 
denote just as many species, others again give prominence to 
the opinion that these small salmonids, named sea trout, are 
nothing but young salmon. Others have stated as their 
opinion, that among the sea trout, which they consider a 
separate species, there is to be found a large proportion of 
young salmon or grilse, which in these younger stages only 
with the utmost difficulty are to be discerned from the sea trout. 

This latter theory, which is also to a certain extent sup- 
ported by science, has been essential to the deliberations, on 
which regulations of law concerning the salmon and sea trout- 
fisheries of this country are founded. 

When our administration (lastest in the salmon law of 1891) 
by the aid of different regulations, among these a regulation 
inforcing a certain minimum-size of mesh in nets and seines, 
sought to benefit the interests of these fisheries, it was, on 
account of the difficulty in distinguishing between sea trout and 
young salmon, considered impossible separately to regulate the 
salmon and sea-trout fisheries. Accordingly both were in 
common subjected to the regulations of the same law. 

By this law the use of a smaller mesh than 6,5 cm. 
between the knots. (13 cm. mesh) was prohibited, as well 
in fishing for salmon as for sea trout. The regulation size 
of the mesh is by later laws and amendments altered to 
5,8 cm. between the knots. The law also orders that sea-trout 
of a smaller length than 40 cm. cought in gear with a smaller 
mesh, (such as herring seines etc.) are to be set fi-ee. The 
smallest allowed size for sale of salmon and seatrout is 21 cm. 

Under those regulations our sea trout fisheries have not 
profited, as the size of the fish of wich previously the bulk of 
the catch consisted, is to small too be retained by the regulation 
mesh, in other words, it is a fact that a profitable fishing 



À STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 

for sea trout under our present regulations only can be carried 
out with unlawful gear. 

The only way in wich our fishermen during the latter years 
have been able to procure sea trout in quantities worth men- 
tioning, has been to use ordinary small meshed seines (20 — 30 
fathoms long). The use of these seines for herrings and other 
sea fish is in most parts of our country unlimited by law. The 
trout cought during the use of these seines is then sold under 
protection of the regulation concering the minimum size of 21 
cm. for sale of salmon and sea trout. 

In case the fishermen are not cought in the very act of killing 
trout smaller than 40 cm.s long taken in seines or nets con- 
viction is not easy. Ho vever there has been no lack of colli- 
sions between the fishermen and the guardians of the law on 
this point, and it will be quite well understood, that a fishery, 
working under such conditions, has no chance of being car- 
ried on rationally. 

The conditions, here briefly scetched, have occasioned very 
pointed differences of opinion as to whether the sea trout ought 
to be cought or not. 

Foreign sportsmen especially have publicly in sporting your- 
nals and other press organs asserted, that the salmon fry 
upon leaving the rivers are „swept out" by nets and sold under 
the name of sea trout, and have also pointed out, that this fact, 
would imply the certain ruin of our salmonfisheries. 

The opinion of the „lawless" trout fishermen is just the 
opposite. They strongly assert the innocense of their industry 
as to harming the salmonfisheries. On the contrary they often 
give prominence to the fact, that they consider it a deed of 
merit to kill the trout who is „a rapacious fish and the foe of 
the salmon". 

In recognition of these facts Mr. A. Landmark, inspector 
of fisheries in 1897 consulted Dr. Johan Hjort and the author 
of this paper, and finally proposed to governement the commen- 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXIL III. 15 



Knut dahl. 



cement of rational researches as to the relation between young 
salmon and sea trout in our waters. The storthing voted the 
necessary means, wich also during the whole progress of the 
research have been liberally granted. 

During the 4 years from 1898 to 1902 I have under- 
taken quite a comprehensive series of investigations concerning 
the distribution of different stages of salmon and seatrout in 
our waters in connection with studies on their specific charac- 
ters and biological differences. 

In the following chapters I propose to give an account of 
these investigations and their results, which, according to my 
opinion, not only throw new hght on the questions mentioned 
above, but also have importance to other features in legisla- 
tion relating to salmon and trout-fisheries. 

Chapter I. 
The methods and implements of the investigations. 

Any investigator wishfull of forming an independent opinion 
based on observation, will to my thinking, on reading the large 
mass of literature relating to the problems shortly mentioned in 
the introduction, find a lack of systematically continued resear- 
ches founded on direct observations in nature concerning the 
species in question, their wanderings or habitats in different 
stages of life. 

From the abovementioned literature it transpires, as far as 
I have been able to see, that those naturalists, who have treated 
salmon and trout, have got the essential proportion of their ma- 
terial from museums. Certainly they have also made indepen- 
dent collections in nature, but these seem in most cases to have 
had a casual caracter and been merely supplementary. Among 
those investigators, who have gained the best knowledge on 
these species, there is hardly one, who has had the opportunity 
of undertaking numerous independent fishing experiments over 



À STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 227 

great areas of water, through a series of years, and by these 
means endeavouring to pursue the species during their develope- 
ment through different stages of life, not only by study and 
observations on single scattered individuals, but by the investiga- 
tion of large numbers of fish. 

Thanks to the generosity of our storthing, the present 
author has had the opportunity of planning researches differently 
to previous investigators. 

As a base of investigation was chosen the Throndhjem 
fiord with its rivers and the adjacent coast outside the fiord. 
This district is by far the richest of all our salmon districts, 
yielding an annual catch of salmon amounting to about the 
fourth or fifth part of the total yield of the whole country. 

In this district I have, by systematically continued investiga- 
tions, endeavoured to solve the problems in question and at the 
same time or later, by more cursory researches in other lo- 
calities through all parts of the country, effected a control of 
my results, as to their general value. During the researches in 
the fiord and the adjacent strech of coast, I have employed a 
small sailing cutter with a crew of 2—3 skilful fishermen, besides 
myself. I was thus enabled, at any tmie to move between the 
different localities, according to the demands of my investigation. 
In my fishing experiments, which chiefly embraced smaller 
sizes of fish, than those cought in implements of a mesh in acor- 
dance with the regulations of law, Danish eelhandseines of 
large dimensions (30 X ^ fath.) were mainly employed. By 
floating the headrope more and weighting the groundrope less 
than usual for fishing with the same gear in Denmark, these 
seines are made very efficient implements for the catching of 
smaller salmonids. By numerous direct comparisons, I have 
found them more efficent, than the ordinary type of seine 
(without a pocket), as used by our fishmen in „illegal" trout- 
fishing. Their size of mesh (28 — 32 knots pr. foot — norvegian — ) 
of course make them a little heavier than the ordinary abovemen- 



KNUT DAHL. 



tioned troutseines, who have a httle larger mesh, varying in 
different localities. 

As supplementary implement, and in order to control my 
experiments with the eelhandseines, I have also employed seines 
of different sizes and mesh (fi'om 15—8 knots pr. norvegian foot). 

These seines have in some cases had the dimensions 
generally used by the fishermen (30 X 3 fath.), sometimes they 
have been much larger (45 X ^^'^ fath.). 

Of other fishing gear I have occasionally employed ground 
nets of varying mesh, according to the object in wiew. 

Salmon bag nets of the usual dimensions and of the con- 
struction, commonly used on the coast, have also been employed. 
In stead of the regulation mesh hovewer I employed a mesh 
varying from 8 to 11 knots pr. norvegian foot. 

At such places in the rivers, where net implements could 
not be employed with advantage, I have used the rod with fly 
or worm as a bait. 

With moveable fishing gear principally seines, I have since 
the spring 1898, mainly in the Trondhjem-fiord and its sourroun- 
dings, and also in many other localities all round our country, 
made several thousand hauls and cought thousands of salmon 
and trout. 

The predominating proportion of these fishing experiments 
I personally supervised, and I personally examined the catch. 
When my presense was prevented, the fishes, regarding the 
species of wich my assistants intertained a shodow of doubt, were 
preserved, and later personally examined by me. 

A small proportion of the fishing experiments have been 
conducted in other countries than Norway. 

Besides these my own experiments, I have been present at 
innumerable houls conducted by active fishermen, and had the 
opportunitly of examining their yield. My researches have also 
receiver considerable aid throng fishmongers in Norway, Eng- 
land and Denmark liberally allowing me to examine their stores 
of salmon and trout.. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 

As regards certain important systematical questions, I have 
in an essential mesure had to fall back on the rearing of young 
fishes. These rearing experiment were effected in the aquaria 
of the Trondhjem biological station. 

The main collections of salmon and trout, belonging to 
Scandinavian museums, have been examined by me. 

It is needless to mention, that in all my yournys I have 
constantly communicated with fishermen and gained knowledge 
from their experience. Also from other people interested i 
these fisheries valuable information and assistance has been 
obtained. 

Chapter II. 
The Investigations. 

a. Seines. 

The investigations commenced, in the beginning of May 
1898, in the lower course of the Orkla and in the mouth of 
this river. 

Fishing with the eelhandseine, in the river mouth, during 
the first days of the month, only yielded a few trout. 

In using a rod with worms as a bait, I succeded in ascer- 
taining, that the young of two different species of salmonids 
were to be found higher up the river. One could with certainty 
be determined as young trout, the other was just as certainly 
young salmon. Specimens are represented in PL I, and I will 
not here enter into a detailed description of their different cha- 
racters, as I later will return to this matter. 

By fishing with the eelhandseine in the same locahties I 
could catch larger numbers of them. 

By way of example I quote the yournal: 

Evjen (Evjenskilen) Orkla May 10, 1898. 

Two houls with the eelhandseine yielded: 13 youg salmon 
9,5 — 12 cm. long. 



230 KNUT DAHL. 



Many young trout same size. 

Numbers of flounders (very small) and 1 a g o n u s. 

A couple of days later these small salmon, as well as the 
trout, commenced appearing in our houls down in the mouth 
of the river. 

We also here got great numbers of larger „trout", some 
very much spotted others less spotted and some very shiny. 

Until the 25th of May, these investigations were continued, 
in and around the mouth of the Orkla 

Young salmon occurred only in the hauls effected in the 
river, or in the very mouth of the river. As soon as we left 
the river mouth and continued our fishing outward along both 
shores of the fiord, young salmon were never cought, only larger 
or smaller numbers of trout, more or less spotted. 

From May 26 until June 12 we fished in the Gula, the 
mouth of the Gula and the fiord Gulosen, where a large num- 
ber of houls were done with the eelhandseine. 

In the Gula itsself and in the rivermouth, nearly every 
houl brought the young of as well salmon as trout, besides 
large quantities of larger more or less spotted trout, varying in 
length from 15—20—40 cm. 

As an example may be quoted: 

Mouth of the Gula, May 27, 13 houls with 2 seines fi-om 
both sides of the middle channel, yield: 

6 young salmon, ca. 10 cm. long, 

28 trout of different sizes. 

Numbers of young flounders and gobies. 

1 mallotus villosus. 

Mouth of the Gula, May 31. 

A couple of houls with eelhandseine in the middle channel 
yielded. 

8 young salmon 10 — 12 cm. 
17 trout 12—42 cm. 
A number of flounders. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 231 

Much time and labour was there upon spent in investigating 
the shores of the fiord Gulosen in order to ascertain, if the 
young emigrating salmon (smolts) also were to be found along 
the shores of this fiord. 

All attempts at fishing the small salmon in these localities 
however gave a negative result. From Mule on the east side 
to Lundenaes on the westeren shore I fished in nearly all places 
where a seine could possibly be employed, without being able 
to find one single young salmon among the hundreds of trout 
of all sizes wich were cought. 

These fishing experiments to me clearly established 
two facts. ' 

None of the young salmon (smolts) wich I cought in the 
rivers Gula and Orkla exceeded 16 cm. in length, and this latter 
size did only occur as an exception. Generally their size did 
not exceed 13 cm. 

Young salmon (smolts) larger than these I was unable to 
procure. In Tab. no. IV will be found a graphical represen- 
tation of their size. 

They were all shiny and evidently in their migratory attire, 
such as it is well known and described by previous investigators. 
These young were consequently on the point of emigrating. 

My failures in catching them outside the river might have 
two reasons. Perhaps they had not yet emigrated from the 
river mouths or estuaries, or perhaps in emigrating they did not 
tuch the places wich I could control with my fishing gear. 

The occurence of the more or less "spotted trout was en- 
tirely different. They could be obtained in alle sizes in the river. 
Along the shores of the fiord all sizes from the migration stage 
and upwards were obtained in every houl. 

In Tab. no. V column 1, 2, 3 the sizes cought during this 
fishing period will be found represented. 

Next I sailed back to Orkedalsøren where a few days were 
spent in controlling the correctness of my previous researches. 



KNUT DAHL. 



I found nothing to contradict my above mentioned experiences, 
after this the whole fiord was examined from June 18 to August 
11. I first examined the outer part of , the fiord right out to 
Storfosen and the Biugn fiord. Thence I returned examining 
the whole of the Trondhjem fiord right to the bottom of the 
Beitstad fiord. 

Fishing experiments were thus carried out in the following 
localities: Lensviken, Rissen, Selven, Ørlandet, Storfosen, Biugn, 
Tautra, Aasenfiord, Frosten, Holsanden, Levanger, Sundnæs, 
Borgenfiord, Vennæs, Kirknæs and Krogsvaag. 

Several hundred houls with the seines were effected in these 
localities. 

Not one single young salmon (smolt) or grilse was cought, 
while trout in all stages, excepting those which only belong to 
the rivers, were abundant. From August 13 to August 17 
the Gula, the mouth of the Gula and the Gulosen were again 
investigated. 

We here recorded the same phenomena as were found 
earlier in the summer. 

By way of example I quote the journal: 

„The mouth of the Gula. August 16. 

6 Hauls with the eelhandseines yielded: 

More than 500 flounders. 

Some Herring fry. 

19 Trout 10—40 cm. 

37 Young salmon 9 — 13 cm." 

„Gula August 17. 

11 Hauls with the eelhandseines from the Uddevold bridge 
to the river mouth yielded: 

84 trout 10—38 cm. 

11 young salmon 10 — 13 cm." 

It was thus evident, that the smolts had not grown and 
that they consequently emigrated at the above mentioned size. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



Later on, during autumn, a series of fishing experiments 
were carried out, thus at Vik in Nordland, in Lekø and at 
Brønø, later on also on in the neighhourhood of Fredriksveern and in 
Eidanger on the south coast. The results were perfectly analo- 
gous to those obtained in the Trondhjemsfjord i. e. : I did not 
succeed in catching one single smolt in the sea. 

During the month of July I had the opportunity of for 
some time accompanying Dr. Hjort on a cruise along Jæderen. 
In this locality some hauls with the eelhandseine were effected, 
the results in no respect differing from those above. 

In the month of October fishing experiments were carried 
out along the fiord between Trondhjem and Orkedalsøren with 
similar results. 

In the mouth of the Orkla large numbers of trout were 
present. They had the same appearrance a those cought during 
spring i. e., there were more or less spotted. A small proportion 
had recently spawned. 

On October 23, 1898, 3 hauls with the eelhandseine in the 
mouth of the Orkla thus yielded: 187 trout 17 — 34 cm. 

Kalstad, Meldal (ca. 40 km. up the Orkla) October, 25, 
1898: 

Many hauls with the eelhandseine through differens pools 
and rapids yielded: 

11 trout 27—43 cm. 

2 young salmon (parr) 6—8 cm. 

During late autumn of the same year fishing experiments 
were from time to time carried out in the vicinity of Trond- 
hjem and at Sundnæs, Inderøen. 

Results: trout were the only salmonid fishes cought. 

During the whole of this summer opportunities were availe- 
able for constantly examining the large qauntities of salmon 
and trout passing through the stores of several Trondhjem fish^ 



234 KNUT DAHL. 



mongers f. ex. M. Thams & Co. During these investigations, 
when I had the opportunity of examining thousands of fishes, 
I could not find one single salmon smaller than 50 cm. long. 
All the smaller fishes were throut. 

By courtesy of the managers of this large buissiness I was 
permitted to store a large vessel with preserving liquid in the 
establishment. The clerks then undertook for me to preserve 
the smallest specimen of salmon, which could be found during 
the season. The result was a salmon 49 cm. long. 

The results of my researches during the first season was 
shortly this: 

I could ascertain the presence of trout in all stages in 
the waters examined. Salmon however could not he found of 
sizes between 13 cm. (as an exception 16 cm.) and 45—50 cm. 
in length. 

The correctness of this result I have during the latter years 
tried to centrol by all means available to me. 

The year 1899 was spent in repeating the investigations of 
1898 with perfectly similar results. During the same year I 
visited the main fishmarkets of England, Scotland and Denmark 
endeaevouring in these countries to find salmon of small size. 
The results of the examination of large stores of fish was per- 
fectly like those obtained in this country. 

A few fishing experiments, undertaken from the Danish 
Biol. Station in the sourroundings of Fyen, only yielded trout 
of the same appearance as those obtained here in Norway. 

In 1900 large fishing experiments with eelhandseines and 
other seines were effected in the Trondhjemfiord. As regards 
the fiord, the hauls yielded large quantities of trout, no salmon. 
In the rivers I obtained the same result as in previous years. 

Different localities in the Battenfiord were also this year 
examined with the same result as all my previous investiga- 
tions. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 235 

As examples from the hauls of this year my be quoted a 
nights catch in the Beitstadfiord, illusti'ating the abundance of 
trout. 

May 28, 1900. Kirknæsvaag. 

12 hauls with the eelhandseine from 9 pm. to 1 am. on the 
strech Kirknæsvaag— Galgsøen, yielded: 

97 trout 19—58 cm. (total weight 45 kgr.). 

9 wrasse (labrus rupestris) 9 — 14 cm. 
1 cod, 21 cm. 

1 PI. hmanda, 17 cm. 

10 Sprats, 12—15 cm. 

Ga. V4 barrel of herrings, 20 cm. 

In 1901 a few hauls with the seine were effected in Finmar- 
ken and Nordland. A few hauls were also made in the Trond- 
hjemsfjord. 

None of these experiments exhibited any difference from 
the results of previous years, excepting a few of the hauls made 
in Finmarken yielding specimes of sea-char. 

Tn October 1901 investigations were undertaken in Ihe 
Mandal river. In this river, besides other southern rivers, the 
population has asserted that large numbers of quite young sal- 
mon during autumn ascended the river. 

The local name of these fishes is „biege" Mr. A. Land- 
mark, inspector of fisheries, desired me to investigate this matter. 

Upon a closer examination of the lower parts of the Mandal 
river however it immediately transpired, that the conditions in 
this river were perfectly like those I had observed during autumn 
in northern rivers. 

Thus 10 hauls with the seine at Lerkjær, Mandal river, 
October 25, 1901, yielded : 

178 trout, 10—45 cm. 

5 young salmon (parr), 10 — 11 cm, long. 



236 KNUT DAHL. 



The smallest trouts were brownish, those above 20 cm, 
shiny, quite like the trout I used to get during autumn in the 
Gula and Orkla. These latter were by the people considered 
as young salmon. 

b. Finemeshed hag nets. 

Fishing experiments with bag nets were effected in 1899, 
1900 and 1901. 

In 1899 a bagnet was constructed of ^/12 cotton twine, 5V2 
fathoms deep, 11 knots pr. foot (Norw.). The net was fixed in 
a good bag-net locality at the island Garten, Ørlandet, in one 
of our best bagnet districts. The net was fixed July 10 and 
remanied in position (with larger or smaller intervals) until 
August 9. 

The yield was: 

6 salmon, 58-64—69—65—70—52 cm. 

11 trout, 34-40-43-44—42—22-34—32—27-32—26 cm. 

19 cod, 30—80 em. 

11 seithe 30—40 cm. 

9,lythe 30—50 cm. 

1 hng 56 cm. 

2 lumpsucker 15 — 48 cm. 

During the winter 1899 — 1900 the same bagnet was em- 
ployed at Inderøen through several mouths. Only one single 
trout was cought, no salmon. 

In 1900 and 1901 a bagnet of hemptwine was used. The 
mesh was 8 knots pr. foot (Norw.). It was fixed at the bio- 
logical station, Hegdalen, Trondhjem and during the year 1900 
it was fixed from July 1— September 28, with a few intervals. 

The yield was; 

4 salmon, 63—85-59—49,5 cm. 

5 trout, 42—40—32—36 cm. 
392 lythe, 35—74 cm. 

13 seithe, 37—48 cm. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 237 

6 cod, 35 — 51 cm. 
10 haddock, 32—40 cm. 
6 lumpsucker. 
1 whiting, 40 cm. 
1 gurnard [trigla gurnardtis). 
3 plaice, 30 — 60 cm. 
1 large angler {lophius piscatorius). 

In 1901 the net was fixed in the same locality and remained, 
with a few interwals occasioned by accidents and repairs, from 
April 12— July 10. 

The yield was: 

5 salmon, 101—90-51-50-48 cm. 

16 trout, 35-30-32-35—33-33-55-39—32-36—31- 
32—32-38-34-38 cm. 

21 lythe, 34—65 cm. 

49 cod, 33 — 65 cm. 

3 seithe, 34 — 38 cm. 

8 flounders, 10—27 cm. 

1 herring, 34 cm. 

5 lumpsucker. 

The main proportion of the catch was captured in April 
and May. 

Not even during these experiments with fixed fishing en- 
gines I succeeded in procuring young salmon of the missing 
sizes, no salmon smaller than 48 cm, in length being cought in 
my hägnets. 

c. Fisherniens catches. 

During the past years innumerable opportunities have been 
offered of examining the catches made by those fishermen, who 
employ seines and during their work catch sea trout, sometimes 
in considerable quantities. These catches have been examined 
by me, sometimes in the possession of the fishermen them- 



KNUT DAHL. 



selves, sometimes in the hands of those fishmongers, who buy 
their catch. 

Among the many thousands of fish thus examined I have 
found nothing to contradiet the results of my own experiments. 
The catch of the seiners consists besides other seafish of trout 
only. An occasional grilse or salmon of the larger sizes may 
occur. 



On numerous occasions I have endeavoured, by the aid of 
the bagnet-fishermen, to ascertain, if salmon smaller then 45 — 
50 cm. in length or less weight then 1,2 — 2 kgr. accidentally 
are caught in their nets, which as a rule only are capable of 
retaining grilse down to 49 cm. in length when the fish is of 
ordinary thickness. 

The only result of my efforts in this respect are 2 salmon 
of 45 cm. length, which kindly were sent me by Mr. Krane, 
Brevig, Sørøen. They were retained in the meshes of his bag- 
nets, wich are fixed on the outer side of the Sorøe by the open 
ocean. Mr. Krane will also according to his statement have 
seen smaller salmon, who have passed through the nets, some- 
times in considerable numbers. 

d. Rearing-experiments ond investigations on the 
systematism of the salmon. 

The results arrived at during the first season of my re- 
searches, has thus been confirmed by experiments and experience 
during several years. During these years I have thus not been 
able to catch or to procure through the aid of other fisher- 
men salmon of sizes between 13 — 16 and 45—50 cm. in length 
in those waters where in our country fishing gear is used 
for the purpose of catching salmon. 

In the face of this negative result I have considered myself 
obhged to test its correctness as far as my means have reached. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



Two courses of reflection have in this connection strongly 
asserted themselves. 

One has forced me to effect the strongest possible control 
as to the correctness of my specific determinations. 

The other has urged me to endeavour by positive results 
to illustrate the real habitat of the young salmon in the missing 
stages. 

When I have not been able to find those stages of the 
salmon, which a number of other scientists have described, this 
fact would clearly seem to contain a contradiction fatal to the 
correctness of my investigations, and this chain of thaught 
caused me to begin with no small amount of trouble. 

When I laid before me a collection of salmonids, it was 
by no means difficult, the works of systematical authors (f. ex. 
Liljebofg) in my hand, closely to distinguish the young of 
salmon and trout up to 16 cm. in length. No more did the 
distinguishing between salmon and trout above 45 — 50 cm. in 
length occasion the least difficulty. However, if I laid before 
me fishes between 24 — 40 cm. in length, I found to my great 
astonishment that they ad libitum might be determined as sal- 
mon or trout and that on the strength of the printed descriptions 
by the different authors. In other words mere judgement appa- 
rently had to decide. It also seemed to me as if mere judge- 
ment must have formed the base of the diagnostic description. 

I laid before me seperate series of these two species in their 
different stages avaibable to me In one species i. e. : the 
trout, I could follow it through its developement through all 
sizes from 10 — 40 cm. and more. In the salmon, quite contrary 
to the trout, the series was broken at 16 cm,, and could not 
be continued befoj'e a length of 45 cm. was reached. 

Those very pregnant characters, distinguishing the young 
of the salmon (parr and smolts) from those of the trout, were 
found suddenly at 16 cm. length to cease. 



240 KNUT DAHL. 



Just as suddenly the characters sharply and concisely 
distinguishing grownup salmon from trout asserted themselves 
from 45 cms. length and upwards. 

Surely, the systematical works, especially the swedish 
ones, ewerywhere contained remarks upon the difficulty in di- 
stinguishing between salmon and trout in just these middle 
stages; but this circumstance did by no means satisfy me. 

How could the young of one species, so different from 
those of another species, that even children easily may learn to 
distinguish them, how could the young, upon reaching a certain 
length suddenly become like those of another species and then 
again after some lapse of time and upon reaching a more ad- 
vanced stage of growth become like itself. 

The contradictions contained in this chain of reasoning 
seemed to me to point to the possibility that previous authors 
on this subject might have confounded trout, especially shiny 
slender and rounded trout with young salmon, and that other 
investigators no more than myself had been able to procure for 
examination salmon between 16 and 45 cm. in length or salmon 
between the smolt stage and the grilse stage. 

In other words I was compelled to adopt for preliminary 
use the working hypothesis, that salmon of the above mentioned 
sizes were unknovn or at least undescribed. 

To solve this problem two things have been necessary. 

First I have had to catch and further rear in seawater the 
young salmon (smolts) when emigrating from the rivers, and 
further during their developement compare their characters with 
those of trout of corresponding size. 

Secondly I have had to examine those collections of young 
salmon on which the systematical descriptions of salmon in the 
abovementioned stages (16 — 45 cms.) are founded. Most of these 
are as far as I know to be found in the "Riksmuseum" in 
Stockholm, and the late direktor of this museum, professor F. A. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 241 

Smitt, has with great hberality and kindness forwarded to me 
for examination the specimens needed. 

Besides, the collections of salmon in the museeums of our 
university, Bergen, Trondhjem and Tromsø, have been exa- 
mined. 

The result of these investigations proves my working theory 
to be correct, as I will endesavour to show. 

In the middle of June 1900 I cought in the mouth of the 
river Gula some 150 emigrating young salmon (smolts). In 
saved--off barrels or tubs they were kept about 1 week on board 
of my sailingvessel. About 25 were kept in each tub (new 
ones) the water being changed 4 — 5 times in the 24 hours. 

The vessel was towed to Trondhjem, and June 17, 150 
smolts and about 20 trout of different stages were placed in 
separate freshwatertanks. As the tanks, tubings and aquarea 
for salt water were not yet in order, I had to keep my fishes 
for nearly a fourthnight in freshwater. 

By transferring a few to seawater and letting them stay 
there about a day, I satisfied myself that no trouble was likely 
to arise from their passing from fresh to salt water. 

In the mean time a considerable mortahty occurred among 
my young salmon. They would greedely eat ordinary rainworms 
besides gammarids, which latter in large numbers were to be 
had under de stones at lowtide. By and by however they were 
attacked by the common freshwater fungus (saprolegnia) which 
affected their gills, fins or those places of the body where scales 
were lost. 

The fish once infected, this saprolegnia woud spread with 
incredible rapidity. Thus I noted that the fungus in some cases 
in about half a day would spread fj-om a small point, just di- 
stinguisheable, to an area of about 2 square centimeters. Many 
fishes succumbed during this period. 

On July 1 the aquaria for saltwater were ready for use. 
I had then no more than 70 smolts left. These were in some 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv XXXXII, III. 16 



242 KNUT DAHL. 



cases still suffering from the saprolegnia some were reconvale- 
scent and some were healthy. 

During the first days after the transfer to saltwater (about 
10 ^/oo, gradually increasing to 33 *^/oo salinity) ca. 30 died. 
However the 40 fishes, which were left, got on very well. 

They were fed partly on worms, partly on gammarids. 
Later on during summer their main food was the young of 
GoMus Ruthensparri of which quarts of Hving specimens might 
be taken in every haul with a small seine of mosquitonetting. A 
supply of living food was thus constantly kept in the aquarium 
with the fishes, who might eat as often as they liked. 

Through autumn, when this source of supply ceased, chopped 
fresh herring or herring roe was used. 

Their appetite however stagnated during winter with the 
sinking temperature. Only a few casualties occurred during 
summer and autumn, but the months after christmas 1900 de- 
manded about 55 victims. In spring 1901 when their appetite 
again began to assert itself only 15 were left. 

As will be understood it has not been possible directly to 
measure their growth during this period but it was evident, 
that they did not grow anything worth mentioning during the 
winter months. 

During the first summer however they grew very rapidly. 
None of them measured more than 13 cm. when they were 
transferred to the saltwater aquarium. In autumn the largest 
were nearly 20 cm. long. 

During the second summer their growth was very rapid 
and they increased enormously in bulk. 

The fishes were killed off on October 18, 1901 and were 
measured öfter having been kept a few days in a preserving 
fluid consisting of water, spirits of wine and formalin. 

The measurements ran as fellows: 



À STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 243 

23 cm. 21,5 cm. 

2ö,o „ 26 „ 



25 „ 31,5 

22 „ 30 

27 „ 28.5 



The largest one weighed kgr. 0,60. 

During their growht in the aquarium a large proportion of 
these fishes have suffered larger or smaller læsions to the fins 
of the hindpart of the body. In some the ventrals and the 
anal fin are a little worn as a consequence of the ravages of 
the saprolegnia previous to their transfer to salt water. In some 
the caudal fin is more or less hurt. Not a few have regenerated 
the fins affeced. 

During the whole of their developement these^ young salmon 
have been higly differing from any trout I have ever cought. 
They distinguish themselves not only by peculiarities in the 
structure and relations of several important parts of the body, 
besides also in the colouring from all those fishes which I have 
cought during my experiments and named trout. 

Their whole deportment and their habit in the aquaria also 
shows a specially marked difference from those of the trout 
which I have captured and kept in confinement for compa- 
rison. 

All the trout, which I have kept in captivety, will keep 
very still in the aquarium, suspended in midwater without hardly 
any motion all day through, occasionally when gorged with food 
resting motionless at the bottom. Off and on they will suddenly 
dart forward catching their food when they are hungry. 

The salmon on the contrary are constantly in motion, nearly 
unseasingly swimming round and round in the aquarium night 



^44 KNUT DAHL. 



and day. In this respect it has been very instructive to let a 
trout of corresponding size down to the salmon. 

All day through I could then see the trout remain nearly 
in the same place su-pended in midwater, while the shool of 
young salmon lively svimming constantly circulated round the 
aquarium. Specially striking has also been the different way 
in which their appetite asserts itself. 

The appetite of the trout is not strong every day. Often 
it will assert itself only within intervals of several days. Given 
the opportunity to eat as much as they like the trout will then 
gorge themselves until the food hangs out of their mouth, yes 
even to such a degree that they will drop to the bottom and 
motionless digest for several days. 

The salmon eats as a rule several" times every day. They 
do not gorge themselves to the same degree as the trout, and 
they digest very rapidly. Thus after the lapse of a few hours 
they are very often prepared for a new meal. 

Respecting the colours a considerable difference has been 
noticeable in the two species. 

Excepting the gradual disappearance of the parr marks and 
the red lateral spats, the colour of the salmon has not changed. 
During the whole time I have kept them they have been of a 
strong shining sivercolour with a blueish green undercoating on 
the head and back, a few large black spots scattered mainly on 
the dorsal side of the body. 

When exposed to strong light, their colours have paled a 
little resuming their ordinary hue as soon as the light was 
subdued. 

The trout have been quite different. Even the most shining 
and silvery trout, taken directly from the sea, have very soon 
assumed quite other colours varying in blue, blueish green brown 
and yellow. Also they have always grown very much spotted. 
These changes have also taken place when trout of the same 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 245 

sizes as the young salmon have been kept in the aquarium 
where the latter were reared. 

The fænomenon however is in good harmony with the well 
known propensities of the trouts for variation. 

Before entering into a closer description of the younger 
stages of salmon, compared with trout of the same sizes, I 
will shortly relate the result of my search in those of Scandi- 
navian museums whose collections of salmon I have had the 
opportunity of examining. 

In Norwegian museums I have only succeded in finding 4: 
salmon between 16 and 45 cm. 's length. None of these have 
ever been described. 

In the Bergen museum I found 2 young salmon resp. 20,5 
cm. and 21,5 cm. long. They were reared in a freshwater dam 
in Jæderen and by Mr. Grude presented to the Bergen mu- 
seum. 

They both closely resemble the fishes reared by me in salt 
water. 

In the university museum in Christiania I also found 2 sal- 
mon resp. 23,5 cm. and 28 cm. long. They had not been sub- 
jected to any closer examination or been described. According 
to professor Collett they were found among mackerel in the 
Christiania fish market. 

Also these closely correspond with the fishes reared by me 
and differ, as also do the fishes from the Bergen museum, most 
decidedly from any salmonid fish of similar size wich I have 
ever cought in the sea. 

In plates I, II and III will be found drawings representing 
as well these young salmon as trout of corresponding sizes. In 
my opinion a superficial glance is quite sufificent in order to 
discover the considerable difference between then. Later on a 
closer description will be given. 

Before doing this however we need to review the collec- 
tions, forming the base of the diagnostical descriptions issued 



246 KNUT DAHL. 



by the swedish systematists and critically revise the material 
at hand in the descriptions of different authors. 

The main body of the collections, upon which most of the 
independent investigations in Sweden bave been based, are pre- 
sumably to be found in the „Riksmuseum" in Stockholm, At 
all events the collections on which F. A. Smitt and Hjalmar 
Widegren have founded their descriptions are kept in this mu- 
seum. Excepting Nilsson, whose collections I presume mainly 
are to be found at the University of Lund, only the two authors 
mentioned above may be said to have in any marked degree 
based their diagnostic descriptions on independent researches and 
examinations of specimens. Most of the other authors have 
chiefly compiled faunistic works, the diagnostic descriptions of 
which, as regards the species in question, mainly seem com- 
posed from the diagnosis of original authors and only in a 
small degree based on independent examination of specimens. 
At all events no distinct specification of the the specimens form- 
ing the base of description is to be found. 

By good will of prof. F. A. Smitt, the not inconsiderable 
material of young salmon stored in the collections of the „Riks- 
museum" has been forwarded to me. 

Upon examination of this material I found to my great 
astonishment, that even this collection did not contain speci- 
mens of sizes, by means of which it would be possible to fill 
the gap in the description of young salmon, the exsistance of 
which my own investigation indicated. 

It transspired, upon examination, that these collections did 
not contain salmon between 17,3 cm. and ca. 38 cm.s lenght 
— with a couple of exceptions — exceptions of quite a remarke- 
able character and exceptions which, in my opinion, throw a 
certain light on some of the difficulties which the swedish authors 
have experienced in distinguishing young salmon and trout in 
the intermediate stages. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



247 



The sizes mentioned above, differ quite inconsiderably from 
the size limits of the salmon found by me in our waters. 

However it is just the intermediate stage, between smolt 
and grilse, or the so-called „Forell"-stage, which has occosioned 
the difficulties in discerning salmon and trout. 

In his great work on the salmonids „Kritisk förteckning 
öfver de i Riksmuseum befindÜiga salmonider", Professor Smitt 
bas compiled a table on this stage. As his method of examina- 
tion demanded as large numbers as possible, of course he must 
have mustered all the specimens availeable. 

On revising this table however one will be astonished at 
finding only the following salmon; 

Pg. 50 we thus find: 



Tab. No. 


173 


172 


166 


171 


167 


161 


Length in cm. 


20.4 


17,3 


15,9 


17,2 


16,0 


14,5 



By looking up his metrical tables (the Tab. No.s above re- 
fering to these) I observe, that the specimens all are from the 
„Motala ström" by Norrköping with exception of No. 161 which 
is from the lake Venern (Kannikenäset). 

Upon closer examination I find that these salmon in no 
mean degree differ from those kvown from other places. 

The 3 smallest differ considerably from the smolls of our 
rivers and also from smolts from other swedish rivers of which 
the collection of the Riksmusmuseum contain many of a little 
smaller size. 

The 2 largest ones No. 173 and No. 172 are higly different 
as well from the salmon I found in the Bergen museum as 
from those I have reared myself. 

They possess many characters reminding of those of the 
trout. Thus the form of the body is clumsier, the tail shorter, 
the fins larger and the scales smaller than in salmon. The 



KNUT DAHL. 



only salmon-characters of a safer nature, which they possess, 
is the relatively short upper jav and partly the size of the 
breastfins. 

The specimen No. 173 is not yet sexually mature and differs 
as may be seen above (ca. 4 cm.) so little in length from the 
largest known smolts from norwegian rivers, that this solitary 
specimen hardly can be considered as material for a description 
of the stage in question. 

Specimen No. 172 is in a state of sexual maturity and in 
this state possesses several characters, f. ex. prolongation and 
thickening of pectorals ventral and anal fin, which renders it con- 
siderably different to immature fishes. Consequently it is very 
little fit to form a base of description of such fishes. 

In determining the importance to be attributed to these 
prof. Smitt 6 specimens as material for a description of sal- 
mon between the emigration and the grilse stage, two facts must, 
according to my opinion, be held in view. 

First it must be remembered that the last one of them is 
taken in Venern, and that all the other fishes are taken in the 
Motala, a water course, which according to the explicit reports 
of an investigator as f. ex. Widegren is supphed with fish from 
the lake Vettern and is connected with nearly the whole of the 
lake complex of middle Sweden, a locality wich, as is well 
known, possesses a „landlocked" variety of salmon, whose 
main characteristic is the union of several, salmon and trout 
characters. 

As for myself, not having had the opportunity of systema- 
tically investigating the fishes of these waters, I will not express 
anything definite regarding these young fishes. I will only give 
prominence to the opinion that in all probability they belong 
to the middle Swedish relict variety the Vener- or Vetfer-salmon. 

At all events they are not oceanic salmon (salmo salar). 

Secondly I draw attention to the fact that one of these 
fishes No, 172 is in a state of maturety, a circumstance, wich 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 249 

of course renders is unfit for a description encompassing imma- 
ture fishes, especially when this description, as in the case of 
prof. Smitt, is founded on metrical characters. 

The facts here mentioned, besides the small number of the 
specimens, are in my opinion well adapted to throw some light 
on the difficulties which prof. Smitt has experienced in distin- 
guishing the „forell" stages of salmon and trout. By comparing 
certain metrical characters and demanding the continuity of these 
characters through all stages as professor Smitt has done, the 
difficulty is obsiously extended to the two species during the 
whole of their developement. 

It is to me perfectly clear, that the introduction of only one 
or two specimens in the mature stage, wil be sufficient to disturb 
the final mean of metrical characters when the work is carried 
out according to the system which prof. Smitt employes. 

It will be remembered that the proportions of as well salmon 
as trout are considerably altered when in a state of sexual 
maturity. 

It is just as evident, that a collection of a few individuals 
of young Vener-salmon, cannot possibly form the base of a 
diagnostic description of the young of the salmon of the ocean. 
Also the trout-characters of these specimens would be higly 
efficient in confusing a description, where even real salmon were 
used as material. 

From the facts above mentioned, it must, as far as I can 
see, follow that this material, and the descriptions based there- 
on, hardly may be considered as rendering any satisfactory 
contribution towards filling the gap, which, according to my ex- 
perience, exists in the description of salmon between the emi- 
gration stage and the grilse stage. 

The investigations of Hjalmar Widegren will be found de- 
scribed in „Öfversigt af Kgl. Vetsk. Ak. Handlingar" 1862 and 
1864 „Bidrag till kännedomen om Sveriges salmonider" and 
„Nya bidrag til etc." 



450 KNUT DAHL. 



In the first of these works the author describes the young 
salmon during transition from the „stirr" stage to the „forell,, 
stage. 

Also he describes their appearance during the „forell" stage. 
He also admits the difficulty in distinguishing salmon and trout 
in these stages. He is of the opinion that the young salmon at 
about 20 cm. length pass into the „forell" stage and he expli- 
citly states that the young of the salmon only after reaching 
40 cm. in length acquires the typical characters of the species. 

He notes that young salmon in transition between „stirr" 
and „forell" often are to be found as well in the Motala by 
Norrköping as in the rivers of Norrland, (äfwen i Norrlands 
elfvor), and that their length is 20 — 22 era. 

As far as can be seen however his descriptions are founded 
only on specimens from Motala. He thus mentions only 3 
specimens from Motala stream by Norrköping 21,5 — 23,2 — 26,7 
cm, long, even the very locality, the dangers of which for the 
present purpose i have mentioned above. 

In support of his description of the young salmon in this 
stage he refers to one of the plates, accompanying the paper 
representing a fish, which in the explanation of the plates ex- 
pressly is stated to be a female of „Venerns blanklaks" ^ (the 
relict Vener or londlocked salmon). 

Whether this specimen is identical with one of the 3 spe- 
cimens measured and mentioned above, is not stated. 

This drawing is, as any one may satisfy himself higly dif- 
fering from the representations of salmon in the same stage 
given by me, (Vide pi. II and III.) 

In this latter paper he also gives a drawing representing a 
salmon in the „forell" stage, even from Motala. (Vide Wgr. 
„Nya bidrag etc." pl. XIV fig. 1.) This fish which I have had 
the opportunity of personally examining, and which exists in the 



1 Vide pi. in Widegrens work tab. V fig. 2 („Bidrag till kännedomen etc."). 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 251 

collection sent to me from the Riksmuseum, differs however 
highly as well from the young salmon reared by me as also 
from those found ind our museums, exhibiting the same mixture 
of trout and salmon characters as all the specimens I have seen 
from middle swedish localities. 

From other localities than the middle svedish lake and 
river complex, where Vener and Vetter-Salmon is to be found 
Wiedegren evidently has not had youg salmon for examination. 
The conclusion thus would seem justifiable, that all his descrip- 
tions on Sdlmo salar in this stage have been prepared with 
the relict lake form of Middle Sweden as material. 

Turning to the classical descriptions by Nilsson i his 
„Scandinavisk fauna" Lund 1855, we find, that the smallest 
„laksbøHing" or grisle, described by him, is a little more than 
20 inches long (Norw.). accordingly more than 50 cm. long. 
The next size is „a youg salmon IIV2 inches long," a little more 
than 30 cm. However this latter size has not been examined 
by Nilsson, but the description is prepared on the strength of 
a drawing in Sir Jardines work on british fishes. Sir Jardine 
had procured the specimen „on the sea-coast" presumably the 
coast of England. 

Quite briefly he mentions a specimen of 9V2 inches (24 cm.) 
collected by adj. Lilljeborg on the norwegian coast. It is kept 
at the Lund museum and I have not seen the specimen. 

Respecting these two specimens I am thus not able to speak 
from personal experience. However the very imperfect descrip- 
tions of Nilsson seem to indicate, that Sir Jardine's specimen 
possibly has been a real salmon. Regarding the other speci- 
men, from Norway, it is not possible to express any defiente 
opinion. However, Nilssons remark that „it is much fatter and 
plumper than trout of the same size", seemes to make it doubt- 
full whether it is a salmon, these on the contrary being much 
more slender and elegant in shape than trout of corresponding 
size. Locally the specimen was named „Blankøre", a name 



KNUT DAHL. 



wich in many localities in this country is applied to the sea 
trout. This circumstance also throws some doubt on the case. 

In the works of Fries, Ekström and Sundewall, Liljeborg, 
Krøyer and other Scandinavian faunists as well as in those of 
british authors such as Couch and Yarrel. one will in vain 
search for specifications regarding the material, on wich their 
descriptions are based. 

As mentioned before, their works are mainly faunas with 
diagnostic descriptions and biological notes chiefly founded on 
the works of other investigators or on revision of the collections, 
wich in the course of time, throgh the efforts of these investi- 
gators, have been desposited in the museums. Only in one 
work I have found reliable accounts of salmon of a httle 
larger size than in the young salmon emigrating from our rivers. 
Vide „Neuere Lachs und Maifisch-Studien" by P. P. G. 
Hoek. 1899. 

The author has examined the young salmon wich during 
the month of may emigrate from the Rhine and graphically 
described their size. From his graphical table it will be seen 
that these young on the average are a little larger than the 
smolts of norwegian rivers. The more southerly location of the 
Rhine probably accounts for a more rapid growth. The am- 
piltude of his curve mainly reaches from 10 to 18 cm. with 
a couple of exceptions of a little larger size, while my curves 
(cfr. tab. IV col. 1, 2, 3) average a little lower with one excep- 
tion of 16 cm. 

His drawing PL I fig. 4 in all essential respects resembles 
the largest smolts cought by me and has still got the parrmarks 
and the red spots along the lateral line. 

According to my oppinion the abovementioned facts are 
sufficient to show, that earlier descriptions of young salmon 
between the emigration stage and the grilse stage are not foun- 
ded upon sufficient material. In examining the large material, 
collected through about half a century or more, wich the swe- 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



dish authors have disposed, we have not been able to find more 
than about ^/2 dozen specimens of young salmon, above the 
emigration stage. Most of them belong even to the lowest of 
the sizes desireable, and they are all taken from a watercourse 
inhabited by the Vener-Salmon. Direct examination has 
shown them to possess the peculiarities ot this form. In the 
works of all the swedish authors we have further not been able 
to find one single drawing of one single young salmon of the 
missing sizes not beeing taken from the obove mentioned water- 
complex or expressly stated to be „Vener or Vetter-Salmon". 
In my oppinion we are therefor justified in drawing the con- 
clusion, that the descriptions of swedish authors of youg 
salmon between the emigration and the grilse stage are founded 
on the relict or landlocked form of middle Sweden and 
consequently are of no value for the distinction of oceanic 
salmon. 

Even supposing that some authors like f. ex. Nilsson or 
Jardine have had a real young salmon of the abovementined 
sizes for examination, a possibility wich I will not deny, the 
walue of such a single and imperfect diagnosis must obviously 
disappear when, during the preparation of later descriptions, it 
is confused with descriptions of a material possessing quite 
other characters. 

My working hypothesis has thus proved to be correct. 

Salmon between the emigration stage and the grisle stage 
are not properly described and consequently must be considered 
as unknown. 

At this juncture I must allow myself the pleasure of ex- 
pressing my acnowledgement of the works of msrs. Smitt and 
Widegren, wich undoubtedly are executed with great care and 
conscientiousness and in a manner, wich even now, after the 
lapse of more than 30 years, enables present investigation 
largely to control their results by examination of the original 
specimens. The excellent manner in wich they have effected 



254 KNUT DAHL. 



the reduction of the innumerable „Species" of salmonids, flooding 
the systematical literature of former days, deserves every 
aknowledgement. 

As I have shown, the lack of material of the „forell" stage 
of the real salmon has prevented a perfect distinction between 
salmo solar and salmo trutta, a gap wich according to my 
experience has been very difficult to fill. 

This deficenecy and supplementing it with specimens be- 
longing to the relict salmon form of middle Sweden in my 
opinion suffices to explain, how professor Smitt, undoubtedly 
the scientist, who on this subject has excercised the greatest 
care and drawn the utmost consequences from his researches, 
has not been able to separate the two species. 

In the following pages I will describe the youger stages of 
the salmon compared with trout of corresponding sizes. I will 
commence with the stages in wich the fishes leave the rivers and 
further describe them during their developement. The larger 
stages from ca. 45 cm. and upwards are not worth describing, 
as they easily my be dish'nguished by people not wholly 
ignorant on the subject. 

Certainly previous investigators have given quite accurate 
descriptions of fry and emigrants belonging to thise species; 
but for sake of completeness and in order that this work my be 
useful to those who might wish to use it for the specific deter- 
mination of such fishes, I also incclude the fry. 

To begin with however I wish from a general point of 
wiew to discuss some principles, wich according to my opinion 
are fundamental to the specific description. 

Describing a species, the scientist is hardly able to do more 
than as accurately as possible to detail the image wich the 
peculiarities of the species in question, presents to his senses, 
and by means of wich he may recognise the species in single 
individuals. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 255 

In description of the general image of the species, the means, 
by wich the description is to be effected, will consequently be 
dependant on the nature oE the peculiarities and give due consi- 
deration to these. 

If we place before us an adult salmon and an adult trout 
place them side by side and ask. by wich means we distinguish 
them, I should decidedly answer: by means of „habitus", the 
image, presented by the total of their exterior characters. The 
main difference by means of wich I am able, even at first sight, 
to distinguish between them is shortly this: 

The body of the salmon is considerably more slender and spool- 
shaped than that of the trout, wich is more plump and clumsy. 
The tail of the salmon is considerably longer more coniccylin- 
drical and lower than that of the trout, wich is shorter higher and 
more compressed from the sides. 

The caudal fin of the salmon is more cut out than that of 
the trout. The anal fin of the salmon is smaller and the scales 
of the body are larger than those of the trout. 

The trout is not so shiny and silver coloured and has 
more dorsal and lateral spots than the salmon. Behind the 
dorsal fin the salmon is spotted only above the lateral line. 
The trout is spotted also below the lateral line. The upper jaw 
of the salmon is shorter than that of the trout. 

All these factors and their mutual relations form the main 
features of the image, wich at all times enable us to distinguish 
the two species. Even in the fry (parr) stage and when in a 
state of maturety, stages in wich the fishes considerably differ 
from (he species as grown up, but not yet mature, a number of 
the abovmentioned factors, such as the lenght of the upper jaw, 
the form of the body, the ralations of fins and tail besides the 
size of the scales, form a valueable clue for distinction, a clue 
wich is also strengthened by other factors peculiar to these 
stages. 



256 KNUT DAHL. 



In two species, so closely allied as trout and salmon, one 
must however obviously expect the different relations of the body 
to vary, especially so, when at least one of the species is known 
to be disposed to variation. 

When man, apes, birds etc. show individual variation 
vithen the limits of the species, we must also in the present 
case be prepared to meet it, and in the examination of large 
numbers of individuals the variation vill sone be observed. 

Every form, every relation in an organism may be metri- 
cally described and expressed by figures. A series of investi- 
gators have largely employed and still employ the metrical 
method. In this however I think they very often are wrong. 
The main object of a diagnostic description is to be practical, 
and now there is nothing, wich in a more unpractical way 
denotes the form, at least in fishes, than the figure. As professor 
Hervig once said, there is nothing to prevent us from correctly 
describing the face of a man metrically, but undoubtedly we 
should find it difficult and unpractical to recognise our friends 
by means of such a table of figures or formula. 

I openly confess that great difficulties are in the way of 
finding aedquate expressions for a difference in specific form 
wich mainly is brought to our brain through the eye; but an 
adequate carefull repræsentation in words aided by exact draw- 
ings is undoubtedly in most cases preferable to figures. 

When I in the fallowing have availed myself of measure- 
ments, it is not with the intention of preparing a table of figures 
by means of wich salmon and trout may be distinguished. 

I only wish to produce a graphic, through the eye easily 
perceptible, representation of the progress of a few of the abor- 
mentioned characters in salmon and trout, the individual varia- 
tion considered. 

Among the peculiarities and different relations wich destin- 
guish salmon and trout may be mentioned 1) the different size 
of the scales, 2) the different size of the anal fin or if we like 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



257 



to express it that way, its relation to the length of the tail, 
3) the more or less prominent slenderness of the tail. 

The size of the scales may be determined as other investiga- 
tors have done, by counting their number in a row over a cer- 
tain measured portion of the body and referring this length to 
the length of the fish. However as I find this method too imprac- 
ticable, I have deemed it better to count the number between 
two definite points on the body e. g. in the oblique row of scales 
running from the hindpart of the base of the adipose fin down 
to the lateral fine. I have included the perforated scale of 
the lateral fine. 

The relation of the anal fin to the length of the tail may 
be brought out by dividing the latter by the length of the anal 
fin. The result will be a coefficient which I call "Tail coefficient I." 

The more or less pronounced slenderness of the tail may 
also be expressed as a relationship between the length and mini- 
mum altitude or depth of the tail — "Tail-coefficient II." In the 
subjoined illustration (fig. 1) these different lines of measurement 
are indicated and explained. 

The method employed in examining the spechnens is illu- 
strated by the following example. 



Total length of . 
the fish. ^ 


B 


G 


D 


25 cm. 


15 


2,5 cm. 


2 cm. 


1,5 cm. 


Tail coefficient I = 


= §-2-5 = 0'8"- 


» » 


11 = 


G 
~ D 


1,5 ^' 


33. 



In this way large numbers of salmon and trout have been 
measured. Of course they have all been immature fish. To 
see if the relationship of these different characteristics altered 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. III. 17 



258 KNUT DAHL. 



throughout development the fish have been classified in 3 stages: 
1) fishes of a smaller length than 16 cm. (including the largest 
emigrating smolts, 2) fishes between 16 and 50 centimetres long 
comprising in the case of the salmon, mainly the "missing 
stages", 3) fishes above 50 cm. (the sizes of salmon common 



by caught). 




A == The number of scales in the oblique row of scales from the posterior 
base of the adipose fin up to and including the scale on the lateral 
line. 

B = The altitude of the anal fin o: the distance from the base of the 
first ray of the anal fin to the point of the longest ray of the 
same fin. 

C = The length of the tail, measured from the posterior base of the anal 
fin to the sharp heel formed by the first auxiliary rays of the cau- 
dal fin. 

D = The minimum altitude of the tail. 

This classification has been adopted mainly on account 
of the salmon. In order to produce the correctest possible com- 
parative representation of the alterations during development, 
corresponding annual classes of both species ought to have been 
compared. 'However this has been impossible. 

From the figures thus obtained I have represented graphi- 
cally the course of the abovementioned 3 characters in the two 
species compared. (Vide Tab. I — III). Every in these tables 
denotes an individual examined. The Ordinales respectively 
represent the number of scales, figures for Tail-coefficient I, 
figures for Tail-coefficient II. From these tables it is evident: 
1) That the scales of the salmon are larger than those of the 

trout. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 259 



2) That the anal fin of the salmon is smaller than that of 
the trout compared with the tail. 

3) That the tail of the salmon is more slender than that of 
the trout. 

However, it is also obvious that these relations vary, and to 
such an extent, that the amplitudes of variation in the two species 
vaguely meet or even overlap each other. However on this 
latter point it ought to be noted, that some of these overlappings 
are caused by the introduction of specimens, which, in size, 
differ only inconsiderably from the previous class or group; 
the character in question alters in fact, during development. 

If we scan the table giving the scale-number, we find that 
this character remains practically constant through all groups. 

Upon examining table II (on Tail-coefficient I) however, we 
remark that this coefficient in the salmon slowly rises during 
early growth; in other words that the anal fin of the young 
salmon gets smaller and smaller as the fish grows, while that 
of the trout remains nearly unaltered. 

Excepting the youngest group the curves representing this 
character in the two species run nearly separated, with one 
single exception, a salmon of the group 16—50 cm. This fish 
measuring only 17,5 cm. was captured in the ocean outside 
Ghristianssand, as will be mentioned later, and only the size 
destinguished it from ordinary emigrating smolts. The coefficient 
of the youngest group beeing low, the introduction of this 
specimen will in some degree alter the real course of the curve 
of the second group. 

The same phenomenon also occurs in the table on Tail-coeffi- 
cient II (the slenderness of the tail), which in both species rises 
a httle with the age, especially between 16 and 50 cm. (cfr. 
Tab. Ill a and b). 

A classification in sizes separated by sufficiently large inter- 
vals would possibly have yielded a more strikingly typical result. 



260 KNUT DAHL. 



The material measured by me however, has not been large 
enough to allow of this method. 

The abovementioned facts seem to me to show clearly, that 
any characteristic body relation in these two species might have 
been treated in the same manner and would have yielded similar 
curves of variation. By way of example we have now seen 
how some specific characters apply to the species in general. 

I have previously given prominence to the fact that the above- 
mentioned investigations are not intended to establish characters 
which might be expressed by figures or formulae and separately 
employed in determining the species of a given individual. In 
itself, this would be unnecessary, because the accurate specific 
distinction of all the individuals on which these tables are 
prepared, must needs have been known previous to my investi- 
gations on the variation of the different characters in the 
two species. 

Thus none of the characters investigated, has separately 
been fundamental to my distinction; but. the sum total of these, 
in addition to many other characters I have before called „habitus" 
has in all cases enabled me to distinguish the two species. 

Supposing that we tried to determine the species of an 
individual solely by means of one of the 3 characters whose 
variai ion has been investigated, e. g. the scale fugure. By 
examining table I we find, that an absolutely certain determination 
is in a large number of cases possible. Just as large a propor- 
tion however, leaves room for doubt. 

If we examine table II (Tail-coefficient I) we find that a fish 
belonging to the youngest group is only in about half the cases 
with certainty determined by the value of Tail-coefficient I. 

As regards the two older groups it will be seen that the 
curves run almost quite separated. Consequently the species of 
a fish may in the great majority of cases be determined solely 
by the value of this character, when the fish is not smaller 
than 16 cm. in fact neither a parr nor a smolt. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 261 

Examination of the 3rd relation as represented in tab. ITI 
(Tail-coefficient II) will yield a similar result. 

None of these relations detached from the others whose 
course has just been described, or from the other, „habitus"- 
characters of the fish suffice as a fundamentally safe diagnosis 
embracing all cases. 

If however the course of these 3 relations of form or 
character is examined in the isolated individual, they will be 
found, if compared with other characteristics, to present a valuable 
support to specific determination. 

The youngest group (below 16 cm.), belongs to the stage, 
where these 3 relations are most similar in the two species. 
However, other body relations yield destinctions so pregnant 
and so easily observed, that there never is any doubt as to 
which species the individual in question belongs. 

An examination of the large number of individuals by 
means of which the tables (I — III) on the two older stages, have 
been constructed, has shown that the same individuals never 
cause the curves to meet or overlap each other in regard to all 
three characters. As I have mentioned above, the tables show, 
that the salmon has large scales (small scale-figure) small anal 
fin in relation to the tail (tail longer than anal fin) and a 
very slender tail, while these characters in the trout are just 
the opposite. 

When the tables now show that the amplitudes of the 
variation of these characters in the two species overlap each 
other, we are not justified in inferring, that there needs must 
exist individuals of the salmon species which in themselves unite 
all the lowest values of the salmon curves or trouts possessing 
all the highest values of the trout. The curves thus do not shew 
that salmon exist which e. g. possess 15 scales, Tail-coefficient I 
0,90 (anal fin longer than tail) and Tail-coefficient II 1,30, or a 
short and thick tail. No more do they show that trout exist 
which e. g. possess 14 scales. Tail- coefficient I 1,0 or an equally 



KNUT DAHL. 



long anal fin and tail, and a Tail-coefficient II 1,60 or a very 
slender tail. 

In examining the course of these relations in the single 
individuals of the ahove-mentioned tables, I have found quite the 
opposite to be the case. As a rule only one of the three 
characteristic relations, if any, is situated within those values 
of the curves w^hich are common to both species. 

When a salmon possesses a very high scale-figure, one or 
both tail-coefficients have been situated outside the values of 
the curves, common to both species or vice versa. 

When a trout e. g. has possessed a tail-coefficient ranging 
among the highest values of the species, the scale-figure has not 
been among the values, common to both species. 

The most interesting examples I have been able to find 
among my material on trout, are 3 specimens of which Nr. 1 
was caught in the Orkla, Nr. 2 in the Battenfiord, Nr. 3 in the 
ocean a few miles south of Christianssand (S.). They are 
respectively 34,5, 36 and 45 cm. long, all very shiny and 
slender. 

The course of the 3 relations was: 



Length. 



Scale-figure. 



Tail- 
coefficient L 



Tail- 
coefficient IL 



Nr. 1 
« 3 



34',5 cm. 
36 „ 

45 „ 



17 
17 
16 



0,99 
0,99 
1,00 



1,56 
1,60 
1,53 



Nrs. 1 and 2 are undoubtedly the most shiny, slender and 
salmon-like trout I have ever come across among the fishes 
examined by me. 

In the case of the salmon I may refer to some of the 
most striking cases that have occurred to me. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



263 





Length. 


Scale-figure, 


Tail- 
coefficient L 


Tail- 
coefficient II. 


Nr. 1 . . . . 


17 cm. 


13 


0,85 


1,91 


„ 2. .. . 


39 „ 


14 


1,57 


2,32 


„ 3 . . . . 


49 „ 


15 


1,33 


— 


„ 4 . . . . 


88 „ 


13 


1,00 


— 


„ 5 


108 „ 


13 


0,92 


- 



In the face of my experiences I will however not deny the 
possibility that an examination of still larger numbers of indi- 
viduals might produce salmon or trout which in all 3 relations 
possess values corresponding to those values of the curves, 
which are common to both species. 

As I have not in the sifting of my relatively large amount 
of material met with such specimens, the conclusion however 
seems justifiable, that such specimens are extreemely rare. 

In all the cases examined, the total of the values of these 
3 different relations combined, always points clearly in the direc- 
tion of one or the other of the two species. 

Thus the examination of these 3 characters, yields a good 
means of specific distinction. In most cases it is quite sufficient, 
and when other characters are also taken into consideration, 
there is no room for error. 



e. Description of young salmon and trout. 



The distinction between the young of salmon and trout at 
that stage of developement, when they leave the rivers, is effec- 
ted by means of the differences observable in the form and 
relations of the body — those of the head, the size and form of 
the scales, the colour, and, when the fish is living, its habits. 



264 KNUT DAHL. 



In specific determination however, I would not advise 
anybody to attach importance to any one of these characters 
isolated, hut only to a careful examination of them all. 

PI. I represents two fishes in natural size. Ttie upper one 
is a trout, the lower a salmon, both caught in the river Gula 
(the mouth). If we compare them the great difference in form 
of the body is obvious. 

While the trout is more plump and has a shorter and clumsier 
tail, the salmon is more finely pointed and spoolshaped in form, 
and has a very slender and relatively long tail. The salmon is 
not so much laterally compressed as the trout, which however 
cannot be shown in the drawing. 

The shape of the head is utterly different in the two spe- 
cies. The head of the young salmon is low and slender, while 
that of the trout is higher and clumsier. The head of the trout 
is relatively larger than that of the salmon. At first sight the 
head of the salmon seems specially long. In comparing the 
fishes it will however be seen, that the head of the salmon seems 
long, because its facial region (the nose and the mouth-region) 
is considerably shorter than that of the trout, the gillcovers being 
longer. 

The eye of the salmon, proportionally larger than that oE 
the trout, is pushed very much forward. The nose is specially 
short and the mouth small. This latter character is expressed 
in the upper jaw of the salmon being exceedingly short. If a 
perpendicular line is drawn downwards from the posterior part of 
the pupil of the eye, the posterior edge of the upper jaw will as 
a rule, not reach far enough back to touch this line. Often it 
will only reach as far back as to touch a perpendicular line 
drawn downwards from the centre of the pupil. In the trout 
however the frontal part of the head is considerably longer, the 
nose being proportionally longer and the mouth region heavier. 
The mouth is larger, and the upper jaw consequently longer. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 

Although the nose region of the trout is longer, and the eye 
pushed further back, the upper jaw as a rule reaches a good 
deal further back than tot he posterior edge of the pupil, 
in many cases even further back than the posterior edge of 
the eye itself. Thus a perpendicular line drawn from the poste- 
rior margin of the pupil downwards will in nearly all cases cut 
the posterior part of the upper jaw. 

The form of the upper jaw is also somewhat different in 
the two species, that of the salmon being considerably broader 
in proportion to its length and generally more finely rounded at 
the posterior margin than is that of the trout. If the heads of 
the two fishes are seen from above, it is at once obvious that 
the forehead of the trout is broader than that of the salmon, 
the forehead of the latter being shorter and more pointed. 

All fins, excepting the adipose fin, are at this stage larger 
in the salmon than in the trout. 

The size of the caudal fin and the pectorals is specially 
conspicuous, the caudal fin of the salmon possessing consider- 
ably longer and more finely pointed flukes than that of the trout. 

The pectoral fins of the salmon exceed by far those of the 
trout in size, being longer as well as broader. If the pectoral 
fin is folded along the side of the fish, its posterior point will 
in the salmon be as a rule situated a little in front of or right 
below the anterior edge of the dorsal fin, and it will often reach 
even further back. Thus if a perpendicular line is drawn down- 
wards from the anterior base of the dorsal fin, this line will as a 
rule touch or cut the pectoral fin. In the trout this fin is stri- 
kingly shorter. 

This difference causes the two species to act quite differently 
on dry land. 

If a bucket of water containing living specimens of the 
two species is poured out on a sloping deck, the fishes when 
left dry will act quite differently. The salmon will all turn on 



266 KNUT DAHL. 



their bellies and prop themselves up on their broad pectorals, 
while the trout as a rule remain helplessly sprawling on their 
sides< 

Respecting the size of the scales in salmon and trout be- 
longing to this stage vide tab. 1 and my previous remarks 
upon this subject. 

The colours and their destribution and patterns in my 
opinion, afford considerable support in distinguishing between 
salmon and trout in the emigration stage. 

When leaving the river in this stage of developement both 
species possess a shiny silvery coating over the underlying fry or 
parr-colours. This coating may be more or less pronounced, 
the colours of the parr being more or less plainly seen 
through or being only distinguishable at certain angles of light. 
As a rule however, the colour patterns show very plainly. 

Generally the young salmon is more intensely silver coloured 
than the trout and the silvery hue is mixed with a remarkably 
beautiful mother-of-pearl tinge. 

The silvery hue of the young trout is mixed with a more 
yellowish- sometimes copper-coloured tinge. 

The main undercolouring consists in the salmon, of a blueish- 
green pigment. In the trout this pigment is more brownish or 
brownish-green, with a hardly perceptible blue touch. When 
the fishes are kept in a weak solution of formaline, the pig- 
ment of the salmon turns blueblack, that of the trout more 
greyish brown with a weak blueish touch. 

The distribution of the pigment is very different in the two 
species. 

In the salmon the back is greenish blue with a few black 
spots. This pigment reaches down the sides and the tail of the 
fish, arranged in several (8—12) scallops or flukes contrasting 
strongly with the pure white of the ventral parts of the 
body. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 267 

Sometimes these flukes are quite lightly parted from the 
pigment of the hack, by small intervals of a little lighter 
colour. Small marks or spots of a light bluegrey colour 
may sometimes occur between the lower points of the flukes. 
Between every one of these flukes, which faintly resemble marks 
from fingers soiled with blue lead paint, is a bright red spot, 
the colour of red sealing wax. This spot is as a rule situated 
right in or by the lateral hue. Sometimes red spots may occur 
higher up or lower down on the body; but, in this case, they 
are not arranged in any regular order and their number is never 
great, the highest number within my experience being 2 or 3. 

The dorsal fin has the colour of the back with a couple of 
irregular rows of dark spots. 

The caudal fin is greyish blue, semitransparent with blackish 
flukes. 

The adipose fin has the colour of the back. 

The anal and ventral fins are white. 

On the side turning towards the body the pectoral fins are 
bluish-black. On the outer side they are whitish towards the 
base, but gradually become more bluish-black towards the points 
of the finrays. 

In the trout the back is more brownish-green-grey. 

This pigment of the back is not as in the case of the sal- 
mon, continued scallop- or fluke-wise down the sides of the fish ; 
it is always interrupted. In the trout large oval spots thus 
correspond to the flukelike markings in the salmon. These spots 
are always separated by relatively large intervals from the pig- 
ment of the back. Between these spots are found smaller spots 
dorsally as well as ventrally. None of these large side spots 
are as distinct and sharply limited as in the salmon. Along the 
lateral line runs a row of small red spots. As well above as 
below this line, runs a similar line of small red spots arranged 
just above and below the intervals between the spots along the 



KNUT DAHL. 



lateral line. Small black spots are scattered over the back and 
the sides of the body. 

The dorsal fin has the colour of the back. 

The adipose fin as a rule is orange-coloured. 

The caudal fin is as a rule yellowish-brown, semi-transparent. 

The anal fin is mostly yellowish-brown with blackish fore- 
part and a creamy streak along the first ray. 

The ventral fins are whitish-yellow-brownish and the pectoral 
fins have the same yellowish-brown, semi-transparent colour as 
the caudal fin. 

The different colours however, may vary a good deal ac- 
cording to the locality. 

Even the size will afford some aid in distinguishing the 
two species in the emigration-stage, the salmon according to my 
experience in northern rivers only exceeds 13 cm. in length in 
one case in a hundred, while the trout in this stage not rarely 
reaches 18—20 cm. in length. (Vide Tab. IV and V). 

f. Description of young salmon in the oceanic stage, 
compared with trout of the same size. 

After the young salmon have left the rivers the characters 
gradually undergo considerable changes. 

This is also the case with the trout, although the changes 
in this species are not quite as great as in the salmon. 

Judging from my aquarium experiments these changes 
cannot be said not to occur when the fish reaches any certain 
or fixed length. They are evidently dependent on the time of 
emigration, no matter whether the fish belongs to the largest 
or to smallest of the sizes peculiar to the emigration stage. 

Only gradually and during a long lapse of time do the fishes 
lose their juvenile characters. Thus one may very well meet 
salmon individuals of the same size, some presenting many 
juvenile characters, while others of the same size may present 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 269 

characters mainly belonging to salmon of more advanced develop- 
ment. 

This phenomenon is explained by the above-mentioned facts. 
I only mention it here to prevent the presumption that the sal- 
mon, once emigrated, must needs present the following characters. 

This will specially relate to the sizes between 10 and 
20 cms. 

As an illustration of the appearance of salmon and trout, 
after the juvenile characters have been discarded, the drawings 
on PI. II and III may serve. Salmon and trout are here re- 
presented, in pairs for closer comparison. 

The upper figure in PI. II is a trout 21 cms. long, the lower 
one a salmon 21,5 cms. long. The trout was caught in a seine 
in the Trondhjem fiord; the salmon is one of two, I found in 
the Bergen museum, reared by Mr. Grude in a freshwater-pond 
at Jæderen. 

The upper figure on Pi. Ill is a trout 25,5 cms. long, 
caught in the Trondhjem fiord, and the lower one a salmon 28 
cms. long reared in my aquarium at the Trondhjem Biol. Station. 

The drawings in these as well as in PI. I are executed by 
Mr. A. Dircks taxidermist to the Academy of Sciences in Trond- 
hjem. All relations are carefully measured by compasses, redu- 
ced and entered on the drawings; they have been also twice 
tested and corrected in the same manner by me. 

The caudal fin in the salmon drawn on PI. II was worn, 
somewhat, during life in the aquarium and the flukes were 
smaller than represented in the figure. The points of the 
flukes are constructed with the aid of one of the specimens 
(28 cms. long) I found at the University of Christiania and 
which had been kept so long in spirits as to render it in other 
respects less fit as material, for a representative drawing. 

The principal characteristics of distinction between sal- 
mon and trout at this stage will be found under the following 
features. 



270 KNUT DAHL. 



1) The shape, relations and relative size of the head. 

2) The lenght and slenderness of the tail. 

3) The relation of the anal fin to the length of the tail. 

4) The shape of the caudal fin. 

5) The size of the scales. 

6) The colour. 

Most of these characters will be quite plainly observed on 
inspection of Pis. II and III. 

As will be easily seen the head of the salmon is smaller, 
more shapely and narrower than that of the trout. 

The eye of the salmon is situated closer to the forepart of 
the head than that of the trout; the nasal region is shorter 
and the mouth smaller than in the case of the tront. 

The upper jaw is also at this stage (as in the previous 
stage) considerably shorter in the salmon than in the trout. 
Thus the posterior margin of the upper jaw only seldom reaches 
as far back as to a perpendicular hne drawn downwards from the 
posterior margin of the pupil of the eye. The upper jaw of the 
trout on the contrary, reaches mostly as far back as to the 
posterior edge of the eye itself and even further back; only in 
a few cases will its posterior edge touch the limit peculiar to 
the upper jaw of the salmon. 

The upper jaw of the salmon is also as a rule, a little 
more drooping than that of the trout. The head of the salmon 
is also of a more conical, rounded form than the more laterally 
compressed head of the trout. Thus the cheeks of the salmon 
as also often the gillcovers are more bulging than in the 
trout. 

When the salmon has stayed some time in the sea and has 
grown somewhat, one will find that the frontal part of the head 
still retains the arch also observed in the smolts, and that 
this arch will even become more pronounced. Thus salmon 
of a length of between 20 and 30 cms. actually possess a depression 
in the occipital region of the head, while the arch of the forehead 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 271 



curves smoothly over the eyes and precipitates itself towards 
the nose. 

Seemngly this peculiarity is produced by the quick growth 
of the body, the region behind the occipital part of the head 
putting on flesh quicker than the latter. 

In the salmon on pi. II this peculiarity is only indicated. 
In the other specimen sent me from the Bergen museum it was 
however, more pronounced. 

In the salmon represented in PI. Ill as well as in the other 
specimens reared in my aquarium, this feature was constantly 
present. Also the two specimens from the University museum 
plainly presented Iraces of the same peculiarity notwithstanding 
that they were considerably shrivelled up from being kept for 
years and years in spirits. 

This rounded forehead, the small short nose, the drooping 
upper jaw and the small mouth gives a much more „beaky" 
appearance to the face of the salmon than that of the trout. 

The arch of the forehead seems to get less pronounced, as 
the salmon approaches the grilse stage. In a specimen 39 cms. 
long caught in the Skagerrack off Ghristianssand only faint 
traces of the arch are present. It seems to disappear as the nose 
gets more developed. This seems to take place from about 30 
cm. length and upwards. 

The difference in the length and slenderness of the tail is 
at once obvious upon closer examination of Pis. II and III, and 
as regards the variation of the slenderness in the two species 
I refer to tab III and my previous comments. 

From the figures of the above-mentioned plates it will also be 
seen that the relation between length of anal fin and length of 
tail is utterly different in the two species. The anal fin of 
the salmon is also proportionally smaller than is that of the 
trout. Tab II and my comments on this table will sufficiently 
illustrate the relation between the length of anal fin and length 
of tail. 



272 KNUT DAHL. 



Needless to say, only fishes whose anal fin was quite unin- 
jured have been employed in the construction of this table. The 
main difference in shape consists in the caudal fin of the sal- 
mon having long and more pointed flukes than that of the trout. 
Also the basal part of this fin is less broad in the salmon 
than in that the trout. 

Respecting the size of the scales vide tab. I. 

The colour at this stage, at least in more advanced de- 
velopment, differs considerably from that of the emigration 
stage. The metallic lustre in both species gradually gets more 
prominent as the juvenile markings more and more disap- 
pear. The undercolouring in the salmon is still blueish-green, 
while that of the trout is more brownish-green. 

In the case of the trout however, great variations occur ac- 
cording to surroundings. The salmon however, seems to be 
constant in this respect. 

The trout possesses a large number of black spots, densely 
distributed. These spots extend far below the lateral line as 
well in front, as behind a perpendicular line drawn downwards 
from the posterior base of the dorsal fin. 

The black spots of the salmon on the contrary, are very 
few and large, and only a few are found below the lateral line. 
Very rarely do black spots occur below the lateral line behind a 
vertical line drawn downwards from the posterior base of the 
dorsal fin. The black spots below the lateral line are mostly 
hmited to the triangle produced by a line drawn from the upper 
base of the pectoral fin to that point in the lateral line, where 
a perpendicjjlar fine drawn from the posterior base of the dorsal 
fin would cut the lateral line. 

g. Capture of -young salmon in the ocean. 
The positive material I have succeeded in procuring to 
illustrate the habitat of the young salmon between the emigration 
stage and the grilse slage is not very large. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



273 



During the first summer of my investigations I discovered 
in the collections of our university museum 2 young salmon in 
the emigration stage, which professor G. 0. Sars had taken in 
the Trondhjem-fiord from the stomach of a large saithe [gadus 
virens) during the summer 1891. 

Being aware of this fact I have continually examined the 
stomachs of large numbers of saithe without being able to find 
any young salmon. On one occasion however I have found trout. 

On reading a report prepared by Mr, Simonnaes, assistant 
to the inspector of fresh-water-fisheries I was aware of his 
mentioning the fact, that the mackerel-fishermen from Flekkerøe, 
Ghristianssand professed to get in their driftnets small salmon 
the size of a large herring. He further mentions, that he him- 
self had the opportunity of once seeing the remains of an indi- 
vidual 40 cm.s long caught in the Skagerrack by the mackerel- 
fishermen from Flekkerøe. 

During a visit to Flekkerøe in 1901 I arranged with Mr. 
Thomas Thomassen, Skaalvik, a man possessing influence among 
the fishermen, that the young salmon caught during the summer 
1901 should be forwarded to me. I offered a reward of 50 kroners 
for each salmon between 15 and 45 cm. length forwarded to me. 

At the end of the fishing season I received from this source 
6 specimens caught in the driftnets in the open ocean up to 30 
miles off any shore. 3 proved to be trout, 3 salmon. 

The following table shows their species and size also the 
date of capture and 'distance from land where they were caught. 



Nr. 


Species 


Length 
in cm. 


Locality 


Date 1901 


1 


Salmon 


39 


18 miles S. off. Oksø 


Vs 


2 


n 


17,5 


8 „ 


'% 


3 


w 


43 


30 „ -»- 


% 


4 


Trout 


38 


8 „ -»- 


% 


5 


w 


42 


26 „ -)>- 


% 


6 


n 


44 


8 „ 


^Ve 



Nyt Mag. f. Natnrv. XXXXII. III. 



18 



274 KNUT DAHL. 



German herring-fishers inform me, that young quite small 
salmon during antumn often are caught in their driftnets in the 
North Sea. 

h. Summary of the results of the investigations. 

The investigations described in the present chapter have 
shortly yielded the following results: 

1) That young salmon may be caught in the rivers and river 
mouths up to a size of 13 — 16 cm.^ 

2) That young salmon of sizes between (13 — 16) cm. and 
(45 — 50) cm. have been caught by me neither in the rivers 
nor in the fiords, nor those parts of our seas where gear is 
employed for the purpose of catching salmon. Neither 
have they been found by me in the catches made by the 
fishermen, nor in the fishmarkets of Norway, Great Britain 
and Denmark. 

3) That young salmon between the emigration stage and the 
grilse stage (some 40 cms. length) are not at all previously 
known nor accurately described; that examination of the 
collections of the majority of Scandinavian museums, only 
yielded 4 — four — individuals between these sizes, all 
undescribed. 

4) That young salmon of sizes between the emigration stage 
and the grilse stage have been caught in small numbers 
many miles at sea and above large oceanic depths. 
Young salmon of the abovementioned sizes must evidently 

be considered as very rare specimens of natural history. I 
therefore consider myself justified in drawing the conclusion that 
the young salmon after emigrating from the rivers, disappears 
from the fiords, the belt of islands and the immediate neighbour- 



' My investigations in certain southern rivers have later proved that the 
smolts in these rivers may occasionally reach ca. 20 cm, in length. 

Auth. Rem. 1904. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 275 



hood of the coast, and enters upon a pelagic life in the open 
ocean. 

I must consider this as a peculiar lawbound passage of its 
lifehistory. 

This fact I now consider so well founded by the investi- 
gations described above, that I desist from all further comment. 

On the strength of this fact I will not claim, that young sal- 
mon of the abovementioned sizes cannot be found in our waters, 
but it is evident, that such finds would only be exceptional. 

For all practical purposes my result may thus be expressed 
in the sentence, that salmon between ca. 16 and ca. 45 cms. 
length or salmon between the smolt stage and the grilse stage 
do not occur in those of our waters where salmonfishing is 
carried on. 

In this connection I wish to propose a single reservation 
which, however, does not impair the correctness of the above- 
mentioned results. 

My investigations have not, in any considerable degree, been 
extended to Finmarken, and I do not feel certain that my results 
correctly express the conditions peculiar to the fiords of this vast 
portion of our country. Some of these fiords have indeed more 
the character of open bays of the ocean than of fiords, and 
may possibly, on account of their more oceanic character, be 
the habitat of young salmon. 

Also I do not feel certain that young salmon, somewhat 
smaller than the smallest grilse generally caught by the fisher- 
men may not be caught in a few places on our coast near the 
open ocean. 

I mean however, that this latter phenomenon, if occurring, 
must be regarded as a casual and sporadic visit paid by these 
sizes of salmon, which undoubtedly belong to the open ocean 
and lead a pelagic existence there. 

The abovementioned results are obviously in no small degree 
important to the solution of practical problems relating to our 



276 KNUT DAHL. 



salmon and trout fisheries. In some respects they offer a vvholely 
new base far deliberations fundamental to measures calculated 
to promote the interests of these fisheries. 

Before proceeding to a closer description and a critical re- 
vision of my results in relation to the principles of law tending 
to promote these fisheries, I propose in separate chapters to 
describe some investigations of a more special nature regarding 
the growth and other biological features in salmon and trout, 
which also have some importance in legislation relating to the 
species in question. 



Chapter III. 
On emigration and growth of young salmon. 

As is well known the maturing salmon during spring and 
summer ascend our rivers. During autumn the large ova (ca. 
6 mm. in diameter) are deposited among gravel and sand in 
the spawning beds. 

Spawning in the northern parts of our country, as a rule, 
takes place in September and October. In southern rivers 
it may be extended to November and even to the first half of 
December. 

Reposing among the gravel and sand of the bottom partly 
also buried in it, these eggs develop during winter and hatch 
from the latter end of February to the last days of April, the 
larva, about 2 cm. long bursting the egg-capsule and emerging. 
To begin with this larva lying practically helpless on the bot- 
tom, is nourished by the large yolksack. After the lapse of 
about 6 weeks the young fish commences taking nourishment 
from the outer world, consisting of smaller insects, insect larvæ 
and crustaceans. It also acquires the form and locomotory 
faculties of the fry. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 277 

These fry abide in the river until reaching a certain size, 
when, acquiring the silvery coat of the emigration stage, it leaves 
the river. 

My investigations showed that, as a rule, the size of the 
emigrating young salmon of our rivers varies from 9 — 13 cm. 
(Vide Tab. IV). In the following pages I will endeavour to 
throw some light on the question of the age of these fishes, 
counting their age from the time of hatching, viz. ca. April 1. 
Most authors, who have treated the system as well as the bio- 
logy of the salmon, agree quite unanimously that the young 
salmon (smolts) emigrate from the rivers during spring (April, 
May) in schools. This is described as a phenomenon limited to 
a relatively short space of time. 

The general idea seems to be, that the young salmon at a 
certain time of the year is suddenly smitten with the migratory 
instinct, resulting in an emigration in masses analogous to the 
migration of our migratory birds. 

When, during the first summer of my investigations I found 
in the latter half of August emigrating young salmon in the 
mouth and lower parts of the Gula, I was consequently not a 
little surprised. These young fish were not in the least different 
from the emigrants of spring (Vide Tab. IV col. 3). 

This experience has been confirmed by all later investi- 
gations. At any time during summer I have been able to prove 
the occurrence of young emigrating salmon in the mouth and the 
lower parts of the Gula as well as the Orkla. 

In order to gather experience on the occurrence of young 
salmon in the different stages of development right from the 
spawning places down to the sea I effected a series of fishing 
experiments in the river Orkla, from the river mouth up to 
the spawning beds in Meldal. On the 16*"^, 17*^ and 18*^ 
of July 1901 I fished with the rod at the following localities: 
Kalstad (Meldal ca. 40 km. from the river mouth), Aarlivold 
(20 km. lower down), Bak, Forve, and the mouth of the Orkla, 



378 KNUT DAHL. 



I employed the smallest trout flies obtainable or minute 
Japanese flies without a barb. 

In all these localities the young of the salmon abounded. 
High up the river they appeared to be most numerous. Shoals 
of them could here be seen everywhere swarming in all pools 
and rapids, especially the large quiet and relatively shallow 
pools. Throwing my small flies along the shore and dragging 
them towards me, shoals of young salmon as well as trout were 
enticed to come so close that the two species, even in the water, 
were clearly distinguished. The young salmon however by far 
outnumbered the young trout. Each cast made dozens of fishes 
rise to the flies, which however only the largest ones were able 
to swallow. 

The fishes denoted in the last column of Tab. No. IV re- 
present the sizes caught on my flies at Kalstad. As it will be 
observed, they are a good deal smaller than the young, emigrat- 
ing in spring from the Orkla (vide first column of same table). 
However, there were in the river considerably smaller fishes 
which I could not catch with the fly. 

Not one single young salmon in the silvery coat of emi- 
gration was here observed, a fact also stated by the British 
sportsmen fishing the river. They said that „The parr did not 
become smolts". All the young observed by me in this locality 
had the coating and colours peculiar to the salmon before acquir- 
ing the emigration coat, viz: a greenish-yellow a little copper- 
hued and faintly iridescent colouring, forming as it were a 
coating over the other characteristic pigment markings and 
spots. 

At Aarhvold (20 km. lower down), the same phenomenon as 
above mentioned was observed. However a few young of a 
slightly larger size and in emigration colouring, were observed. 

At Bak midway between Aarlivold and the mouth of the 
river, young salmon in the emigration garb were the only 
ones found. These young, the size of which may be seen in 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 279 

the second last column of the table (Table No. IV), correspond 
in all respects to the emigrants of spring (vide 1st column of 
the same table). The same facts were also observed at Forve, 
in the lower reaches of the river and at the river mouth which 
is subject to the tides and alternately possesses fresh and 
brackish water. 

From these experiments it transpires, that the young salmon 
during growth migrate down the river, and during migration 
gradually acquire the coat of colours peculiar to them when 
finally leaving the river. 

During all summer there is a constant migration of young 
salmon down the rivers and into the ocean. 

This migration commences in the rivers Gula and Orkla in 
May and ceases in autumn because the young in the river then 
practically cease growing. Thus, as my fishing experiments 
show, I have during late autumn (October) found the mouths of 
both these rivers devoid of young salmon. 

When May or spring time has been considered as the 
annual time of migration, this view is probably derived from 
the fact that the spring floods quite mechanically convey large 
numbers of young salmon down the rivers. 

It is of course very difficult to judge at which time of the 
emigration period, the number of emigrants is largest. However 
I have the impression that May and June in our rivers, are the 
months when most young salmon may be caught in the river 
mouths. During these two months the large floods of the Gula 
and Orkla generally occur, and this fact would afford sufficient 
explanation. 

I mention with regret that the material collected by me for 
illustrating the age of these young salmon is not as large as 
I should have wished it to be. In order correctly to determine 
their age, very large numbers of individuals are wanted, and 
catching the smallest stages in the stony reaches of the rivers 



280 KNUT DAHL. 



is so slow work, that I have not found time enough to enter 
into this work. 

However one may with certainty start from the fact that 
the young leaving the river during spring are at least IV4 years 
old, because their hatching cannot have taken place later than 
February— April of the previous year. 

Whether the young, which during summer continually 
emigrate are the smallest of the young hatched in the previous 
year or the largest of the fry of the year, I am not in a 
position to determine with sufficient accuracy. In my opinion 
it is not improbable that both annual classes are to be found 
among them. 

This latter supposition does not seem to be confirmed by 
the experience gained at the rearing establishments of our 
government, where the fry from March to October only grow 
from 2 to 8 cms (maximum) (Vide report of the inspector of 
freshwater fisheries 1895—1896, pg. 14). 

However it would seem probable that the growth of the 
fry in nature would be a good deal quicker than in hatching- 
boxes, where thousands are penned together. Researches made 
by P. P. C. Hoek (comparing the size of limited numbers of 
artificially reared young salmon with those caught in the river 
Prüm.) confirm this presumption. 

Also during the excursion to the Meldal, July 1901, I did 
not succeed in observing (in the water) numbers of very small 
young salmon, whereas the larger size of fry (parr) occurred 
in countless numbers and could easily be caught and also ob- 
served everywhere in the shallows and pools. The sizes are 
denoted in the last column of Tab. IV. I regret to say that 
this column does not correctly represent the lower size limit of 
the fry, because I could with certainty discern young salmon 
down to 5—6 cm. length rising in numbers to my flies, unable 
to swallow them. It is quite certain, that the group in the last 
column of the table would have included at least the 6 cm. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 281 

sizes if I had been able to secure these smaller fishes. Then it 
is very improbable that a smaller group exists between 2 cm. 
and 6 cm. as late in the summer as in the middle of July. 

Consequently it becomes most reasonable to consider the 
group in the last column as 0-group or the fry of the year, viz: 
fry hatched ca. April 1, 1900. For the same reason it is not 
impossible that the emigrants represented on the second last 
column, may belong to this group which gradually, during 
growth, migrates down the river. 

If however the results from our state rearing establishment 
at Ullern should be a correct gauge of the normal growth of 
the salmon fry, a group smaller than the smallest I have found 
must exist in our rivers in summer. This fact, if existing, 
would clearly retard emigration for one year. The emigrating 
smolts, which leave the rivers in spring would thus be 2V4 years 
old because they could not possibly grow from maximum 8 cm. 
(which the reared fry reach in October) to maximum 13 cms. 
which is peculiar to the emigrants of spring. 

Without expressing any definite opinion as to the final 
decision on this question, I admit, that at present I feel most 
satisfied and think the groups represented in tab. No. IV are 
best explained, if the matter is considered from the point of 
view, that the emigrants of spring are ca. IV4 years old („I-group"). 
Those emigrating during summer are partly the young belonging 
to the I-group, the fry of the previous year which have not 
developed so quickly as those previously emigrated. These 
emigrants of the summer also belong partly to the fry of 
the year, or the „0-group", which in July and August have 
grown large enough for emigration. The rest of the 0-group 
remain during winter in the river and emigrate next sprmg 
and early summer as „I-group". 

It seems to me that this view is feaseable considering that 
hatching and consequently also development, have an amplitude 
of several months. 



KNUT DAHL. 



This fact in connection with the varying conditions of nu- 
trition, which undoubtedly occur in the rivers, will inevitably 
cause the fry of each year to represent a series of different 
stages of development. Thus a phenomenon like the emigra- 
tion, which evidently is dependant on a certain stage of deve- 
lopment, can only be realised during a longer space of time. 

Evidently no large error is committed if the age of the 
emigrating young salmon is valued at IV4 years. 

Undoubtedly it would be important to know how long time 
is required before these young, as grilse, return to our fiords 
or rivers. A final solution of this question I am unable to 
present. Conclusions as to the progress of growth of the young 
salmon, cannot directly be based on my rearing-experiments. 
Only when we are able to fish large numbers of small salmon 
after emigration will a final knowledge as to the growth of 
young salmon be obtained. However I feel obliged to com- 
municate my experiences as to the growth of the fish in my 
aquaria, and by means of a comparison with known facts, 
endeavour to prepare a representation of the rate of growth of 
the fish, which at the present time may be considered most 
probable. In the adjoined graphical representation (Fig. 2) I have 
drawn curves reduced to forms representing the size of the fish, 
and with figures denoted their probable age. 

The upper one of these curves or groups represents the size 
of the young salmon when introduced into my aquaria. In con- 
sequence their age, estimated at IV4 years, cannot possibly be 
lower. The lowest group represents the lowest values of the 
grilse group as found in our waters during summer. Only the 
lowest part of this curve is drawn, and it is compiled according 
to Mr. Landmarks report for 1891 — 1896 in which paper suf- 
ficient evidence is given as to the fact that the grilse consti- 
tutes a separate annual class or group of growth. 

The middle group denoted by an unbroken fine, represents 
the size of the young salmon reared in my aquaria and killed 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



October 18, 1901. These are thus at least 2V2 years old. The 
upper one of the two groups denoted by broken lines, repre- 
sents the estimated size of these same salmon during the first 
autumn in the aquaria, when their size could not of course be 
measured. 




Fig. 2. 



Further, as a gap then exists between 30 and 40 cms., a gap 
of such a size that a group evidently must exist between these 
sizes, I have drawn a curve in broken lines representing such 
a group about the sizes found in the young salmon caught by 
the mackerel fishermen in the Scagerrack and forwarded to me 
during May and June. 

For clearness I have provided the different groups with 
current dates. 



KNUT DAHL. 



According to this, the grilse caught in our waters during 
summer would be ca. 4V4 years old, and the emigrating smolts 
would thus, during 3 years in the ocean, develop into grilse. 

As I have mentioned above, our knowledge as to the growth 
of young salmon must necessarily be to a large extent theore- 
tical as long as we do not possess a sufficient number of young 
specimens caught in the ocean. 

At present there is nothing to guarantee that the growth 
in my aquaria has been quite normal. 

In order to judge, if other fish grow normally in the aquaria, 
a sufficient supply of food granted, I have kept numbers of 
young saithe (gadus virens) in a special tank. 

Their growth very well corresponded to the growth of the 
same group of saithe in the sea, which from time to time 
I easily caught for comparison. 

I do not however think, that these experiments with the 
saithe justify any definite or final conclusion as to salmon. 
Although I believe it to be probable, that really no large dis- 
proportion exists between the growth of salmon in my aquaria 
and in the sea. 



Chapter IV. . 
On the growth and migrations of the trout. 

Like the salmon the trout of the sea ascend our rivers 
to spawn. The trout run as a rule during late summer and 
autumn. The ova are deposited in sandy places in the rivers. 
Spawning occurs in most places in September — October. 

During winter the embryos develop. From the end of 
February and towards the beginning of May the eggs hatch, 
the ca. IV2 cms. long larvae emerging. Like the salmon they 
are provided with a yolk-sack. Reposing among the gravel 
of the bottom these larvæ during development use up the 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 

contents of the yolk-sack, become fry and during summer ra- 
pidly grow. 

How quickly this fry of the year grows in our rivers I am 
unable to state, my researches only encompassing the trout from 
the stage when leaving the river and migrating into the salt 
water. As shown in table V the size of the young trout, when 
leaving our rivers for the first time, varies between 10 and 
20 cms., average about 15 cms. 

The age of these emigrating young trout I do not pre- 
cisely know; but counting the age of the fish from the moment 
of hatching, they must be at least 1^/4 years old, and conse- 
quently have spent one spring, one summer and one winter in 
the river. However, I am inclined to believe that they may be 
one year older. 

This is only conjecture, and I must expressly state, that 
I have not acquired material for an indépendant and definite 
opinion on the matter. As will be noticed my tables only com- 
prise fish down to 10 cm. length. 

In the tables V, VI and VII the size of trout caught during 
my investigations is graphically represented. 

These tables comprise a great number of the fishes caught. 
However they are founded mainly on larger catches, made in 
single localities during a short space of time. Poorer catches 
made during a longer space of time, over a large area, I have 
not used as material for these tables. 

If we look at the groups in Tab. V, we observe that two 
groups of sizes may be distinguished in the 2 first columns of 
the table, one group between 10 and 20 cm,, the other between 
20 and some 30 cm. The fishes constituting the groups are the 
fishes taken in nearly all the hauls made in the lower parts 
and mainly in the mouths of the Orkla and the Gula, during 
May and the first days of June 1898. 

Both these groups represent fish emigrating from the rivers 
during these months. As I propose to show, later on, the groups 



286 KNUT DAHL. 



represent the fry of two different years or two annual classes 
of growth, and the presence of the older one is dependant on 
a biological peculiarity, distinguishing the trout from the salmon. 
The young trout, indeed, after the lapse of the first summer in 
the sea return to the river in autumn, spend the winter there 
and again emigrate in spring. This phenomenon however, seems 
mainly to apply to the larger rivers and streams. 

Thus if we examine the next two columns of tab. V which 
are based chiefly on fishes caught in the mouth of the Børs- 
elven in Gulosen and the „Skougdalselven" in Rissen, we find 
only the smallest group of emigrants represented. The first of 
these streams is hardly more then a brook, and it is perfectly 
clear, that numbers of larger fishes cannot spend the winter 
there. Neither is the second stream an important watercourse. 

As an example I propose to describe my results from one 
river, the Orkla, which at all times of the year has been exa- 
mined by me. 

If the first column of table V be compared with table VI 
it will be observed that the smallest group, which in May 1898 
was 10 — 20 cm. long, in October of the same year had grown 
to a size varying between 18 and 30 cm. and at this latter time 
of the year occurred in large masses in the mouth of the Orkla. 

All the fishes (between one and two hundred) by means of 
which the first column of table VI is constructed, were taken 
in 3 hauls with the eelhandseine and it was evident, that the 
trout were „thick as herrings" in the lower course of the river. 
As will be seen in the table, only an insignificant minority of 
these fish were sexually mature, and consequently their object 
was not propagation. 

On this same occasion also a stretch of the river at Forve, 
7 kms. up the river, was examined. Not a fish was caught. 
At Kalstad in the Meldal about 40 km. up the river, a number 
of hauls were effected in a larger stretch of the river. In these 
hauls I obtained the fishes denoted in the next column of table 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 287 



VI (Kalstad October 24, 1898). Nearly all these were grown- 
up fishes, belonging to older stages and in a state of sexual 
maturity. 

Thus the upper reaches of the river were evidently devoid 
of the younger group filling the mouth of the river: 

That this group afterwards must have ascended the river 
in shoals, I was able to prove in May 1899. 

I then made a haul at Forve, where no fish had been ob- 
tained in October. This haul yielded 175 trout represented in 
the last column of table VI (Forve bridge, May 3 1899). These 
fishes clearly belong to the same group which, during late 
autumn 1898, ascended the river, and clearly they also constitute 
the larger of the two groups which would emigrate from the 
river during the same spring (compare table V, 1st column). 

By way of example, this fact is also clearly illustrated by 
looking up the size of trout which in May occurs in the fiord. 
The size of this trout is very well shown in table VII, column 1, 
representing fishes caught in the Beitstadfiord, May 1900. 

I have also satisfied myself that this group does not occur 
„en masse" in the Orkla during summer. Thus in July 1901 
fishing right from Kalstad down to the mouth of the Orkla 
brought nothing but quite young trout, and as mentioned, a few 
quite young salmon. Only very rarely a larger trout would be 
seen rising to the flies, and evidently the river was to all prac- 
tical purposes devoid of larger trout. This fact was also corro- 
borated by British sportsmen, who for 10 years had fished the 
beats at Kalstad. They acknowledged it as a characteristic 
peculiarity of the river, that sea-trout, excepting fry, during sum- 
nier was extremely scarce. 

These facts are also characteristic of the Gula. This is 
partly shown when the second and last columns of table V are 
compared. In August 1898 we find the smallest emigrants of 
spring grown up to 20 — 30 cm. length, and prepared to re-enter 
the river. Also in August a group is found between 10 and 



KNUT DAHL. 



18 cm. Its occurrence in the table is caused by the fishing 
also being carried on a little up the river. Consequently the 
smaller fishes, which next spring would represent the youngest 
group of emigrants, were also caught. 

Also in October the fishes which constitute the smallest 
emigrating group of spring, invade the Gula. This is shown in 
table VII, second last column. 

In my opinion, similar facts will be found in most rivers, 
although I am inclined to believe that larger or smaller excep- 
tions and variations may occur especially respecting the dates 
of emigration and return. It seems very probable that the cli- 
matic variations in this respect would assert themselves, and that 
some difference would be noticeable as to southern and northern 
latitudes in our vast country. 

That such difference, however, cannot be great, is clearly 
shown by table VII, last column, which represents trout caught 
in the Mandal river, October 25, 1901. 

There is no doubt, that this autumnal immigration of trout 
as regards most large rivers, is a general phenomenon. Reports 
to this effect, are present from many different parts of the 
country, especially the surroundings of the lower parts of the 
larger rivers, 

These reports are also interesting on account of the fact, 
that these masses of trout which appear in the river mouths in 
autumn, have very often been considered as young salmon. At 
this time of the year, having spent the summer in the sea 
among the herring fiy, they are really very fat, shiny and silver- 
coloured; however, as described in Chapter II, they are easily 
distinguished from salmon. These immigrating trout are in 
most places in this country named „blankøre", „høstblege", 
„biege", „lakseyngel" a. s. f. When leaving the river in spring, 
the people around the Orkla and the Gula, and also many other 
rivers, call them „is-fisk" (icefish) evidently because they are 
caught when the ice is breaking up. As I have mentioned they 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



are by many people considered young salmon. From several 
localities such trout have been kindly forwarded to me for exa- 
mination, by men, who either took an interest in getting 
the species of these fishes determined, or acted in the belief 
that they were sending me those sizes of young salmon, which 
I had not been able to catch. 

I must admit, that the real cause of the trout returning to 
the rivers during autumn, to me seems a mystery, and I can 
offer no contribution towards a solution. 

Considering the numerous reports as to the trout being 
injurious to ova and fry of salmon, I was led to suppose that 
the trout in question perhaps ascended the rivers in order to 
devour ova and fry. 

In order to test this supposition I have examined the con- 
tents of large numbers of stomachs. In the trout, which has 
spawned during autumn, the stomachs as a rule contained ova 
and fry of salmon and trout, sometimes in not inconsiderable 
quantities. The stomachs of the fat and shiny fishes, belonging 
to the immigration group of autumn, did, during autumn 1898, 
not contain ova or fry. On one accasion I examined ca. 100 
stomachs, taken from the fishes which on May 5, 1899 were 
caught at Forve bridge (vide table VI). Among these, only one 
contained a small salmon fry; the rest were empty. Thus these 
fishes would not seem to remain in the river on feeding pur- 
poses. On the contrary it is highly probable that they eat next 
to nothing. As I propose to show later on, they hardly grow 
at all during winter. While ascending the river in autumn 
they are fat and in splendid condition, they are in May, when 
emigrating again, much more slender; they are in fact very lean; 
the flesh is not so red; they do not fetch the same price, and 
are also not so good eating as prime fish. 

As mentioned before, not all fishes belonging to this 
group, ascend the rivers in autumn. Some remain in the sea 

Nyt Mag. i. Naturv. XXXXII, IV. 19 



29Ô KNUT DAHL. 



during winter. Although I am not in a position to determine 
definitely their places of resort in the sea during the winter 
months, I believe their habitat to be nearly the same as 
during summer. The only time of the year, when I have 
not been able to catch them along the shores, where they live 
in summer, is the space of time between the latter end of No- 
vember and the end of February; but during this time I have 
not made many hauls. As early as in the first days of March, 
I have nearly every year been able to procure, trout, as well 
singly, as on some occasions in large quantities, in single hauls. 
These fish have been of the same size as the emigrating „isfisk" 
of spring, but have been fat. 

As I have mentioned above, these trout scarcely grow at all 
during winter. Also the trout kept in aquaria at my station have 
refused food during winter, reposing quietly on the bottom or 
among stones. These facts have conveyed to me the notion, 
that the trout of these sizes (between 20 and 30 cm.) only eat 
very little during winter, keep quiet in a sort of half-torpor, the 
reduced processes of life being maintained on the fat accumu- 
lated during summer. 

The tables V — VII very plainly show the growth of the 
fish from the moment it leaves the river for the first time 
10—20 cm. long, until it returns to the river in autumn, 
hibernates, and re-emigrates. If we observe the progress of 
growth as regards the fish of the Orkla and compare the first 
column of tables V and VI, it transpires, that the youngest 
emigrants of spring, during summer have grown from 10 — 20 
cm. to a length varying from 10 or. 20 to some 30 cm. When 
these fishes during the following spring re-emigrate, their size 
is nearly unaltered, as will easily be observed by comparing 
table VI, first and last column. 

As regards the Gula, comparison of column 2 and 5 table V 
will show the same progress of growth. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 291 

If we examine the groups in table VII last column, repre- 
senting fishes from the Mandal river, it is obvious how well 
this table agrees with those of the two northern rivers, the 
upper group representing fishes, which are going to emigrate 
next spring, the lower one, fishes who left the river for the first 
time during spring 1901, returning during autumn. 

As regards the growth of the trout after it has left the river 
a second time as „isfisk", these tables do not give exhaustive 
information. The only fact which, upon this point is clearly 
established by the tables, is that a definite grouping of the growth 
after the second emigration ceases to be perceptible. Thus the 
further growth of the fish must undoubtedly be very irregular 
and highly varying in different individuals. 

This fact is obvious if we look at column 1 table VII, 
Beitstadfiord May 1900, a table representing the sizes of a 
large number of fishes caught during a short space of time in 
one locality. The fact also is in good accordance with the 
experience gained by Mr. A. Landmark, inspector of fisheries, in 
experiments with the labelling of trout of similar sizes. 

This irregularity of growth, which is however observed in 
most fishes as they grow older, may to some extent be con- 
nected with the fact, that the trout in these stages becomes 
more wandering and thus encounters considerably differing con- 
ditions of nutrition. 

Also the fact, that the larger proportion of the trout attain 
sexual maturity only after the second emigration, may to some 
extent account for the subsequent irregularity of growth. 

As will be observed in the tables, where fishes, sexually 
mature, are denoted by a 9, the group immigrating in autumn 
very rarely contains mature fishes. Thus, a careful exami- 
nation of more than 150 trout caught in the mouth of the Orkla, 
October 23, 1898 (vide table VI) yielded only one mature fish 
below 30 cm. length, while not a few above 30 cm. had not 
vet attained maturity. 



â9â KNUT DAHL. 



Among the fishes caught in the upper part of the river 
during the same excursion (vide table VI, col. 2), and all of which 
with a single exception, were sexually mature, only one was 
below 30 cm. in length. 

The same fact will also be observed if the 3 last columns 
in table VII are examined. They represent fishes caught, during 
the breeding season, in the Battenfiord, the Gula and the Mandal 
river. We also here notice the fact that there is no absolute 
size limit at which sexual maturity is attained. At the same 
time however it transpires, that the majority of trout spawn 
when they have reached a length of 30 — 35 cm. 

If we examine those columns in the tables which are con- 
structed upon the results of fishing experiments conducted during 
the spawning time, it is obvious how exceedingly scarce the 
mature fishes are, compared to the number of immature fishes 
in the rivers during autumn. 

This fact however must not be considered as contain- 
ing a correct representation of the real relation between the 
numbers of mature and immature individuals in this species. 
The fact, that sexually mature fishes rarely occur in the catches, 
is to a large extent due to the hauls being effected in the main 
courses of the rivers. These do not to any large extent seem 
to afford spawning beds for the trout, the mature fishes pre- 
ferring to enter side-rivulets and brooks of even quite incon- 
siderable size and water-volume, localities where the use of seines 
is excluded. Not only does this refer to the brooks and rivulets 
joining the large watercourses, but nearly every small water- 
course or even gutter, which directly joins our fiords or the open 
sea, forms spawning places where trout breed in autumn. In 
the immediate neighbourhood of the mouth of such small water- 
courses one may during autumn always be sure to find large 
trout, who only ascend the brook, when in the last stages of 
maturity. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 293 

In these small watercourses the spent fish of course never 
remain long. However I have considered it too slow work in such 
localities, to catch so large numbers of individuals, that their 
introduction in the tables would be in any marked degree illu- 
strative of the relative abundance of mature and immature 
fishes. 

On the whole it seems to be a peculiarity of the 
trout, at least in the rivers examined by me, that the mature 
fishes do not remain long in the river either before or after 
spawning. They run quickly up the river or watercourse, spawn 
and return to the sea. In my opinion this fact is rendered 
evident if on one hand we remember, what I have remarked 
above on the scarcity of large trout during summer in the Orkla 
and the Gula, and on the other hand note, that during late autumn, 
October and November, I have often in my seines in the sea 
caught recently-spent trout. 

Thus it will easily be understood that the tables from the 
rivers are fallacious as regards the numeric relation between 
mature and immature trout. 

If any of the materials collected by me might be supposed 
to illustrate this relation, it would be table VII col. I Beitstad- 
fiord. May 1900. 

This table may be considered as illustrative of the usual 
catches of trout in the sea at this season. Later on, during 
summer, the upper group will move down, as the fish grow. 
Even here however, as is usual in the tables, the larger fish 
(above 30 cm.) are few, compared to the younger group. 

A careful examination of the measurements of about 500 
trout, which some years ago were effected by Mr. Simonnæs 
in western Norway (vide report of the Inspector of Fresh-water 
fisheries 1895 — 96) shows the same result as my tables. 

This relation between the numbers of larger and smaller 
trout must evidently thus be of general value, and clearly the 



294 KNUT DAHL. 



size of the great proportion of the trout, which can be caught 
in our waters, is smaller than the size at which the majority of 
the individuals of the species attain sexual maturity. 

Whether this fact is a correct expression of the really 
existing relations in the natural economy of the species, I am 
of course unable in any satisfactory way to illustrate. 

However I wish to draw attention to the fact, that the trout, 
having reached the sizes peculiar to the mature stages, becomes 
much more roving and wandering, partly resorting to localities 
where our ordinary fishing implements are insufficient. The 
labelling experiments effected by Mr. Landmark in one of our 
western fiords seem indeed to show that the trout do not wander 
much. However if we consider, that I have procured large 
trout from the mackerel driftnets as far as 26 miles off Oksö 
in the Scagerrack, and further, that nearly all mackerel fisher- 
men from the Scagerrack and Kattegat state that trout are caught 
in their driftnets miles at sea, it is at all events evident, that 
some trout must wander considerable distances away from the 
rivers or brooks where they were reared. Thus knowing that 
larger trout may occur as pelagic fishes many miles from land 
in the open ocean, we cannot possibly expect them to be plenti- 
full in the fiords at the same time of the year. 

Further conclusions as to the progress of reproduction and 
the economy of the fish I do not consider justified by the 
material at hand. I can only state, that the trout in all the 
waters investigated by me is 'exceedingly numerous. In this 
connection I also wish to draw attention to the fact, that the 
economy of the trout of the sea cannot be considered to be 
dependant solely on the reproduction of this form. 

In my opinion the freshwater forms of the trout also con- 
tribute to the abundance of trout in the sea. Thus, trout con- 
tinually descend from the fresh waters to the sea, trout which 
are not direct descendants of the trout form of the sea, but belong 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 295 

to the various trout forms of the fresh waters. Having reached 
the sea these fish become sea trout. 

First of all I was made aware of this fact by obtaining in 
my nets in the sea, especially in or around river mouths, trout 
which differed considerably from the sea trout. These trout 
differed in colour considerably from the general colouring of 
the sea trout and possessed more of the gay and bright 
colours peculiar to the trout forms of the fresh waters. For 
comparison I have several times in mountain lakes caught 
trout and satisfied my self as to their similarity to the sea 
trout. Whether fry or young of the fresh water forms are 
to be found among the young trout emigrating in spring, I 
have been unable accurately to decide, as no marked diffe- 
rence is noticeable between the young of the sea trout and 
the young of other trout forms. On this occasion I have com- 
pared the young of mountain or lake trout as well as the young 
of trout from brooks where sea trout cannot ascend, with the 
young sea trout emigrating from our rivers in spring. I have 
been unable to find any marked difference between them, and 
the colours especially are in the main features strikingly alike. 
Even such a detail as the anal fin being oHvegreen or brownish 
yellow with blackish forepart and a creamy streak along the 
front edge is constantly noticeable in all such young which 
I have examined. Only after having reached the sea and for some 
time lived there do the young of the sea trout acquire the strong 
silver colour and in other respects become distinguished from 
the other trout forms. 

Thus a recently emigrated freshwater trout may clearly be 
recognised as such in the sea, only when it belongs to older 
stages. 

However I deem it highly probable that such an emigration 
of freshwater trout to the sea also includes younger stages, and 
further that this emigration may take place to an extent not 
unimportant to the economy of the sea trout. 



296 KNUT DAHL. 



It is indeed a phenomenon known in any river, that 
strong floods in spring and autumn generally convey not 
inconsiderable quantities of fish from the upper to the lower 
portions of the river. Especially obvious is this fact in rivers, 
the lower parts of which are poor in fish, while the upper parts 
are exceedingly rich in fish, or head from lakes where fish 
abound. From my own experience I very well remember a 
river in Southern Norw^ay, where the downward migration of 
fish" during the floods was obvious. Thus the common lake char, 
which only lived in a single remote lake at the head of one of 
the tributaries of the river, might, after heavy floods, be caught 
in the river. 

It is then perfectly clear, that these fish, as they gradually 
get transported by floods down the river, must finally reach the 
sea. Whether these, the trout forms of the fresh waters, can 
live in the salt water is a question which I have endeavoured 
to solve by experiment. 

In order to secure as unfavourable conditions as possible for 
my experiments, I chose for experimental purposes the trout form, 
which undoubtedly is most different in habits of life from the 
trout of the sea, viz. the brook-trout. My material was pro- 
cured from a small mountain brook which runs into the sea at 
the Trolla iron works just outside the biological station at 
Trondhjem. 

Sea-trout cannot on account of insurmountable obstacles 
reach the upper parts of the brook, and it is here inhabited 
solely by „fingerhng" trout, which even at a length of 14 — 16 cm. 
attain sexual maturity. They do not grow larger in the brook, 
and are thus typical brook-trout. Of these I caught by angling 
a small number, 14 specimens. 

Arrived at my station I put the smallest and the largest one 
into an aquarium containing water of a salinity of ca. 33 °/oo. 
The smallest one died after 12 hours, the largest one after 
24 hours. The others were kept for some time in a small fresh- 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 297 

water tank, into which was allowed to run a small stream of sea- 
water of 33 *^/oo salinity. In the course of a couple of days the 
supply of saltwater was increased, until the aquarium contained 
almost only seawater. The fishes then commenced to die. On this 
account the supply of saltwater was reduced to a very small 
volume and by and by in the course af 3^4 weeks, again gra- 
dually increased. It was then evident that a salinity of 10 ^/oo 
even 15 ^/oo did not in the least affect the fishes. Only when the 
salinity was suddenly increased to 20 ^/oo did a few die. 

The 2 remaining fishes were again subjected to a reduced 
salinity and 2 recently caught brook trout added to them. 
The salinity was again gradually increased during about 1 week. 
All passed 15 ^/oo without inconvenience. When 20 °/oo was 
passed the 2 recently added died, while the 2 veterans lived and 
even spawned in the aquarium. As the seawater-supply of the 
station at this time was stopped, the experiment was broken off. 

By these experiments I consider the fact established that even 
brook trout, which undoubtedly must be considered as the fresh- 
water form, whose properties are most highly speciahsed, can 
live without difficulty in water of a salinity of 15 °/oo and may 
even endure a salinity of 20 °/oo. In most of our rivermouths, 
at any rate the larger ones, the salinity however is considerably 
lower during spring and summer, at least in the upper water- 
layers, and the distribution of this low salinity is very often 
wide. Thus the emigrating freshwater-trout here evidently en- 
counter more favourable conditions than in my aquaria, especially 
if we consider, that, in nature, the changes from fresh to salt- 
water are much more gradual and afford the fish more choice 
than the relatively rough experiments in my aquaria. 

It is also my opinion, that this emigration must not neces- 
sarily be effected by one single individual; but that it may be 
performed in one or more generations. 

As far as I can see the main thing, which is important to 
the economy of trout in the sea, is the fact, that trout from 



KNUT DAHL. 



remote fresh waterstreams and lakes continually and gradually 
migrate into the sea. In other words a very little noticeable, 
and very little noticed development from the freshwater forms 
to the sea form of the trout takes place in our waters. 

I need hardly add, that this phenomenon though common 
applies only to a proportionally small number of individuals 
of the freshwater forms. On the other hand however it is 
perfectly clear, that the economy of the sea-trout is influenced 
thereby. It is also not improbable that the phenomenon may 
influence locally the economy of the trout forms of the fresh 
waters. 



Chapter V. 
Practical conclusions. 

a. Protection of young fish in general. 

From my investigations, more fully described in chapt. II, 
it appears, that it must be considered an established fact, that 
young salmon between 13 — 16 and 45 — 50 cm. in length are 
practically speaking not to be found in those of our waters where 
people fish for salmon and trout. 

Evidently then regulations tending to protect these stages 
are unimportant to the economy of the salmon and the salmon 
fisheries. With the practical problems, mentioned in the intro- 
duction in view, it is however just as obvious, that these 
regulations must be altered in favour of the trout-fishery, 
which certainly may be predicted to yield considerable profit as 
soon as a rational working of this fishing is facihtated. 

The only question is, by what means and in what degree 
this may be effected by legislation. In the following pages I 
will endeavour to develop the views which in my opinion are 
justified by the scientific material at hand. 

If we examine the regulations by means of which our legis- 
lation has intended to provide for the protection of smaU salmon 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 299 

and trout, we find, that these provisions may mainly be classi- 
fied under the following heads. 

1) Prohibition of the employment of net gear with a smaller 
mesh than 5,8 cm. between the knots (when wet). 

2) Prohibition of the catching and sale of salmon and sea- 
trout under 21 cm. in length. 

3) Order to set free salmon under 55 and sea- trout under 
40 cm. length, provided they are caught in gear with a 
smaller mesh than 5,8 cm. between the knots or are acci- 
dentally caught in the annual close time. 

4) Protection of river mouths and their immediate surround- 
ings, by prohibition of any sort of net fishing gear of a 
smaller mesh than 5,8 cm. between the knots. (Some 
exceptions for large herring-seines). 

The 3 first of these prohibitions are fixed by law; the last 
one is effected by „Royal Resolution" upon petition from district 
and county councils. 

The first prohibition is mainly intended to regulate the 
large industry. The other is mainly directed against sport- 
fishing or fishing with hook gear generally. The third chiefly 
aims at hmiting the accidental or occasional catching of 
salmon or trout occurring in the fishing for other seafish with 
other gear than that permitted for catching salmon or trout, and 
finally the fourth prohibition aims at protecting the young 
salmon in such localities where they are supposed to be easily 
caught in numbers during fishing with net gear for other fish. 

These regulations are, excepting the difference in the size 
limit at which salmon and trout are to be set free, mentioned 
under 3), uniform for salmon as well as trout and apply to 
salmon as well as to trout rivers. 

h. Protection of young salmon. 
In the introduction I have mentioned that these regulations 
almost totally prevent a lawful fishing for sea-trout, 



300 KNUT DAHL. 



Now in what degree may these regulations be altered or 
repealed, so as to forward the fishing for sea-trout without in- 
juring the interest of the salmon fisheries? 

If I now, with the results of my investigations in mind, con- 
sider the practical value of the provisions generally sketched 
under heads 2) 3) and 4), I find that as regards the salmon their 
value must be said to be very small. 

My investigations clearly enough show that only a fraction 
of a percent of the young salmon emigrating in spring from 
our rivers, at any rate the northern ones, exceeds 13 cm. in 
length (vide tab. IV in which only a minor part of the young 
salmon caught are represented). Excepting herring seines, and 
in some localities, eel traps, there does not in our country exist 
any kind of net gear, which possesses the power of retain- 
ing or entangling in its meshes these emigrating young salmon. 
It is perfectly evident, that the latter easily pass through all 
the different forms of ground nets employed in this country. 

The value of the regulations sketched under head 4) is 
thus limited to refer only to the use of seines and traps. 

The seines which in our country are employed, or may be 
thought to be employed at or in the neighbourhood of river 
mouths, are however as regards the majority of them, very 
little adapted to retain the emigrating young salmon. In the 
mouths of southern rivers, f. eks. the Glommen, a seine fishing is 
carried out for gwyniad, roach, and other freshwaterfishes ; but the 
seines used are of a mesh much too large to retain young salmon 
(smolts). As regards the mouths of most northern rivers, fishing 
(excepting for salmon and trout) with net gear can only have 
the object of catching cod, haddock and saithe, which during 
summer are occasionally plentiful in the river mouths. Fishing 
for herrings is carried on during autumn in river mouths, 
f. ex. the Gulosen. This kind of fishing how^ever requires 
only net gear, which as I have explained above, is perfectly 
innocent of the destruction of young salmon. Ground seines of the 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 301 

ordinary kind are also employed. These seines, the dimension 
and mesh of which are very varying in different parts of the 
country, very rarely possess a mesh as small as the ordinary 
mesh of herring seines, 15 — 20 knots pr. foot (Norvv.). When 
a small mesh is used, the points of the seine as a rule are of 
a large mesh, the small mesh only occupying a short stretch 
in the middle of the seine. 

A description of the groundseines commonly used in the 
Trondhjem fiord will be found in my paper on the fishing with 
groudseines in the Beitstadfiord in „Aarsberehiing vedk. Norges 
Fiskerier". 3. 1900. These seines must be regarded as t5^es 
of the seine gear, commonly used in this part of the country, 
and which may come into use in fishing for saltwater fish in 
a river mouth. 

More cursory examination of the seine gear of other 
districts has convinced me that the majority of such gear, which 
might be used for such fishing as above mentioned, does not, 
as regards the mesh, differ to any important extent from the 
above mentioned seines. 

Finally, respecting the employment of finemeshed eeltraps, 
I may remark that the use of such gear in river mouths is in 
most parts of our country, unknown. As such fishing gear may 
be employed with advantage only during autumn, when our 
river mouths are devoid of emigrating young salmon, a prohi- 
bition against their use will only put obstacles in the way of 
the fishing indushy without furthering the object in view viz: 
the protection of young salmon. 

That fishermen with the intention of fishing for young salmon, 
would procure gear of such a fine mesh as those seines which 
I have specially provided and employed for my fishing experi- 
ments, is out of the question. And even with gear of such 
small mesh and such fishing power, only a relatively small 
number of young salmon are caught. 



302 KNUT DAHL. 



According to pt. 3) salmon not exceeding 55 and trout 
smaller than 40 cm. are to be set fi-ee when caught during the 
annual close time or in gear of a smaller mesh than that permitted 
by law. A closer consideration of this provision will show, that 
the advantage gained for the salmon fisheries by this regulation 
is exceedingly small. 

The difficulty in distinguishing between salmon and trout 
in the younger stages has been the main cause of this regulation. 
Working under the presumption, that numbers of young salmon 
occurred among the „sea-trout", the authorities have not dared 
to fix the size limit for sea-trout lower than 40 cm. 

However in fixing the size limit, at which salmon should 
be set free, one has also laboured under a delusion. The 
object of this provision of course was to prevent the fishermen 
from retaining salmon of a smaller size than the smallest caught 
in gear possessing the minimum mesh allowed by law. 

However, if we examine the tables on the individual size 
and weight of the salmon caught in our waters, prepared by 
Mr. Landmark, we observe that not inconsiderable quantities 
of salmon smaller than 55 cm., are caught in lawful gear and 
are sold in accordance with the regulations. 

In the comparative table on the relation between length 
and weight in salmon, which is published by Mr. Landmark in 
his report for 1895 — 96 doc. nr. 6, the minimum length of the 
salmon proves to be 50 cm. 

I myself have not rarely measured salmon of 49 and 48 cm. 
in the fish stores of Mr. Thams in Trondhjem. Upon rare 
occasions I have found fishes as small as 45 cm. All these 
fishes are caught in gear of the lawful mesh. 

If we now keep in mind, that I have not during my re- 
searches in our waters succeeded in procuring salmon of a 
smaller size than the above-mentioned (excepting fry, emigrating 
young and young salmon in the open ocean), clearly the pro- 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 303 

tection offered to the salmon by the regulation in question is 
quite illusory. First of all, the cases in which salmon of a 
smaller size than 55 cm. should be set free, occur so rarely, 
that even this fact renders it indifferent whether these few fish 
are set free or not. Secondly, the fish thus set free, may in 
the next instant be caught in a fishing engine with a lawful 
mesh and be sold in accordance with the law. 

That fish accidentally caught during the annual close time 
should be liberated or at any rate not be killed, is presumably 
a consequence of the regulation inforcing an annual close time. 
Presumably these kinds of cases are, on account of their rare- 
ness, of small consequence, 

Further as regards the regulations scetched under head 2) 
the prohibition against the sale of salmon under 21 cm. in length 
is of no importance when we remember that the length of emi- 
grating young salmon practically speaking does not exceed 
18 cm. Sale of such fish certainly touches the borders of im- 
possibility. 

The prohibition against the capturing of salmon smaller 
than 21 cm. in length is in our salmon low expressed as „pro- 
hibition against the employment of fishing methods or fishing 
gear, by means of which salmon of a smaller length then 21 cm. 
may be caught". 

As regards the sea, this prohibition is entirely valueless. 
This is clearly enough shown by my experiments. In all the 
hundreds and thousands of hauls with seines effected by me in 
the sea, not one single emigrating young salmon (smolt) has 
been caught, except in the immediate vicinity of river mouths. 

As regards the rivers, such prohibition would seem justi- 
fied, if it is considered necessary to stop sportsmen from kil- 
ling the salmon fry accidentally caught in fishing for larger 
fish, or to prevent boys from wantonly destroying fry, parr 
and smolts. If these sources of destruction to salmon should 



304 KNUT DAHL. 



be considered important enough to demand special regulations, 
a minimum size of 13 — 16 cm. however would include all the 
sizes demanding protection. 

As we now have seen, it transpires, that^all the regula- 
tions, by means of which the authorities have intended to 
protect the young of the salmon, such as protection or closing of 
river mouths enforced liberation of salmon and trout caught 
under certain circumstances, prohibition aganst the sale of under- 
sized salmon, prohibition against the capturing of the young 
etc. may without the slightest injury to the interests of the sal- 
mon fisheries he reduced to a prohibition against the killing 
of salmon fry, parr and smolts. This prohibition covers all 
the sizes of salmon which in our waters, may justly demand 
the protection of law. As the size of these young salmon, only 
in exceedingly rare cases exceeds a length of 13 cm. any coUi- 
sion with the interests of the trout fisheries is excluded. 

Even if we proceed to relax in a considerable degree the 
present exacting regulation for trout-fishing, these relaxations 
cannot in the interests of trout fishing be extended beyond 
endeavouring to afford some protection to trout fry. As all 
stages of trout occur in our waters the term „fry" or „young" 
will however, as regards this species, be insufficient. 

Evidently in respect to this species there must be fixed a 
size limit at which the protection of the young must commence. 
Later on, I will return in detail to this question ; but even at 
the present moment it is clear, that this limit in the interest 
of trout fishing must in reason be fixed at a figure protecting 
the maximum length of salmon fry or emigrating young salmon. 
Then clearly a prohibition against the killing of salmon fry 
(parr and smolts) does not offer any chance of evasion and 
thus sufficiently protects the interests of salmon. 

Thus as no chances of collision are present between the 
interests of salmon and trout fisheries in this respect, separate 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 305 

regulations relating to the different fisheries may without much 
difficulty be formed. 

c. The protection of young trout. 

As shown above, it is the interests of the trout and not 
those of the salmon, which must be the object of regulations 
aiming at the protection of young fish under the forms men- 
tioned on page 299. In the framing of such regulations a 
special value is attached to the fixing of a size limit at which 
the protection of the young fish is to commence. 

I admit that a correct estimate of this size limit with due 
regard to the demands of the fishing industry and the economy 
of the fish in question, presents a problem not easily solved. 
Especially difficult is the solution when, as in the present case, 
the question refers to a species of fish, which practically speak- 
ing is only caught "on the sly", and to a fishery, the value of 
which is an unknown figure, and the development of which 
belongs to the future. 

As starting points I here recommend an endeavour to rea- 
lize what sizes in the present species, represent the fry or young 
fish. At the same time we must endeavour to sift the distinc- 
tion fry = non edible, non-marketable fish. 

In connection with these investigations, we must next attempt 
to make clear how high the size limit may be fixed without 
injury to future fishing industry and local fishing-interests. 

For illustration of these points I have gathered some material. 

If we e. g. look up table V and observe the groups of 
fishes contained in the different columns, it is clear that the 
members of the upper groups from 10 — 20 cm. must be regarded 
as the „fry", representing the individuals emigrating for the first 
time into the sea. 

If we now consider the size (about 20 cm.) at which trout 
become marketable we find, that the non-edible, non-marketable 
fish, are represented by the fry. 

Nyt Mag. f. Natur v. XXXXIL IV. 20 



306 KNUT DAHL. 



Thus if we further examine my tables we will in table VI 
last column, find a group of trout caught in one haul in the 
Orkla. These fishes were, after the „fingerlings" were thrown 
out, by my fishermen, sold for Kr. 0,70 pr. Kilo. If now we 
we look up table VII, first column, Beitstad-fiord, May 1900, 
we observe that scarcely any of the fishes are smaller than 20 cm. 
According to the above-mentioned experience it is also clear 
that these fishes are marketable in the practical sense of the word. 
They quite agree in size with the fishes in the catches made 
by the seine fishermen during this time, catches which were 
sold at high prices, and which in numbers were examined by 
me. It is to me evident that practical reasons also, are in the 
way of fixing the size limit higher than 20 cm., because the 
fishermen thereby would be deprived of a large and remune- 
rative portion of their catch and constantly be tempted to 
disobey the regulation by getting this portion in their gear. 

Even if we would endeavour to regulate this matter by 
means of enforcing a regulation minimum mesh, we would 
only remain in the same difficulties as at the present time, 
when trout is caught in gear also or mainly intended for the 
capture of other seafish. Due regard to sport-fishing also 
speaks in favour of not fixing the size limit of „young fish" 
higher than at 20 cm. 

This limit corresponds fairly w^ell to the minimum size of 
marketable fish, which for a long space of time has been fixed 
by law in our country (21 cm.) and thus to some degree must 
have established itself in the pubhc feeling. 

Eventually this limit would protect the young non-marke- 
table fish and not injure the practical industry as regards the 
catching of sea trout. 

Such size limit must of course also apply to freshwater 
trout in such parts of rivers or waters, in Avhich sea trout 
run. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 307 

The fixing of the size limit at 20 cm. will however in my 
opinion be dependant on the form of regulation by means of 
which, protection of the young trout is to be effected. 

If we are going to protect sea trout under 20 cm., by a 
prohibition against killing such fish, no inconvenience worth 
mentioning will be incurred in the case of the larger rivers, 
because the capture of small fish is here of small importance. If 
however we consider the large number of small rivers or brooks, 
which in our country fall into the sea, such a prohibition would 
be unjust. A very large proportion indeed of these rivers is 
inhabited not only by sea trout but by large numbers of fresh- 
water trout, mainly brook trout and this latter form, in nume- 
rous rivers, rarely exceeds 20 cm. in length. 

As an example of such a rivulet may be mentioned the 
little 0re-elv in the Sheidsdal in the Batten-fiord, which river 
has been specially investigated. It heads from a small tarn 
about 7 kilometers from the sea. The whole of its length is 
inhabited by a freshwater trout-form which only in rare excep- 
tions exceeds 20 cm. in length. Of this fact I was convinced 
after I had measured specimens caught in all parts of the river. 
They attained sexual maturity at a length of 15 cm. Graphically 
represented, their measurements run thus: 

Each dot represents a fish, 
cm. 

10 o o 

11 o o o o o 

12 000000000 

13 000000000000 

14 00000000000000000 

15 o o o o o o 

16 00000000 

17 o o o o o 

18 o o o ( s^^ually mature 

19 

20 o 



308 KNUT DAHL. 



About 500 metres from the mouth of the river was a h'ttle 
waterfall which prevented the further ascent of sea-trout. Of 
this latter form fullgrown individuals in no small number occurred 
in this lower stretch of the river mingled with trout of the above- 
mentioned sizes, right down to the river mouth. Undoubtedly 
some of the fishes in the above representation, which are not 
sexually mature, are the brood of the sea-trout, which in time 
would emigrate and develop in the sea. As will be observed 
these facts are very complicated. However, a prohibition against 
killing trout under 20 cm. in the lower part of this river, where 
sea-trout run, will deprive the people living on the surrounding 
farms of the whole catch of freshwater-trout. 

Certainly this catching of smaller trout cannot be termed 
specially important, except as offering chances for sport fishing 
or fishing for food; but it will be easily understood that a pro- 
hibition against killing fish under 20 cm. will be difficult to 
obey. 

Such rivers are plentiful in our country, even to such a 
degree, that most rivulets or brooks running into the sea may 
probably be said to possess similar conditions. 

Provided it should be deemed necessary to secure the pro- 
tection of young trout by means of a prohibition against kill- 
ing such fish, consideration of the conditions peculiar to these 
rivers would prompt us to fix the size limit as low as 15 cm. 
Smaller fish would be of no value for food or sporting purposes. 

If the authorities however would be satisfied with protect- 
ing these young fish by means of a regulation prohibiting the 
sale of sea-trout under 20 cm. in length., the interests of these 
rivers presumably would be served. However in forming such 
a regulation it must be strongly kept in mind, that such a 
provision, to he effective, must also refer to freshwater-trout. 
As I have before mentioned, it is generally quite easy to distin- 
guish sea-trout and freshwater-trout, excepting the young and 
the sexually mature fishes. Now the sizes below 20 cm. are just 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 309 

„the young"' and there are, in the great majority of cases, no 
means of distinguishing the two forms at these sizes. Thus it is 
clear, that the young of sea-trout may easily be caught and 
offered for sale as freshwater-trout. To prevent the sale of 
freshwater-trout under 20 cm. would be unjust, as countless 
smaller lakes, tarns, rivers and brooks in our country possess 
trout, the majority of which do not exceed a length of 20 cm. 

The fish of these waters would thus be rendered entirely 
valueless. If however the limit is lowered to 15 cm., presu- 
mably all inconvenience would be avoided. I should recommend 
that this be done, as I am strongly of the opinion that a future 
law ought to contain a regulation tending to prevent the sale 
of trout under a certain length. 

It is to me evident, that this lowering of the present 
size limit, 21 cm. to 15 cm., would not produce any effect on 
the economy of the sea-trout. As I will show later on, trout 
under 20 cm. are of no importance in the catches made in 
the sea, and in the sea the real fishing for sea-trout will 
have to be carried out. And even if smaller fishes than 20 cm. 
were caught to the same extent as larger stages, clearly a 
lowering of the size limit by only 5 or 6 cm., will only make 
the fishes liable to be fished 2 or IV2 months sooner than would 
have been the case if the limit was fixed at 20 cm. This fact 
may be directly realised from my tables on trout. It will be 
seen that a fish which in May is 15 cm. long, in August 
is about 25. Thus about IV2 summer months will suffice for 
a trout of 15 cm. to pass by growth the size limit if this is 
fixed at 20 cm. 

The insignificant loss in weight which the catch of trout 
in the sea would thus be liable to, niay in my opinion be con- 
sidered as counter-balanced by the above-mentioned advantages 
to the freshwater fisheries and by the benefit of a regulation, 
the observance of which may be controlled. 



310 KNUT DAHL. 



If a regulation was issued, prohibiting the sale etc. oi sea- 
trout and freshwater trout under 15 cm. and at the same time 
there existed a prohibition against the sale of salmon fry, clearly 
the sale of salmon fry would be impossible on the pretext of 
their being young trout. 

However if it should be desirable to prevent the killing of 
salmon fry (parr and smolts) when accidentally caught on hooks 
or in other ways, a prohibition against wilfully killing salmon 
fry would not be sufficient. Although anybody, even children, 
may easily learn to distinguish the young of the salmon from 
the young of the trout, such knowledge is by no means common. 
According to my experience very jfew people, even including 
fishermen, know the difference between the young of the two 
species. 

It is thus evident that a prohibition against wilfully killing 
salmon fry (parr and smolts) would have very little effect un- 
less accompanied by a corresponding prohibition relating to trout, 
when both species occurred in the same river. As already men- 
tioned, no objection would be raised by the trout-fishers against 
the eventual regulations containing a prohibition against wilfully 
killing in salmon rivers young salmon and trout under 15 cm. 
in length. By these means a sufficient protection would presu- 
mably be offered to the young of both species. 

The only points relating to the protection of young trout, 
which have not yet been discussed, are the closing of river- 
mouths, and the provision which previously has been considered 
most important, viz: the enforcing of a regulation minimum 
mesh in net gear. In my opinion these 2 points may most con- 
veniently be discussed simultaneously. 

Under the heading „Protection of young salmon" I have 
not discussed the effect of the regulation as to the protection 
of the infantile salmon; this 1 have omitted because it will be 
perfectly clear from other arguments under that heading, that 
no effect exists. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 311 

d. The mesh. 

The main object of our investigations must now be to 
determine the degree in which our present regulations as to a 
minimum size of mesh may be modified in the interests of 
trout fishing. It is here of importance sharply to distinguish 
on the one hand, what the interests of salmon fisheries demand 
in order not to be injured, and on the other hand, what may be 
offered the trout fisheries without inconveniencing the salmon 
fisheries. 

I have previously shewn that salmon of sizes between 
(13 — 16) and (45 — 50) cm. practically speaking do not occur in 
our waters. Further I have also mentioned that 45-^50 cm. 
forms the lower limit of the sizes of salmon caught at the present 
time in gear with a mesh in accordance with the law. When 
we further remember that I previously have advised the lower- 
ing of the size limit, for protection of the young trout and salmon, 
to 15 cm., the sum of these facts would seem to admit of the 
conclusion, that any regulation of the mesh would be in general 
unnecessary as well for salmon as for trout. 

Provided the authorities were able to organise the administ- 
ration of our salmon and trout fisheries in a wholly rational 
and ideal way, — a question to which I shall later on return, — 
I should principally impress on them the correctness of the above 
conclusion. 

However I am quite convinced that at the present time 
regulations relating to the mesh of net gear cannot wholly be 
discarded by legislation relating to these fisheries, considering 
the development of the latter during the last 2 or 3 decades. 

If the authorities are not prepared to foster the development 
of these fisheries on new lines, this question need not, at the 
present time, be discussed in general, but the importance of 
mesh regulations must be conscientiously considered for each 
of the present fishing methods. Thus our deliberations must 



312 KNUT DAHL. 



relate separately to moveable and fixed fishing engines as 
well as to the fishing in the rivers and in the sea. 

Of moveable fishing gear for the purpose of catching salmon 
and sea trout in our country, only driftnets, groundnets and 
seines are used. 

The driftnets are only employed for the purposes of catching 
salmon, and accordingly the r mesh must be very large, even 
larger than the minimum size at present allowed by law. 
Reduction of the mesh is thus, in regard to these nets, quite 
immaterial. 

As regards groundnets a reduction of the mesh is for the 
same reason immaterial, provided the purpose of the nets is the 
catching of salmon. A reduction of the mesh, however, would 
render them adapted to the catching of trout, and reduce their 
efficiency for salmon. They would not be able to catch salmon 
of a smaller size than those caught in the present mesh, as such 
salmon practically do not exist in our waters. As the nets are 
intended for "meshing" the fish, their mesh could never with 
any advantage be made so small as to imperil the size of 
trout, which demand the protection of the law. 

If finally we consider the seines, we find that in the sea 
they are employed almost exclusively for the purpose of catching 
trout. In the rivers or in the neighbourhood of river-mouths 
their present object is the catching af salmon. 

In the seines used in the sea salmon are rarely found. 
In the thousands of hauls which I have made or seen other 
fishermen make in the sea, with seines of a smaller mesh 
than the legal one, not a single salmon has been caught. 
Nor do any of the fishermen who for a part of the year get 
their hving by this half illegitimate fishing for sea-trout, profess 
to catch salmon, but as rare exceptions. They state unanimously 
that a few grilse of 2 — 3 kilo weight may occur as rareties 
in a summers catch. The occasions upon which large salmon 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 313 

have happened to be caught in the seines of the fishermen, 
are considered as remarkable incidents in their hves. 

Thus without doubt the question of a reduction of the 
mesh in favour of these seines, which are employed in fishing 
for trout, does not, as regards the sea, imply any collision 
with the interests of the salmon-fisheries. We have only to 
consider the benefit to the trout-fisheries. The question in regard 
to these implements then, is: Ought a certain minimum size of 
mesh to be established by law, or is it advisable to leave it 
to the fishermen themselves in perfect freedom and according 
to the varying conditions of the fishing industry, to arrange their 
fishing gear in the way, which experience in every case teaches 
them to be profitable? 

I am of the opinion that the latter solution is to be pre- 
ferred, and will undoubtedly prove to be rational and economical 
as regards the whole fishery in the sea with this kind of gear. 
It those seines were only employed for the purpose of catching 
seatrout, no inconvenience consequently would be occasioned, 
if it should be decided to fix a regulation mesh possessing the 
power of retaining only fishes down to the size limit for sea- 
trout permitted to be sold. 

A large number of the present seines used for seatrout, 
thus have a mesh which totally excludes the capture of trout as 
small as any of the minimum regulation sizes suggested by me 
above. The mesh of these nets varies as a. rule from 8 to 11 
knots pr. foot (Norw.). Many fishermen see an advantage in 
using these relatively large meshed seines, as they are consider- 
ably easier to handle than finer meshed seines. 

Other fishermen, however, are inclined to renounce this 
latter quality in preference to a smaller mesh, by means of 
which herrings and other small seafish may be captured with 
the trout, in cases or at times when no trout are to be had. 

Others take the middle course and employ in the middle 
part of their large meshed seine (8—11 knots pr. Norw. foot) a 



314 KNUT DAHL 



piece of netting of finer mesh and adapted to retain herrings. 
This latter case is e. g. in the Trondhjem fiord very common. 
In this respect I may refer the reader to my paper: "Om 
Fiskeriet med Strandnot i Beitstadfjorden", Aarsberetning vedk. 
Norges Fiskerier (3) 1900. 

It is to me evident, that such phenomena are not due to 
chance. They are in accordance with natural laws created by 
the conditions of the fishing industry itself and the measures 
which each fisherman in each locality has had to adopt in order 
to bring his gear into accordance with the demands and needs 
of his trade. A regulation enforcing any sort of minimum mesh 
would then clearly render the majority of the gear employed at 
the present time unfit for the catching of trout. The fishermen 
would have to procure special trout-seines, and in using these 
seines they would, in large numbers of cases, have to renounce 
the capture of the shoals of herring or other seafish which at 
the present time adds largely to their catch. 

Unless obstacles of a quite compulsory character are present, 
it is thus irrational to charge this industry with the burden of 
a regulation mesh. I cannot find that such obstacles are present. 
My fishing experiments and the tables representing the fish 
caught, clearly show that the rivers, river-mouths and their 
immediate sourroundings must preminently be regarded as the 
habitat of the young fish, while the young fish in the sea 
are much more scattered. Certainly the young emigrate into 
the sea and thus to some extent may be caught, but it must 
be remembered that they live more scattered in the sea, 
and that the majority in the course of a short time, during 
summer, all grow to sizes which must be considered as fit 
for food. 

Thus there is no scientific reason for estabhshing any mini- 
mum mesh for this sort of gear on account of the trout. 

In this connection I also wish to point out the fact, that a 
regulation, enforcing a minimum mesh for trout-fishing with 



A STUDY OX TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 315 

seines, will onlv result in the present half-lawful, half-lawless 
state of the fishery. 

The fishermen cannot be forbidden the use of fine meshed 
seines in fishing for herrings and other fish, and in employing 
these seines they will take what trout they get. law or no law. 
as long as they can sell or eat it. These are the present con- 
ditions, and a law, which is not kept, has no chance of being 
kept and clashes with the demands of the very industry, for 
whose benefit it is instituted, is worse than no law. 

As regards the rivers, river-mouths and their immediate 
surroundings the question of a reduction or abolition of the 
mesh regulations will be essentially different. A total abolition 
of the mesh regulation would in the above-mentioned locahties 
imply drawbacks, not to be disregarded. 

Clearly rivers, river-mouths and their immediate surroundings 
offer a far better opportunitv than the sea, of capturing with 
smallmeshed seines large numbers of young trout, about the 
regulation size, which I have deemed it advisable to adopt as 
a limit for trout to be sold. It will be remembered that my 
suggestion as to the size limit of 15 cm. was given more from 
considerations the interests of freshwatertrout than to those of 
seatrout. and mainly in order to secure uniform regulations, 
which could not be evaded. My intention is that capture of the 
smaller sizes in the rivers should mainly be carried out with 
hook gear as used by sportsmen or by people fishing to obtain 
food. Thus it would never attain dimensions worth considering. 
However, there is no doubt, that an unhmited license to employ 
seine gear of anv mesh in rivers and river-mouths would lead 
to abuse, because the opportunity of capturing very small fish 
is here so ample. There is consequently no doubt, that such 
a relaxation of earlier regulations is totallv wrong and inad- 
visable. 

A mesh, which would prevent abuse and retain marketable 
trout misht of course easilv be determined if. in the rivers, the 



316 KNUT DAHL. 



interests of trout and salmon-fisheries were quite separable. 
This is, however, not the case in salmon-rivers, and the 
introduction of full liberty as to mesh would inconvenience the 
fishing of both species. 

As regards those salmon-rivers which wholly or nearly 
wholly are let for sporting-purposes, and as regards the smaller 
trout-rivers, where net gear can not easily be employed, the 
question of mesh is of very small importance. 

Respecting those rivers, the lower parts of which are fished 
by numerous seines, while the upper reaches are hired by 
sportsmen, e. g. most northern rivers, a reduction of the mesh 
will to some extent cause fewer grilse than usual to reach the 
upper reaches. 

The present mesh certainly retains grilse, down to the smal- 
lest sizes occurring in our enclosed waters. Nevertheless a few 
grilse break through, either bursting the mesh or being so slender 
that they are able to wriggle through the mesh, even though being 
of the same length or weight as many of the smallest caught. 

This fact is shown by a few of the grilse, caught in the 
upper parts of the rivers, being marked by the meshes. 

Attention is very often drawn to this fact by sportsmen, 
and I have also myself observed it in the rivers. Thus in the 
upper parts of the Orkla I once examined the catch made in a 
day by British anglers. About 25 ^/o of the grilse were marked. 

Clearly this marking of fishes will to some extent occur, 
no matter what size our mesh is; but I deem it also probable 
that this phenomenon at the present time must be mainly 
attributed to the use of seines in the lower parts of the rivers. 
In these limited stretches of water, where the fishes are hunted 
with net after net, as they ascend the river, obviously the 
chances of a majority of the ascending fishes coming in contact 
with net gear are greater than in the sea, where the fish move 
in a considerably wider area and the room for escape is far 
greater. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 317 

A reduction of the mesh would thus in some salmon-rivers 
clearly result in less grilse reaching the upper reaches and falling 
a prey to sportsmen, or increasing the number of spawning fish. 
However the provision of our law concerning a minimum mesh 
was never intended to regulate this side of the industry. 

The object of mesh regulation has been the protection of 
young salmon, nonmarketable and unripe fish. 

Equalising of the catch and protection of the spawning, 
heads to which the above mentioned features must be referred, 
has always indeed been aimed at, by regulations enforcing 
weekly and annual close-times. Thus the drawbacks, eventually 
caused by a reduction of the mesh in the rivers, would have to 
be amended by regulations concerning weekly and annual close- 
times and would also have to be discussed and considered under 
this head. Consequently the motives fundamental to mesh regu- 
lations in general should not now prevent a reduction of the 
mesh in the rivers. But perfect hberty as to the choice of 
mesh would not as I have said before be advisable on account 
of the young trout. 

If therefore the interests, which would profit by a mesh 
reduction in the rivers, were found worthv of consideration, there 
are no objections in the case of young-fish protections, as long 
as the reduction is kept within limits protecting the non-saleable 
trout. Presumably the reduced size of the mesh ought not to 
be fixed by law in any general form. According to my opinion 
a lowering of the mesh ought only to be effected by the ad- 
ministration, upon petition, and it ought only to be lowered to 
a degree which special investigation in each locality, proved 
justified. 

Also it should be left to administration to define the term 
river or river-mouth. This is on account of special or singular 
fisheries which occur in a few places in the neighbourhood of 
river-mouths. In a juridical sense they would be sea-fisheries, 
while really having the character of river-fisheries. 



318 KNUT DAHL. 



The very same considerations as above, must in consequence 
also apply to all fixed fishing gear and engines, in rivers and 
river-mouths, and not only to gear and engines made of twine 
or thread but also to those made of rigid material. 

Finally we have to discuss the conditions relating to reduction 
of the mesh in fixed fishing engines in the sea. 

The main types of such gear, as used in this country, are 
"kilegarn" (net ending in an open corner), "bundgarn" (stake 
nets), "kilenot" (bag net) besides "laksevarp" (fixed seines wdth 
bottom). 

All these fishing engines are almost exclusively intended for 
the capture of salmon. The only exception is in the case of 
stake nets, the yield of which also consists of trout and other 
sea-fish besides salmon. These latter fishing engines may also, 
under certain conditions, be exempt from some of the regulations 
relating to mesh and weekly close-times, provided it is sufficiently 
proved that their main catch consists of fish other than salmon 
and sea trout. 

Respecting that kind of gear which is intended to "mesh" 
the fish, viz. the kilegarn or corner nets, the question of a 
reduction of the regulation minimum mesh or even total liberty 
as to the choice of mesh, is perfectly indifferent (vide my previous 
remarks upon the mesh question i-elating to moveable net gear 
especially driftnets intended to entangle the fish). All the other 
fixed fishing engines are so uniform as to their effect that they 
may all, with regard to the mesh question, be treated as bag 
nets. The bag net undoubtedly must be considered as the engine 
typical to our salmon-fisheries in the sea. 

When considering if we may venture a reduction of the 
mesh or even permit free choice as to the mesh in this kind of 
gear, two points must in my opinion be kept in view. 

On the one hand we will have to acknowledge, that the mesh 
question regarding bag nets or other fixed engines in the sea, 
does not only refer to the salmon. On the contrary it is 



\ 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 319 

only subject to a clear understanding when viewed in con- 
nection with the interests of all other sea- fisheries. 

On the other hand we must consider the effect of mesh 
regulations as to the protection of young i. e, non-saleable salmon 
and sea trout. 

To any man who has studied our bag net-fishery, it will 
be obvious that the ever increasing employment of this fishing 
apparatus in our country is most closely connected with the fact 
that this fishing engine is admirably adapted to the conditions 
of our waters. What the pots and stake nets are to Denmark, 
the bag nets evidently are to our country. 

It is also obvious that this apparatus is not only adapted 
to the catching of salmon, but also others of those kinds 
of fish which, along our coasts, and also in our fiords, lead a 
pelagic wandering life. Of such species may be mentioned : 
Trout, herring, mackerel, saithe, pollack, whiting also haddock 
and cod. 

This fact is also to some extent shown by the experiments 
which have been effected by me with fine meshed bag-nets, 
and which are described in detail in chapter 2. As will be 
remembered 1 could get as many as 100 other seafish and even 
more to each salmon caught. 

This fact is also shown by the catches of ordinary bag nets. 
Even with the present enormous mesh, large numbers of cod 
and saithe are caught in places, and it is evident that a reduction 
would mean an increase in the capture of other seafish. 

Bag-net fishermen in the southern parts of our country 
have often reported to me that the bags of their nets, possessing 
the large regulation mesh, are filled with mackerel, which do not 
pass the meshes as long as the net is not touched, but all go 
through, when the net is tended. 

It is to me evident that free choice as to the mesh in bag 
nets and similar engines would be a great benefit. Undoubtedly 
the fishermen in many places would see the advantage of 



320 KNUT DAHL. 



reducing their mesh, according to the demands of the locality, 
and in this way they would essentially increase their own incomes, 
and also the national income, by catching trout and other sea- 
fish along with the salmon. 

Thus I do not for one moment doubt that free choice of 
mesh would be a great blessing. 

The question, however, as before mentioned, also refers to 
the amount of power, which mesh regulations possess of 
protecting non-saleable salmon and trout. 

The original motive of mesh regulations in our salmon 
legislation, was the protection of the young, non-saleable fish. 
The mesh was then IV4 inches (Norw.) between the knots. 

The law of May 23rd, 1863, which fixed the minimum size 
of the mesh at 5"8 cm. between the knots, also aimed however, 
at protecting the grilse, also including the seatrout, the specific 
distinction between grilse and seatrout being a question of doubt. 
Experience, however, showed that the grilse in large numbers 
were caught by this mesh, and in the law of 1821 the mesh 
was enlarged to 6*5 cm. between the knots. 

This regulation, however, met with such opposition on the 
part of the fishermen that the legislating powers were forced to 
suspend the operation of this regulation and suffer the old mesh 
regulation to remain in force. 

The idea of enlarging the mesh and sparing the grilse 
is rejected by the fishermen as well as by the special law- 
commission appointed in 1896. 

Even the original mover in this matter, our inspector of 
fisheries, has, in his criticism of the regulations proposed by the 
latter commission (Christiania 1901) renounced the idea, at least 
temporarily, of enlarging the mesh. 

When we now consider that even fine meshed bag nets 
cannot, as my experiments show, catch grilse of smaller size 
than those caught in the present regulation mesh, clearly our 
reasons for mesh regulations must remain the same as before 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 321 

the law of 1863, viz.: the protection of the young or non- 
marketahle fish. 

As mentioned before, some of the grilse caught in the upper 
reaches of rivers are marked by passing through the meshes of 
net gear. I expressed as my own opinion that this must be 
caused principally, by seine fishing in the narrow rivers. But even 
supposing, that part of these marked grilse are fish which have 
passed through bag nets in the sea, the importance of this fact 
would, in my opinion, be small compared to the prospects 
offered to our other sea-fisheries by the employment of fine 
meshed bag nets. 

It will be remembered as my investigations have shown 
that salmon of sizes between 16 and 45 cm. cannot be caught 
in our waters. If this result is compared with the tables 
published by Mr. Landmark in his report for 1891 — 1894, 
showing the size of grilse caught by the present mesh, it is 
evident that at all events only a very small portion of the grilse 
group would have any chance of penetrating the present mesh 
of the bag nets and would consequently be retained by a smaller 
mesh. 

Consequently it is evident that mesh regulations, as a means 
of protecting young non-marketable salmon, are a failure. 

If, however, upon introduction of adlibitive mesh in the sea, 
any inconvenience to sportsmen should arise from the fact, that 
a few of the smallest grilse would be withdrawn from the 
rivers, I think that a remedy could easily be found. As 
I have mentioned before^ this kind of inconvenience comes under 
the head of regulations tending to equalize the catch and protect 
the spawning. 

In deUberations as to weekly and annual close-times the 
above mentioned inconveniences may at any time be considered 
according to their value. 

I will therefore recommend that the mesh regulation 
should, as regards all fishing gear in the sea, he abolished, 

Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. IV. 21 



KNUT DAHL. 



In chapter II I have given prominence to the fact that I 
did not feel wholly convinced that certain points of our outer 
coast might at times be visited by young salmon in the oceanic 
stage. I also mentioned that I did not feel satisfied, that some 
of the open fiords of Finmarken might not harbour such 
salmon. In order to take precautions against the possibility of 
such chances of local destruction, I should think it would be 
sufficient if the future law left the remedies against such possible 
cases in the hands of administration, charging it with the power 
of 6. g. enforcing the use of a certain mesh, locally. 

In case the abohtion of mesh regulations, as regards bag nets, 
should raise the question of extending the weekly close-times 
also to the seine-fishing for trout in the sea, I wish to point 
out that the very nature of this latter industry does not offer 
any parallel to the bag-net fishery for salmon. 

The seine-fishery for trout is indeed not in a position to 
suffer the economic pressure of a weekly close- time. Nor does 
it present the same scientific and national economic grounds, 
which have urged the weekly close-time for salmon. 

In the seine fishing for trout there cannot possibly be any 
chance, by a weekly close-time, of destributing the yield of the 
fishery, nor promoting the access of the fish to the rivers, as the 
wanderings of the seatrout are not analogous to those of the 
salmon. Neither will it be possible to have a weekly close- 
time for fishing with this kind of gear, as the seines will 
then certainly be used "for the purpose of catching other sea- 
fish" and will catch trout, which is very difficult, if not impossible 
to prevent. This is shown by the present conditions. 

e. Annual and weekly close-times. 

Protection of the spawning fish and the equal distribution 
of the yield of the fisheries have been aimed at by regulations 
enforcing annual and weekly close-times. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 323 

In my opinion the first of these provisions (the annual close- 
time) is only justifiable as regards the rivers. In the sea the 
present annual close-time (August 25 — April 15) is immaterial, 
provided the intention is to protect salmon. Practically speak- 
ing there is no chance of capturing salmon in the sea during 
the present close-time. The bagnets are indeed mostly taken 
ashore as early as the end of July. 

If however we intend to allow free choice of mesh and 
thereby create possibilities of employing the bagnets for other 
fish, evidently the present annual close-time in the sea is not 
only unnecessary but even objectionable. 

The second of these provisions, (the weekly close-time) un- 
doubtedly is the regulation, which most heavily hampers the 
industry and has created the greatest discontent. Looked at from 
the fisherman's point of view, it is evident, that a weekly close- 
time of 72 hours or even more, must be a great burden to any 
fishing industry. 

This method of protection is however closely connected 
with the development of our salmon fisheries, and is a logical 
consequence of the principles of our previous legislation. As 
long as these principles are followed, I do not venture to pro- 
pose any alteration in the present method of protection by weekly 
close-time. 

f. Change of System. 

I think however, that our knowledge of our salmon fisheries, 
and of the lifehistory of the salmon during the last 10 
years, has developed to such an extent, that the question comes 
more and m.ore to the front: Is it not now the time to re- 
consider the very principles upon which legislation in our 
country hitherto has been founded? 

My previous views and propositions have in general been 
founded on the current principles, and this is on account of the 
fact, that any radical change of system can only be subjected to 



324 KNUT DAHL. 



general deliberation, as its consequences may only be judged 
with accuracy, when the manysided preliminary work and in- 
vestigations have been performed by government. 

Until this has taken place, clearly the present system must 
be fundamental to law regulations, and this I have assumed in 
my above review of some of our leading regulations. 

Those who have attempted to study the development of 
our salmon fisheries during the last 3 or 4 decades, will have 
observed that a total revolution has taken place. In earlier days 
our salmon-fisheries were principally river-fisheries. Now how- 
ever they are mainly sea- fisheries. This developement has 
proved to be the cause of an ever increasing struggele between 
opposing interests. 

To begin with, the main object of our legislation was the 
promotion of our salmon-fisheries through maintainance of the 
supply of young fish. However during the process of the above 
development of the fisheries, legislation has been forced in an 
ever increasing and predominating degree to attend to the sepa- 
rate interests of the different owners, fishermen, or bodies of 
fishermen. 

The main and ideal object of the state, relating to salmon 
legislation, must, in my opinion, consist in providing that no 
disproportion arises between the fisheries and the natural pro- 
pagation and maintenance of the species, and if possible to increase 
the number of the species. 

Now, the struggling fishery-interests have gradually forced 
the state to endeavour more and more to produce an equal 
distribution of the yield and if possible allow enough fish to 
reach the spawning beds. During the increasing fishery and the 
increasing struggle of interests, the state has gradually had to 
enforce regulations of great severity which considerably hamper 
the fishing industry, as well in the rivers, as in the sea. 

There is nothing to indicate, that the evolution of the 
later decades will not continue, and the contest between the 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 325 

interests of river and sea fisheries will in consequence increase 
in fierceness. 

As this most certainly will take place the state will, a 
logical consequence, be driven forward on the same course of 
legislation, unless there is some possibility of changing the 
system. 

I believe as before mentioned, that such a possibility exists, 
and in the following pages I will endeavour to hold forth the 
opinion I have gradually formed on the matter. 

To any man, who has thought on this matter it must 
be evident, that it would be a great advantage to the work of 
improving the salmon fisheries, if the present numerous con- 
testing interests might as much as possible be combined. If 
e. g. all our salmon fisheries could be amalgamated into a 
general syndicate, clearly, the work of improving these fisheries 
would be infinitely more simple and would have a much better 
chance of being effective. 

This idea is not new, and our present inspector of fishe- 
ries has on several occasions, advised an amalgamation of 
interests, especially in the rivers. Such amalgamation has 
really to a large extent taken place in the case of the rivers, 
these being more and more let for sporting purposes and fishing 
rights becoming more and more the property of single owners. 
Thus it is not impossible, that our river fisheries for salmon 
may gradually assume the character of one or more syndicates 
each with the same purpose. 

However it is obvious, that a voluntary amalgamation of 
the two main contesting interests, the river and the sea fisheries 
for salmon, never will take place. 

The only way in which this may be imagined to take place, 
is through the medium of the state. 

n e. g. the state secured grater influence over one of these 
interests in order to secure the highest possible development 



326 KNUT DAHL. 



of the other, this would be equivalent to having only one interest 
existing. 

This object, the state has long ago attempted to attain in 
other European countries where salmon fisheries are important. 
As an example may be mentioned Great Britain and specially 
Ireland, where the main object of the state has been to concen- 
trate the salmon fisheries as river and estuary-fisheries, while 
the opposite interest, the fishing with fixed engines in the sea 
has been put down, or allowed only when the rights were of 
a very early date. 

I beheve, that in regard to our country it is also right, that 
the state should endeavour to simplify the conditions relating to 
salmon fisheries and if possible attempt to create only one 
interest. 

For this purpose it will be in vain to seek a model in the 
system of other European countries, as the evolution of our 
salmon fisheries has been essentially different from that of all 
other countries I know. 

The question of which interest is to be supported and which 
interest must be subjected to the increased control of state may 
only be answered by a closer examination of the development 
of our own fisheries. It must be exactly calculated, which 
fishery, that of the river or that of the sea offers the greatest 
prospects of improvement. 

For this purpose I believe that we possess good material 
in the statistics collected by our inspector of salmon and fresh- 
water fisheries, and I also believe that the results got from my 
investigations will be able to afford some support for a decision. 

In order to obtain a clear general view of the progress of 
our salmon fisheries during the period in which reliable sta- 
tistics are available, I have constructed graphical tables which 
are based on Mr. Landmarks statistical tables and which repre- 
sent the total yield of all our salmon rivers, the total yield of 
the salmon fisheries in the sea, the total yield of the salmon 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



327 



fisheries of the country and finally the number of bagnets. All 
these results are from, and including the year 1882, and to, and 
including the year 1898. 

This is represented in Figs. 3 and 4. 



s> 



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KNUT DAHL. 



At the same time I have, based on the same statistics, 
attempted to obtain a general view of the progress in the most 
important salmon district of our country viz: the Trondhjem 
district. With this object in view I have summed the annual 
returns of the statistics for 1880—1898 for all salmon rivers, 
which run into the sea in the shrievalties (fogderi) Fosen, Strinden 
and Selbu, Stjør- and Værdalen, besides Inderöen. 



:e: 



IL 



]j 



IE 



J£ 



/m 



/83/ 



im 

im 



7m 



im 



im 



vm 



m 



M. 

vm 



im 

im 



im 



/8% 



im 
im 



Fig. 4. 

Curve representing the number of bagnets in the years 1880—1898 

(in thousands). 



Also I have summed the annual returns for the yield from 
the salmon fisheries in the sea in the above-mentioned shrivalties. 
Also I have summed the annual numbers of bagnets in these 
shrievalties. 

The graphical tables constructed from this material are re- 
represented in Figs. 5, 6 and 7. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



329 



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I 

50 



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330 



KNUT DAHL. 



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A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



331 



These figures and their curves are in many respects 
instructive. 

If we look at fig. 3 we will immediately observe that the 
yield from our salmon-fisheries during the whole of the period has 
been constantly increasing, yea, that their yield has even more 
than doubled itsself since 1880. The curve representing the 
catch from the rivers presents after a rise in the first of the 
eighties a nearly even course, oscillating about the same figure, 
while the curve representing the sea presents the same course 
as the curve of the total catches. 



/880 



/88/ 



/33Z 



\(o I? 1^ \9 \I0 I// l/i \/3 \/f \/ö \/(o 



/33d 



im 



/33a 



7m 



im> 






/89/ 



/39^ 



/593 



/89^ 



/_89l 
/396 



/m 

im 



Fig. 7. 
Curve representing the number of bag-nets in Fosen, Strinden and Selbu, 
Stjör- and Værdalen besides Inderöen in the years 1880—1898 (in hundreds). 

When we view the main arguments generally propounded 
by those having river-interests, the course of these curves is 
must greatly surprise us. Supposing the fact which is asserted 
by those having river interests to be true, that the sea-fisheries 
have developed and exist at the expense of the river-fisheries, 
the curve representing the catch in the rivers must needs have 



KNUT DAHL. 



a continually sinking course, while the curve representing the 
yield of the sea must rise. 

It must here, however, be remarked, that the number of 
rivers which are taken account of in the statistical tables, has 
gradually been increased without the total yield of the rivers 
presenting a corresponding rise. 

The number of the rivers counted in the statistical tables was: 



in 1880- 


-1883 


55 rivers 


- 1884- 


-1886 


79 „ 


- 1887- 


-1890 


89 „ 


- 1891- 


-1894 


• 93 „ 


- 1895- 


-1896 


108 „ 


- 1897- 


-1898 


122 „ 



If however, we, examine the quality of the catches from the 
rivers, we find, that the main ones are included in the returns 
for 1886. This is in good harmony with the rise of the curve 
during this period. (Vide fig. 3, 1). 

The rivers, added to the statistical returns after 1886, will 
upon examination be found to be less important. 

If we further remember that year by year more and more rivers 
have been let for sporting purposes and their yield in salmon- 
flesh consequently lowered, it must be taken as granted that 
the curve of the rivers as represented in fig. 3, is reliable in 
the same degree as the other curves based on our statistics. 
At all events it is obvious that there is no reciprocal proportion 
between the yield of the fisheries in the sea and those in the 
rivers. 

If the curves of the Trondhjem district are examined (fig.s 
5 and 6) the same facts will be observed. Far from presenting 
any decrease in the yield, the rivers on the contrary show a 
large increase, while the yield of the sea has constantly been 
increasing. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 333 

If we now examine the curve in fig.s 4 and 7 representing 
the annual numbers of bag nets, there is not the slightest doubt 
that the constant increase in the number of fishing implements, 
is the only clear and obvious source of the progress of our 
salmon-fisheries. 

Accordingly it seems to me perfectly evident, that if all 
fishing, in the sea were prohibited, this would not result 
in a proportionally large yield in the rivers. I have no doubt 
that the total yield of our salmon-fisheries would then be much 
smaller. 

The scientific explanation of this fact is another matter. 
Personally I am inclined to believe that the phenomenon is to 
be attributed to the circumstance that a large proportion of the 
catch in the sea consists of grilse which are not yet sexually 
mature and consequently do not ascend the rivers. Possibly 
also, numbers of the large salmon caught in the sea are resting 
fish, which would not have spawned in the year when caught. 
Such investigations as would solve these questions (this could 
easily have been done by opening large numbers of salmon in the 
market) I have not been able to effect, on account of the large 
expense thus entailed. 

Supposing, however, for the sake of argument, that we 
stopped all fishing in the rivers, and thus could spare the 250 000 
kilos of sexually mature salmon which are annually caught in 
the rivers, spare it exclusively for the purpose of spawning, 
clearly we would possess an immense power of increasing the 
yield of the fisheries in the sea, supposing always the fundamen- 
tal theories of the propagation of salmon to be correct. 

The general opinion on this point at the present time is 
fairly unanimous, namely that an increase in the numbers of 
spawning fish and consequently that of fry would result in a 
corresponding increase in the numbers of individuals of the 
species. In other words a direct relation exists between spaw- 
ning and the increase in the stock of fish. Whether this, generally 



334 KNUT DAHL. 



viewed, is correct, I personally entertain some doubts. Probably 
the progress is proportional up to certain point; but when this point 
is reached, the production of each new individual will demand 
a proportionally larger and larger number of eggs. It is even 
probable that this question as regards the salmon will be highly 
dependant on the power the rivers have of sustaining and nourishing 
the fry and young. If the young fish could only reach the ocean, 
this would evidently present greater chances of development and 
provide food for essentially larger numbers of salmon than at 
present. 

It may, however, be taken as granted that the spawning in 
the rivers could far surpass the present spawning, before the 
young produced would not be able to find sufficient food. Even 
if this should ever happen, one might resort to ailificial rearing. 

Thus I have no doubt, that we possess the power of essentially 
increasing the yield of the fisheries in the sea by increasing the 
spawning in the rivers. Consequently I entertain no doubt that 
the rational course for the state would be to secure greater 
influence over the fishing in the rivers. 

In this opinion I feel all the more confirmed when I consider 
the results of my own investigations. Only when the state 
was in possession of the power of fully regulating the spawning 
in the rivers and was more indépendant of the demands for an 
equal distribution of the catch, the possibilities which I have 
previously pointed out of an improvement of our sea-fisheries 
for salmon, trout and other sea-fish could be brought into full play. 

Clearly the whole legislation relating to salmon- and trout- 
fisheries might then be considerably reduced. 

In order to attain a realisation of the thoughts here men- 
tioned, it will obviously be necessary to undertake a large 
prehminary work in order to collect material iliustrative of the 
means by which it would be possible to bring the rivers more 
under the influence of the state. The influence of the state 
must then, in my opinion, first of all, and in a more effective 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 335 

degree than hitherto, be directed towards procuring the greatest 
possible production of fry and young fish principally by natural 
reproduction, and secondly by hatching and rearing to the extent 
which occasion really demands. 

As the special object of the above mentioned preliminary 
investigations would be the collection of material in order to 
decide whether fixed fishing engines, veirs etc. and seines may 
be totally abolished or their employment be essentially reduced. 

These sorts of fisheries must indeed at the present time 
be said to represent preeminently the river interests, as the 
number of pounds caught is much more important to these 
fisheries than to sportsmen, and it is just these fisheries which 
possess the power of putting the greatest obstacles in the way of 
ascending salmon. Quite another view would presumably apply 
to the much less destructive sport fishing. 

The question, of the way in which the total measure might 
most practically be effected, and of the means by which the 
economic part of the matter might be arranged by the state, is 
not within the scope of my present commission. 

It is, however, not impossible that the matter might be 
arranged even with relatively small pecuniary efforts, and I 
should strongly recommend our administration to undertake the 
collection of the material necessary for an accurate estimate of the 
scope and nature (besides also the economic part) of the measures 
which eventually would have to be taken. 

g. Recapitulation. 
According to what I have stated in this paper I would 
draw special attention to the following measures: 

1) Protection of the young salmon and trout effected by a 
prohibition against the sale of trout under 15 cm. in length 
and a prohibition against wilfully killing salmon and trout 
smaller than 15 cm. in length in rivers where both species 
occur. 



336 KNUT DAHL. 



2) Entrusting administration with the power of reducing the 
size of mesh in rivers and river-mouths. 

3) Total abolition of mesh regulations relating to all fishing gear 
in the sea, moveable and fixed. Entrusting administration 
with the power of locally interfering if occasion should 
arise. 

4) Abolition of aimual close-times in the sea. 

5) Protection of the spawning process, and distribution of the 
catch to be effected by an annual close-time in the rivers and 
by a weekly close-time in the rivers as well as in the sea, pro- 
vided the same principles, on which our present legislation 
is founded, are to be followed. 

6) The necessity of effecting the collection of material, 
consisting of information, calculations etc., necessary to 
the clear understanding of the question, of whether it will 
be possible for the state to regulate and limit the fishery 
in the rivers in a degree essentially more effective than at 
present and in the rivers to adopt more effective means 
of securing and increasing the spawning, and consequently 
the growth and supply of young salmon. 



A STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 337 



List of Literature. 



C. LiNNEus: Systema naturae, Stockholm 1766. 

W. Yarrell: a history of British fishes, London 1835. 

H. Krøyer: Danmarks fiske, Kjøbenhavn 1843 — 1845. 

S. Nilsson: Skandinavisk Fauna, Lund 1855. 

H. Widegren: Bidrag til kännedomen om Sveriges Salmonider, Ofvers. 
Vetsk. Ak. Hdl. 1862. 
— » — Nya bidrag til kännedomen om Sveriges Salmonider, Ofvers. 
Vetsk. Ak. Hdl. 1864. 

F. A. Smitt: Kritisk Förteckning öfver de i Rigsmuseum befindtHga Sal- 
monider, Kgl. Svenska Vetsk. Ak. Hdl. Bd. 21 no. 8 Stock- 
holm 1886. 
— »— Skandinaviens Fiskar, Stockholm 1895. 

W. Liljeborg: Sveriges och Noriges fiskar, Upsala 1891. 

P. P. C. HoEK : Neuere Lachs und Maifisch-Studien, Tijdschr. d. Nederl. 
Dierk. Versen. 2 VI 3 1899. 

A. Landmark: Fiskeriinspektørens indberetninger om ferskvandsfiskerierne 
1880-1898. 
— » — Fiskeriinspektørens indberetning angaaende Storbritanniens og 
Irlands ferskvandsfiskerier, Kristiania 1883. 

JoH. 0. Simonnæs: Undersøgelser om Biege »: sjøørretfiskerierne i det vest- 
lige og sydlige Norge. (Fiskeriinspektørens indberetning 1895 
og 1896). 

Johan Hjort og Knut Dahl: Fiskeforsøg i norske fjorde, Kristiania 1899. 
— » — — » — Fishing experiments in Norwegian Fjords, 

Rept. Norw. Fish. Inv. Vol. I 1900. 

Knut Dahl: Beretning om fiskeriundersøgelser i og omkring Trondhjems- 
fjorden. Kgl. norske vidensk. selskab skr. 1898 nr. 10. 
— » — Om fiskeriet med strandnot i Beitstadfj orden, aarsberet. vedk. 
Norges fiskerier 1900. 

Odelstings prp. nr. 13 (1888): Angaaende udfærdigelse af en lov om 
fredning af laks og sjøørret m. v. 

Indstilling fra den ved kgl. resol. af 15 august 1896 nedsatte kommis- 
sion til revision af lovgivningen om laks og sjøørret (Kri- 
stiania 1898). 

Fiskeriinspektørens erklæring om lakselovkommissionens udkast til 
lov om lakse- og sjøørretfiskerierne (Kristiania 1901). 



Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXIT. IV. 22 



338 KNUT DAHL. STUDY ON TROUT AND YOUNG SALMON. 



Contents. 



Introduction T 221 

Chapter L Methods and implements of the investigations 226 

— IL The investigations 229 

a) Seines 229 

b) Finemeshed bag nets 236 

c) Fishermens catches ... 237 

d) Rearing-experiments and investigations on the sy- 
stematism of the salmon 238 

e) Description of emigrating young salmon and trout . 

f) Description of young salmon in the oceanic stage 
compared with trout of the same size 

g) Capture of young salmon in the sea 

h) Summary of the results of the investigations . . . 274 

— III. On migration and growth of young salmon 273 

— IV. On the growth and migration of the trout 284 

— V. Practical conclusions 298 

a) Protection of young fish in general 298 

b) Protection of young salmon 299 

c) Protection of young trout 305 

d) The mesh 311 

e) Annual and weekly close-times 322 

f) Change of system 323 

g) Recapitulation of propositions 335 

Appendix. 

7 tables. 
3 plates. 



Trykt 15. December 190-t. 



Lappiske î^avne paa Pattedyr, Krybdyr og Padder, 
Fiske, Leddyr og lavere Dyr. 

Ved 
J. Qvigstad. 



JMine Kilder ved Udarbeidelsen af følgende Fortegnelser har 
foruden de almindelige lappiske Ordbøger og mine egne Opteg- 
nelser væsentlig været: 
A. Andelin, Kertomus Utsjoen pitäjästä (Beretning om Utsjok 

Sogn), p. 191 ff. (Opregning af Pattedyr, Insekter og Fiske 

i Utsjok) i Suomi, XVIII, Helsingfors 1859. 
J. Fellman, Bidrag til Lappmarkens Fauna i Suomi, VII, Hel- 
singfors 1848. 
K. Leem, Beskrivelse over Finmarkens Lapper. Kiøbenhavn 1767. 
A. J. Mela, Vertebrata fennica. Helsingfors 1882. 
S. Nilsson, Skandinavisk Fauna. Däggdjuren. Lund 1847, 

(fork. NiLss.), 
E. Rosted, Om Steen-Kobben (i Nye Samling af det kgl. norske 

Videnskabers Selskabs Skrifter, II, Kiøbenhavn 1788), (fork. 

Rost.). 
J. W. Zetterstedt, Insecta Lapponica. Lipsiæ 1840, (fork. 

Zetterst.). 



340 



J. QVIGSTAD. 



I de lappiske Navne udtales: 



c som ts, CC som tts. 

c som tsj, CC som ttsj. 

å som engelsk th i father. 

3 som ds, 33 som dds. 

3 som dsj, 33 som ddsj. 

g som spirantisk (beaandet) g. 

I] som n i norsk Enke. 

s som sj, ss som ssj. 



t som engelsk th i thing. 
2 som tysch ch i ach. 
z som engelsk s i pleasure, 
à som en Mellemlyd mellem a 

og æ. 
Ï som russisk y (Jeri). 
o som aaben o. 









Forkortelser. 




Arj. 


= 


Arjepluog i Pite 


Lap- 


Lg- 


= Lyngen. 






mark. 




Lnv. 


= Lenvik. 


BIs. 


= 


Balsfjord. 




Lui. 


= Lule Lapmark. 


E. 


= 


Enare-lappisk. 




Nb. 


= Nesseby. 


Fld. 


= 


Folden, 




Of. 


= Ofoten. 


Hf. 


= 


Hammerfest. 




Pasv. 


= Pasvik. 


Hm. 


= 


Hammerø. 




R. 


=^ Russisk-lappisk. 


Ht. 


= 


Hatfjelddal. 




S. 


= Svensk-lappisk. 


Ib. 


= 


Ibbestad. 




Sors. 


== Sorsele. 


Jmt. 


= 


Jemteland. 




Sdv. 


= Sydvaranger, 


Kar. 


= 


Karesuanto. 




Ter. 


= Ter-lappisk. 


Kl. 


= 


Kalfjord nær Tromsø. 


Trond 


= Trondhjems Stift 


Kr. 


= 


Karasjok. 




Ts. 


= Tysfjorden. 


Kt. 


= 


Koutokæino. 




Utsj. 


= Utsjok. 


Kv. 


= 


Kvænangen. 




Vst. 


= Vesteraalen. 



I 



Hvor intet andet er bemerket, tilhører de lappiske Ord den 
finmark-lappiske Dialekt. I [ ] er tilføiet den ordrette Oversæt- 
telse af de lappiske Navne, hvor saadan er mulig. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 341 

A. Lappiske IVavne paa Pattedyr. 

la. abmo-acce (S.), ursus ardos, L. Navnet indeholder 

Ordet acce, Fader, 
lb. a fco, pl. avcok (Finmarken), Phoca vitulina, L. $ aduUa; 

s. Rost. p. 187. 

2. ag g ja, pl. agjak | S. add jus, [Bedstefar, Gamling],- Ursus 
ardos, L. c/'; s, la. 5. 136. 141. 

3. a i n n e, pl. a i n e k (Finmarken), Halichoerus grtfpus, (Fabr.) 
2 1. Erignathus harbatus, (Müll.) 2 ; se Leem, p. 212 f. 
Hannen heder dævok. Efter Rost., p. 188 er aine = 
Havert. | R. (Ter.) aine, = russisk: morskoj zajäts, der 
efter A. Podvïsotskij, Slovar oblastnogo archangelskago 
narecija, p. 55 er Erignathus harbatus.. 

4. aka (R. efter Frus), [gammel Kone], Rangifer tarandus, 
(L.) $; sml. a kai 1. ak h (R. efter Friis), = (fera). 

5. akko, pl. ak ok (Of.), [Bedstemor], Ursus ardos, L, $ ; s. 2. 

6. albas, pl. albbasak | S. (Lui.) alpas, pl. al^pasah, 
Felis lynx, L.; s. 87 a. 181. 

7. alddo, pi. aldok | S. aldo, (Lui.) alltu, (Arj.) alldo, 
(Ht.) al du, (Trond.) alldo, al Ida | E. al du | R. (Ter.) 
alta, (Notozero, Pasv.) aid, Rangifer tarandus, (L.) 2 
(voksen, der almindelig kalver hvert Aar). 

8. ap p e - n j u o r j o, [Havkobbe], Erignathus barbatus, (Müll.) ; 
s. 3. 116. 153 a; i Talvik = 10. 

9. ard (R. efter Friis), Rangifer tarandus, (L). 

10. avjor (Finmarken), Cystophora cristata, (Erxl.). Navnet 
afledes af avjo (en Egg) paa grund af Næsens Form. 
S. 32. 54. 160. 

11. avskar-gatte 1. avskar-gubbo, [Auskjerkobbe], Phoca 
foetida, Müll, (om unge Individer); se Rost., p. 189; 
s. 60. 104. 

12. paddes, g. paltazi (R.: Ter.), (Notozero) pe^ldes, Canis 
lupus, L.; s. 42. 56 b. 58. 85. 90. 91. 92. 139. 145. 161. 



J. QVIGSTAD. 



185. 208. 221. 222. 228. 229. 239. 243. 248. 258. 261. 

279 b. 
18a. bavdagas (Leem), Catulus phoccB adhuc ladens. 
13 b. bi ela (dat. bi el laga) (Pasv.), = 28. 
13c. peurek (S.), = 80. 

14. bierdna 1. birdna, pl. biernak 1. birnak, (Ib. Of.) 
benna, (Vst.) bienna | S. berdn, (Lui.) pir^na 1. 
pier^na, Ursus ardos, L.; s. 2. 5. 15. 16. 17. 19. 22. 27. 29. 
37. 39. 42. 46. 95. 98. 124. 136. 141. 142. 145. 186. 210. 
223 a. 225. 252. 262. 268. 283. 284. 

15. bi er d ne, pl. b i erne k (Finmarken) = 14 (om Ungen) | S. 
berdn, = 14 (om aarsgammel Unge) | R. (Pasv.) biern 1. 
guöbce-biern, = 14 (om Ungen). 

16. b i re (S.), (Hm.) b irre, = 14. 

17. bir«fe (Hm.), = 14. 

18. boaco, pl. bçecuk | S. poco I. pocoi, (Lui.) po oui, 
(Arj.) bocui, (Sors. Ht. Trond. Jmt.) buce, (Sors. Trond, 
ogs.) buce, (Jmt. ogs.) boaca | E. poaco | R. (Ter.) 
poa3ai, g. pïeccï, (Kildin) poa3, (Pasv.) boa3, pl. 
boacco, Rangifer tarandus, (L.) [domitus] (Tamren); s. 
4. 7. 9. 65. 70. 73. 75. 77. 78. 87 b. 88. 110. 111. 120. 129. 
133. 144. 146. 162. 164. 168. 170. 176 a. 178. 179. 182. 
192. 198. 206. 218. 220. 230. 231. 232. 238. 251. 253. 257. 
260. 266. 274. 276-278. 279 a. 280. 

19. poba (R. efter Frus), = 14. 

20. bokka 1. bukka | S. (Hm. Arj.) bokko, (Sors.) buökkie, 
(Ht. Trond.) buökke. Caper, Gjedebuk; s. 69. 84. 103. 

21. b os so, pl. b o SS ok, [Blæser], Balœnopiera. Sml. Hvalens 
Navn paa Shetland: blower; s. 51. 

22. pçunok (S.: Lui.), = 14. Navnet afledee af pou^no. Tue. 

23. bovlek 1. bovle-sapan (Helgø), [Flekmus], My odes lem- 
mus, (L.); s. 82. 125. 

24. pritte (Trond.), Cervus alces, L. cf ; s. 40. 87 c. 119. 196. 
197. 258. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 343 

25. bulle (Friis), Bos non castratus. 

26. buoida, pl. buoiddagak | S. piioitek, (Lui.) pu ei ta (k) 
I E. puoidah | R. (Ter.) pïejtegaj, (Notozero) pujtij, 
(Pasv.) bu i di, Mustela erminea, L.; s. 56 a. 71. 244. 

27. puoldakac (S.), (Lui.) puöltak 1. puöltakac, (Sors.) 
buöldakucca, (Trond.) buöldgucce, = 14. Disse Navne 
paa Bjørnen afledes af puold, puöllta, Bakke, Li. Heraf 
afledes ogsaa følgende Navne paa Bjørnen: puöllta- 
kuötu (Gellivare), [den som beiter i Lien], bu old- aj ja 
(Ht.), puolde-aija (v. Düben, Lappland, p. 280), [Bakke- 
bedstefar], puolde-podnje, [Bakkegubbe], puolda-cuobbo, 
[Bakkefrosk], pu old- os sek (v. Düben, p. 280). 

28. buovja, pl. buovjagak (Østfinmarken), Delphinapterus 
leucas, (Pall.); s. 13 b. 

29. puöunje 1. puöunjak (S.: Lui.), = 14. 

30. buovnjak 1. buovnjat, ogs. buovnjat sap an [Mus 
af brunsveden Farve], Ärvicola; (Lg.) gukkes-sæibat- 
buovnjat, [langhalet buovnjat], Arvicola amphibius {L.). 

31. b ur rok, (Varanger) burro, Juvencus ununi vel duo 
annos natus; s. 163. 

32. burs-njunne (Sdv.), [Pungnese], = 10. 

33. bussa, (Ks.) busse-gatto, (Nb.) bus-gatto, (Sdv. Tn.) 
busa, (Senjen, Of.) busse, Felis domestica; s. 62. 64. 
68. 86. 

34. bæisko-njunne (Kt.), [Ødelægger-næse], Sorex minutus,h. 

35. bæna, pl. bædnagak | S. pæna 1. piæna I. piænja 1. 
piædnak, (Lui.) pæna, pl. pætnakah, (Sors.) bienja, 
(Ht. Trond.) bien je, (Jmt.) bi ena | R. (Ter.) piennï'g, 
(Kildin) pienneg, (Notozero) piannag, (Pasv.) biennaj, 
Canis; s. 41. 58. 61. 72. 93. 99. 100. 106. 107. 108. 158. 165. 
174. 202. 242. 

36. daiber (Friis), Martes sylvatica, Nilss. 

37. tall (R.: Kildin, Notozero), = 14. 

38. damma (Lg.), Equa. 



344 J- QVIGSTAD. 



39. tarfok (S.), = 14. „Ita interdum dicitur, quia cæspitibiis 
sibi lectum sternit, aut quia subnigro est colore" (Lindahl, 
Lex. Lapp.). Navnet afledes af tarfe, Torv, og har vel 
Hensyn til Bjørnens Farve. 

40. tiev°na (Jmt), (Trond.) d^ævna, = :24 $ ; s. 197. 

41. tiks 1. tikse (S.), (Lui.) tiku, (Fld.) diko, (Trond.) teika 
1. dæks 1. dikse, Canis $. 

42. d ivr re, pl. d ivre k (Tromsø, Senjen, Kar.), = 14 | S. 
djur 1. cur, (Lui.) ci ura, (Sors. Trond.) cure, (Jmt.) 
cu^ra, = 12; (Ht. Trond.) dure 1. düvrie, = 14. 

43. to mp (S.), (Sors.) dompe, (Tärna) du öm pa, Equus. 

44. du Ilja, pl. duljak (Friis), enslags Sæl. 

45. dulsse-njunne (Friis), enslags Sæl, 

46. tusse (S. : Lule), = 14 (et Navn paa Bjørnen, fordi den 
æder Bær). 

47. dællja, pl. dæljak, 1. dællje^, pl. dæljek | R. (Pasv.) 
dællj, Phoca groenlandica, Müll. — suvja-dællje 
(Nb.), [Sule-dællje], id. (med lange sorte Render, der fortil 
løber samm.en som en Sule). S. 187. 

48. tære (S.), Canis; (Trond.) dære 1. dere, Canis (^. 

49. dævok, (Hf.) dævak, (Helgø, Kl.) dævkka | R. (Pasv.) 
dævatj, Halichoerus grypus, (Fabr.) o^, maaske ogsaa 
Erignathus harbatus, (Müll.). Hunnen heder a inne. 
Det var denne Sælart, som tidligere fangedes paa Hen- 
øerne vest for Fiskerøen i Slutningen af November, naar 
Sælerne var gaaet iland for at yngle ; den skal have Yngle- 
plads paa Bondø udenfor Sørøen; s. 127. 169. 

50. fakan, (Ib.) vakan, (Lnv.) stavrra-vakan, Orca gla- 
diator, (la Gep.). 

51. fales, pl. fallak \ S. fales, (Lui.) svales, (Arj.) falis, 
(Ht.) fales I E. vålis | R. (Ter., Kildin) vaUes, (Pasv.) 
vaies, Balænoptera ; s. 21. 

52. farro-goaigge (Leem), Lutra vulgaris, Erxl. o^ (aars- 
gammel). 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KBYBDYR ETC. 345 

53. farro-snakka, pl, -sn ag a k (Leem), = 52 2 (aarsgammel). 

54. fatte-njunne, [BlærenæseJ, 1. fattenjunne-njuorjo' 
[Blærenæse-sælJ, 1. f atte-njuorjo (Rost. p. 188), == 10. 

55a. filla (Ib. Oi), (Lnv. BIs.) fulla, (BIs. ogs.) fallja | S. 
(Lui.) fela, (Hm. Ts.) svallje, (FId.) svalljo, (Arj.) felo, 
(Ht. Trond.) fulle, Pullus equinus] s. 112. 265. 

55 b. kafac (E. efter Fellman, p. 237), Mustela nivalis, L. 

s. 147. 201. 

56 a. gadfe (Leem), = 26 $. 

56 b. gaidne, pl. g ai nek (Leem, Nb. obsoL), = 12. 

57. gaicca, pl. gaicak | S. gaica, (Lui.) kai®ca, (Arj.) gaica, 
(Ht. Trond.) gai ce | E. kaie | R. (Pasv.) gaic, Capra, 
Gjed. 

58. gakso, pL gavsok, = 12 g 1. 35 $ | S. kauso, (Lui.) 
kakksu, (Arj.) gavso, = 35 $. 

59. galbbe, pl. galbek I S. kalbe, (Lui.) kal^pe, (Ts. Hm.) 
gal^bi, (Arj. Ht.) galbe | R. (Pasv.) galb, Vitulus, Ko- 
kalv; s. 153 b. 280. 

60. gatte, pl. ga tek, (Leem), ga t ti, Phoca foetida, Müll., 
norsk: Iskat (Varanger), Havkat (Leem, Lexikon, sml. Be- 
skrivelse over Finmarkens Lapper, p. 215); s. 11. 156. 224. 

61. kass 1. kQss (R.: Notozero), = 35 $. 

62. g at to, pl. gat ok | S. k at to, (Lui.) ka t tu, (Hm. Ts. Fld. 
Arj.) gatto, = 33. 

63. kau^ke (S.; Lui.), Vulpes lagopus, (L.). 

64. kie^ske (R.: Ter.), = 33. 

65. kiev-pieUle (R.: Ter.), = 18 $. 

66. girdde-sapan (Kr.), [Flyvemus], Vesperugo borealis, 
(NiLss.); s. 216. 282. 

67. kirreke (S. : Jmt.), = 18 (fireaarig, ugildet). 

68. kissa, pL kisah (E.), = 33. 

69. gicce I S. (Lui.) k ici, (Hm. Ts.) gi c c i, Hædus, Kid; 
s. 20. 

70. kiæka (S.), (Sors.) giekka, (Ht.) gi^ka, = 7. 



346 J- QVIGSTAD. 



71. goaigge, pl. goaigek, 1) Lutra vulgaris, Erxl. q^ 
(voksen); s. 52; 2) (Leem) = 26 o^. 

72. goairre (Kt. sjld.) | S. k oi re, = 35. 

73. goaistas 1. goaistus | R. (Pasv.) goistas, = 18 cj^ 
(5aang); s. 75. 

74. koan3ai, g. kïancï (R.: Ter.), enslags Phoca, = russisk 
konzuj. 

75. goassotas, (Kt. ogs.) goasQhus | S. kosetes 1. kosetus 
]. kosets, (Lui.) kQsetus, (Artj.) gosites, (Sors.) gosets, 
= 73. 

76. goassko, pl. goaskok. Grossopus fodiens, (Schreb.); 
s. 212. 246. 247. 

77. gQddas 1. ggddodas | S. kçddotes 1, kçddets, (Lui.) 
kçddutis, (Arj.) guddodes, (Sors.) guddets | R. (Noto- 
zero, Pasv.) gQddas, = 18 c^ (4aarig). 

78. gç>ddas-ald (R.: Notozero, Pasv.), = 18 $ (4aarig). 

79. gçddas-gçdde, (Leem) goddos-godde, = 77 (Vildren); 
s. 80. 

80. gQdde I S. kodde, (Arj.) gödde, (Ht. Trond.) gaddie, 
(Jmt.) kattie | E. kodde | R. (Ter.) k ointe, (Kildin) 
kç^nt, (Notozero, Pasv.) gQdd, Bangifer tarandus, (L.) 
iferus); 13 c. 131. 

81. godde-alddo, = 80 $ (adulta); s. 7. 80. 

82. godde-sapan | R. (Ter.) ko^it-sapliqk, (Pasv.) godd- 
s apel i, [Vildren-mus], = 23. 

83. gçdde-sarves | R. (Ter.) ko^nte-sa^-ves, = 80 0^. 

84. gokka, pl. g 9 kak (Senjen) = 20 j S. (Gellivare) kokes, 
pL k okk Q k, Ovis; (Ts. Fld.) g? k k«?, Capra 1. Ovis. 

85. ko ne (S.), = 12. 

86. k Q SS (R.: Kildin, Notozero), (Pasv.) gQss | E. k as i, = 33- 
87a. kris (Pasv.), = 6. 

87b. kris (S.), nyfødt Renkalv. 

87c. krQvöke (Trond.), = 196. 

88. kræuva (Jmt.), (Trond.) k ri ev a, = 18. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 347 

89. guiggo, pl. guigok | S. kuoigo, (Lui.) kuigo, Hm. Ts. 
Arj.) gui go, (Ht.) g oi g o, Juvenca; s. 256. 

90. gumppe, pi. gumpek | S. kumpe 1. kumpek, (Lui.) 
kumpek, (Arj. Fld.) gummpe | E. kumppe | R. (Noto- 
zero) ku^mp, (Pas.) gummp, == 12. 

91. k Ulli] k a (Gellivare), = 12. 

92. guence (Trond.), (Jmt.) skuonca, = 12. 

93. kuoc (R.: Notozero), = 35 o^. 

94. kuovse (S.), Castor fiber, L. (aarsgammel); s. 128. 

95. guovcca | S. kuopca 1. kuobca | E. kuopc | R. (Ter.) 
kïmc, (Notozero) kuepc, (Pasv.) guöbc, = 14. I Kr. 
kaldes Hanbjørnen guovcca-aggja; sml. 2. 

96. kurja (R. efter Friis), Lepus timidus, L.; s. 152. 

97. gussa, pl. gusak [ S. kuss 1. koss, (Lui.) kussa, (Hm. 
Arj.) gussa, (Ht. Trond. Jmt.) guse | E. kussa | R. 
(Pasv.) guss, Vacca-, s. 121. 176 b. 

98. kussnjepele (S.), = 14 $. 

99. kucce (R. efter Friis) | S. (Trond.) skuöcce, = 35 (Hvalp). 

100. gucas (Pasv.), = 35 $. 

101. gædge-njuorjo | R. (Pasv.) gædge-nuerj, [Stenkobbe], 
Phoca vitulina, L; s. lb. 153a. 154. 177. 204. 269. 

102. gætke 1. gærkke j S. ketke 1. kerrke, (Lui.) ker^ke, 
(Arj.) g æ t k e, (Sors.) gerkie, (Ht.)girkie, (Trond.) gærke 
1. gierke | R. (Notozero) kiaHk, (Pasv. gætkj, Gulo 
luscus, (L.); s. 115. 211. 237. 

103. harves, pl. harvvak | S. habres 1. habra, (Lui.) habres, 
(Hm. Ts. Fld. Arj.) habris, = 20. 

104. havskar-gubbo, [Auskjerkobbe], = 11. 

105. h essen (S.), Vespertilio, efter Fellm, p. 213 Vespertilio 
murinus, L.; s. 205. 

106. holjo 1. holjo (S.). (Sors.) hu 11 jo®, Canis magnus. 

107. h or tie, pl. h or tek | S. horte, Canis prægrandis. 

108. huikko, pl. huikok (Kl.), = 35. 



348 J- QVIGSTAD. 



109. hull un (Gellivare), (Hm.) ullon, (Trond, obsol.) ullunje, 
[den uldklædte], Ovis. 

110. hurco (S.: Sors.), = 18 c^ (2aarig). 

111. hærgge, pl. hærgek = 18 ci^ (kastreret og dressere!) 
I S. herke, (Lui.) herske, (Arj.) hærgge i E. ærge | R. 
(Ter.) jierke, (Kildin, Notozero) ierk, (Pasv,) jærgj, = 
18 o^ (kastreret), (R.) (6aarig eller ældre). — (Ht. Trond.) 
hir gi e, (Jmt.) hirkie, Equus. 

112. hæssta, pl. hæstak | S. hæst, (Lui. Hm. Ts. Fld. Arj. 

Sors.) hæssta, (Ht.) hie ste, (Trond.) hie s te, Equus; 
s. 55 a. 111. 113. 134. 265. 

113. hævos, pl. heppusak | S. hæpos j R. (Pasv.) hævas, 
= 112. 

114. jallobævrre | E. jalopævrre, Leo.; s. 118. 

115. jer^va, pl. jervah (Lui. Fld.), (Arj.) jærva, = 102. 

116. jæges, pl. jækkasak, 1. jieges, pl. jiekkasak j R. 
(Kildin) jiges, g. j lekkas, (Pasv.) jæest, = Erignathus 
harbatus, (Müll.); s. 8. I Helgø og Kalfjorden kaldes 
denne Sæl paa Norsk Grønsæl, og der skilles mellem 
cappis (sort) og vilgges (hvid) jæges. 

117. labbes, pl. labbak, (Kar. BIs. Senjen, Of.) lib ba | S. 
labbas 1. lib ba, (Arj.) lamm ba | E. labis | R. (Pasv.) 
labbes, Agnus. — la^mbes (R.: Ter.), g. lampazi, 
(Notozero) la ^b b es, g. lappaz, Ovis. 

118. legjon I S. lejon, (Lui. Hm.) læddjan, = 114. 

119. le s s vi er (R. efter Frus), Cervus alces, L.; s. 24. 40. 

120. lie pel (R.: Ter.), = 18 (4—7 Maaneder gammel). 

121. limme (R.: Ter.), (Kildin) le^/m, (Notozero) lea/ m, =97. 

122. limme-jieirke (R.: Ter.), Bos. 

123. loptur (Fld.), Delphinus. 

124. lu o do i ædne (Friis), [Vildmarkernes Moder], = 14 o. 

125. lu om e k (S.), (Gellivare) slu öp m a k, (Trond.) sluömege, 
= 23. 

126. lu öp ek (Varanger), Juvenca (mellem 1 og 2 Aar gammel). 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 349 

127. luöste, [hvid Stribe], aarsgammel Unge af dævok (s. 49) 
I R. (Pas v.) lu est, Unge af dævatj (s. 49) eller af jæ est 
(s. 116). 

128. rna g i eg | R. (Ter.) m aj jeg, (Kildin) maj eg, (Notozero) 
majij, (Pasv.) majej, Castor fiber, L.; s. 94. 191. 255. 273. 

129. makan, (Kr. ogs., Fellm.) makanajes | S. makanes, 
= 18 c^ (6aarig). 

130. mart (S.), (Arj. Sors.) m arta, Martes sytvatica, Nilss. ; 
s. 155. 234. 

131. mi en t us (R.: Ter.), = 80. 

132. mierï-virre (R. : Ter.), [Sødyr], Phoca. 

133. miesse, pi. miesek | S. mese, (Lui.) messe, (Arj.) 
mies se, (Sors.) m i es sie, (Trond. Jmt.) miesie, = 18 
(om Renkalv); s. 257. I Gellivare kaldes en laarig Ren- 
kalv kæcos messe, [en Renkalv der vogtes]. 

134. mQrme (S.), = 112 (om Føl). 

135. m ors s a, pi. mQrsak | R. (Pasv.) mors, Rosmarus arc- 
ticus, Pall. 

136. muödda-addja (Kt.) | S. (Fld.) muödd-addja, [Mudde- 
gubben], (Arj.) mu otta k, (Jmt.) m°atka, [den pelsklædte], 
= 2. 

137. mu ol dak, Ärvicola; (Kr., Fellm. p. 260) Ävvicola gre- 
garius, (L.) ; (Mela) Ärvicola glareolus, Schreb. 1. Ärvicola 
rufocanus, (Sund.). Aavnet afledes af m u old da, Muld. 

138. muoldda-sapan, [Muldmus], Ärvicola ratticeps, Keys. 
& Blas. 

139. mutte-karvon (R. efter Friis), [Hamskifter], = 12. 

140. mærro | S. mærro, Equa. 

141. mæcce-addja (Of.), [Vildmarkgubben], = 2. 

142. mæccekas 1. mæccehas, = 14. 

143. mæcce-sapan, [Vildmark-mus], Skovmus. 

144. namma-lapa 1. -lapag 1. -lappe | S. namma-lappeje, 
(Lui.) nam ma -lappe, (Arj.) -lapig | R. (Notozero) nem- 
loaptekj, (Pasv.) namma-lçptakj, = 18 cr^ (7aarig). 



350 J. QVIGSTAD. 



Navnet betyder egl. „den der mister Navn", da Renoksen 
senere ikke faar noget Særnavn for hvert Aar. 

145. navdde, pl. navdek (Kt. Kv. Lg. BIs. Kar.), = 12 | R. 
(Pasv.) ores-navd, = 14 c^; s. 284. 

146. nirnjai, g. .nirnja (R.: Ter.), = 18 o^ (4aarig). 

147. nirppi (Mela), Mustela nivalis. L. ; s. 55 b. 

148. nisso | S. (Ts.) ni ss o | R. (Ter.) nïsse, (Pasv.) næs§, 
Phocæna communis, Less. 

149. njafco (Leem), Phoca (nyfødt) (kaldes saa for Spøg). 

150. njag (Leem), Lutra vulgaris, Erxl. (kaldes saa for Spøg). 

151. njalla, pl. njalak | R. (Ter. Notozero, Pasv.) nj all, Vul- 
pes lagopus, (L.). I Kt. skjelnes mellem 1) ranes njalla, 
[graa Fjeldræv], 2) cappis njalla, [sort Fjeldræv], = 
Blaaræv (Fellm. p. 225, Mela), 3) vilggis njalla, [hvid 

. Fjeldræv]; s. 226. 

152. njoammel | S. niommel, (Lui.) nJQmmel, (Arj.) njomela, 
(Sors.) nJQmel, (Ht.) njuammele, (Trond.) njoammele 
1. snjoame, (Jmt.) njuamele | E. njoammel | R. (Kil- 
din) njue^mmel, (Notozero) njua^mmel, (Pasv.) njoam- 
mel, = 96. 

153a. njuorjo 1. nuorjo | S. nuorjo 1. nurjo, (Lui.) nuör^ju 
I R. (Ter.) ni er je, (Kildin, Notozero) nue^rj, (Pasv.) nuerj, 
Phoca; s. 8. 101. 

153b. njæbco 1. njæpcuc (S.: Lui.), nyfødt Kalv; s. 59. 

154. nuorros (Leem), = 101. 

155. nætte, pl. nædek | S. nete | E. næte | R. (Ter.) niette, 
(Kildin) nieHt, (Notozero) ni et, (Pasv.) n^æt, = 130. 

156. oaido, pl. oidduk, 1. oaiddo, pl. oaidok, antagelig = 
60 (om voksne Dyr); (Nb.) oaido-gatte, en liden oaido; 
s. 60. 

157. oarre, pl. oarrek | S. Qrre, 1. Qrrev, (Ht.) oarr^va, 
(Trond.) oarr^ve, (Jmt.) ora va | E. oarre | R. (Ter.) 
vïe'rrev, (Kildin) ue'rrev, (Notozero) ua'rrev, (Pasv.) 
oarre v, Sciurus vulgaris, L. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETG. 351 

158. Qddok (S,), (Hm.) odQk, (Lui.) otçk, (Arj.) odog, = 35 
(Hvalp). 

159. Qdgé (Leem), Vulpes vulgaris, Gray [nondum adultus). 

160. Qineg (R.: Kildin), = 10. 

161. o] gob us (Leem, sjld.), [som er lidt længere borte], = 12. 

162. orrek 1. urrek 1. orak (S.), = 18 o^ (2aarig); (Lui.) Qrek, 
= 18 c5^ (fra Høsten i dens 2det Aar til Vaaren i dens 
4de Aar) \ R. (Notozero) oarekj, (Pasv.) Qrekj, = 18 c^ 
(2aarig); s. 260. 

163. Qrtok (Finmarken), = 31. 
164a. rabra (S.), = 18 $. 

164 b. radn (S.), Vitulus rangiferinus, recens et primo vere natus. 

165. rakka, = 35 (liden), (Kl. Vst.) = 35 c^ | S. (Ht.) rako, 
= 35 $. 

166. rand ivr (S.), Cervus elaphus, L. 

167. ravdde (Kt. Leem), (alm.) ravdde-rievan | S. (Lui.) 
raudte, [Smed], Vulpes vulgaris, Gray, var. C. cruciatus, 
L. (Korsræv) (Leem, Friis); id. var. C. ferrugineus, L. 
(Brandræv), (Fellm., p. 221); id. var. G. nigro-argenteus, 
Nilsson (Svartræv) (Lui); s. 171. 

168. rebbic (S.), = 18 $ (meget gammel); (Ht.) re b c e, = 18 $ 
(som har Kalv). 

169. redde (Leem) = 49 (2 til Saarig); (Sdv.) ræddå, (Friis) 
rædde, Phoca (om Unge). 

170. re m ste (Lui.), = 18 (aarsgammel, om Vaaren). 

171. rieban 1. rievan, (Kl. Helge) revnjes, (Senjen) rebes, 
pl. repehak | S. repe 1. repeha, (Lui.) repi, pl. repihah, 
(Hm. Ts. Fld. Arj.) rebe 1. riebe, Sors.) riebie, (Ht.) 
rebe 1. rebse, (Trond.) rieve L rievQ, (Jmt.) riævo | E. 
riemnjis 1. riebnjis | R. (Ter.) rimnje, (Kildin) rimnj, 
(Notozero, Pasv.) rie mn j, Valpes vulgaris, Gray; s. 159. 
167. 189. 203. 241. Der skjelnes mellem dglla-rieban 
(Kt.), [Ildræv], var. C. ferrugineus, L. (Brandræv); gçlle- 
rieban (Kt.), [Guldræv], sort Ræv med skinnende Haar; 



J. QVIGSTAD. 



ranes rieban (Kt.), [graa Ræv], (Leem) ranak [et graat 
Dyr], efter Fellm. p. 228 var. C. nigro-argenteus, Nilsson 
(Svartræv); rissia-rieban 1. ruossa-rieban, (Lui.) ruössa- 
repi, [Korsræv], var. C. cruciatus, L. ; ëappis rieban 
"(Kt.), [sort Ræv], (Leem) c ap ok, [et sort Dyr], var. C. nigro- 
argenteus, Nilsson; cuörre-rieban, Sølvræv; vilggis 
rie van (Sdv.), [hvid Ræv], = 270. 

172. riekko, pl. riekok, antagelig Halichoerus grypus, (Fabr.). 

173. rievddo, pl. rievdok (Leem), = 83 (naar Parringstiden 
er forbi); (Friis) godde -rievddo, = 83 (stor) | R. (Ter.) 
r i eft a, g. rie v da, = 83. 

174. ro ak su (Ht.), (Sors.) rQkso^ = 35 $. 

175. roatto, pl. roatok, (Sdv. Ks.) rotta | S. (Ts.) roatto. 
Mus decumanus, Pall. 

176a. rçdno, pl. rçnok, = 18 $ (som enkelte Aar har Kalv, 
andre ikke), (Kt. Of.) (som ikke har kalvet, eller som har 
mistet Kalven om Vaaren), (Of. ogs.) = 18 o (ufrugtbar) 
= æme-rodno | S. rçdno 1. rQnno, = 18 $ (1) ung, 
2) som ikke har Kalv), (Lui.) rQttnu, = 18 9 (3aarig eller 
ældre), (Arj.)runoc, (Sors.) rudnçce, (Trond.) rQdnuce 1. 
rudnace, == 18 $ (3aarig), (Ht.) rydnu, = 18 9 (som i 
det Aar ikke har kalvet), (Jmt.) rcttnaca, = 18 o (4aarig, 
som ikke har kalvet) | R. (Ter.) run- alt, (Notozero) r 9 ri- 
ait, (Pasv.) ronn, = 18 $ (ufrugtbar). 

176b. rçdno-gussa | S. (Ht.) rçdnoke 1. rçdnu, = 97, 
(ufrugtbar). 

177. rokka, pl. rogak | R. (Ter.) rokk, = 101 c^ [adultus). 

178. r<^nncoe (Sors.), = 18 cT; (Lui.) rQnncu, -= 18 c^ (om et 
gammelt Trækdyr). 

179. rçnus (Gellivare), =18$ (2aarig, om Sommeren); rQnus- 
rQttnu, id. (om Vinteren). 

180. rQsse, pl. r os sek (Ib.), Equus (stor og sterk) | S. (Hm. 
Ts.) ro s si I R. (Ter.) ro'sse, Equus. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 353 

181. rot t em 1. rotem (S.), (Arj.) rQttim, (Sors.) rQtem, (Ht.) 
roaddem, (Trond.) roadde, = 6. 

182. rui'^pe (Lui.): vuöras [gammel] r., == 18 $ (gammel). 

183. ru ksi s s apan, [rød Mus], Ärvicola rutilus, (Pall.). 

184. ruolla-bosso, [Troldhval], Megaptera hoops, (Fabr.). 

185. ruomas, pl. ruobmasak (Ib. Of.), = 12. 

186. ruomse-kalles (S.), [Mosegubben], 1. r u omse k, = 14 
(„quia muscos lichenesque autumno colligit sibi lectum 
sternens hibernum"). 

187. ruossa-njuorjo | R. (Pasv.) ruössa-nuerj, [Russe- 
kobbe], = 47. 

188. ruövdde-ga33a, [Jernklo], en liden Art Sæl. 

189. ruovsok, [et rødt Dyr], Vulpes vulgaris, Gray; h i Hä- 
mo v so k, [et glorødt Dyr], en ildrød Ræv. 

190. ry c a (S.), (Ht.) ruce, (Trond.) ro ce, Ärvicola amphibius, 
(L.); s. 245. 247. 

191. ræbbares (S.), = 128 (2aarig). 

192. ræi^na (Of. Vst.) | S. (Lui. Hm. Ts.) ræi-^na, = 18. 

193. sagge-njunnje-sæipak (Gellivare), [spidsnæset Langhale], 
Sorex (minutus?), L. 

194. saidde-bosso, [Seihval], Balænoptera laticeps. Gray. 
195 a. sapan | E. sæplig | R. (Ter.)sa^plir]ke, (Kildin) sa^plei]k, 

(Notozero) s a 'p lig, (Pasv.) sapeli. Mus. 
195 b. sapan-coavje, [Musebug], en Ræv, som har Musens 
Farve under Bugen. 

196. sarva, pl. sarvvagak, 1. sarvva, pl. sarvak | S. sarv, 
(Lui. Arj. Ht.) s ar ^ va | E. sorv ] R. (Ter.) sarv, (Kildin) 
serv, (Pasv.) sorv, Cervus alces, L. ; s. 24. 40. 

197. sarva-alddo, = 196 o. 

198. sarves, pl. sarvvak | S. sarves | R. (Ter.) sa^rves, 
(Notozero) se'rves, (Pasv.) sörves, = 18 S' {non ca- 
stratus). 

199. savcca, pl savcak | S. sauca | E. savea | R. (Pasv.) 
s aue, Ovis. 

Nyt Mag, f. Natiirv. XXKXII. IV. 23 



354 J. QVIGSTAD. 



200. seibbun (Ib.), [langhalet Dyr], Storfæ. 

201. seibus (Leem), (Utsj.) sæibbelakke, = 55b. 

202. siriiika (KL), = 35 $. 

203. skaingo (S.), = 35 9, undertiden = 171; (Arj.) bæ na- 
sk an j go, == 35 (ung); (Ht.) skannje, (Sors.) s k an nja, 
(Tärna) skar]i]a, = 35 (Hvalp). 

204. skavddo, pl. skavdok, = 101 (paa 2det Aar). 

205. ski leak (S.), VespertiUo, svensk: nattskata. 

206. skippa (S.), = 18 ç. 

207. skQvva-njunne (Friis), enslags Mus. 

208. slukke (Vst.) | S. (Gellivare) slokke, = 12. 

209. smälla, pl. smalak, (Ib.) smallo, (Ib. ogs,, BIs. Of.) 
smoallo I S. smala, Ovis. 

210. smalde (S.), = 14 $. 

211. smegMi (Luk), = 102. 

212. smi ril (Friis), = 76. 

213. snakka, pl. s nag ak, Lutra vulgaris, Erxl. 9 (voksen); 
s. 53. 

214. snatte, g. snate (Gullesfjord, Vst.), Lutra vulgaris, Erxl.; 
s. 254. 263. 

215. snurkka, pL snurkak (Ib.) | S. snorka, (Ht.) snorka, 
(Trond.) snurge 1. snorga, (Jmt.) snar^ka, Sus, (Ut) S^; 
s. 217. 

216. soadje-sapan (Kv.), [Vingemus], = 66. 

217. sokke (Leem sjid.) | E. sähe, g. save, L sçhe | R. (Ter.) 
sa'kke, (Kildin) §a'kk, (Notozero) §akj, (Pasv.) sakje, 
Sus; s. 215. 219. 

218. sp ai lek 1. sp a ila k, = 18 <? (gildet, men utæmmet) | S. 
svailek, = 18 ^ (utæmmiet). 

219. spidne, pl. spinek | S. svine, = 217. 

220. stainak | S. stainak, == 18 9 (som aldrig føder eller 
har født Kalv); (Kt.) bip o-s., id. 

221. stakke (Of.) | S. stakke, = 12. 
stalppe I S. stalpe, = 12." 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 355 

a. stuör-muödda (Fid.), [Storpels]. = 14. 

b. stuöc (Trond.), = 196. 
. stuora-ficco (Helgø), [Stors veiv], = 60. 

225. su ok ok (S.), [den haarrige], = 14. 

226. svala (S.), (Lui. Fid. Arj.) svalla, (Ht.) svale, (Trond.) 
svale, (Jmt.) svala, = 151. 

227. sviddek (S.), (Lui.) svitek, (Ht.) sverre (akk. sverregeb), 
(Trond.) s v erre k e, Sorex. 

sæibak 1. sæibag, [langhalet Dyr], 1) Storfæ, 2) = 12; 
(Senjen) sæibek | S. seipeg 1. seipek, (Lui.) sæipak, 
(Jmt.) seipike, (Trond.) gukkes sieibe, [Langhale], = 12, 
sæibbe-navdde (Ib. sjld.). [Haledyr], == 12. 

230. sæmel (S.), = 18 Q. 

231. salmaUe (R.: Ter.), = 18 <? (3aarig). 

232. §aimait-vai3 (R.: Ter.), = 18 9 (3aarig). 

233. s eva k (Friis), enslags Mus, = 240? | S. (Lui.) cepak, 
Sorex. 
skakSe (Jmt.), = 130. 

). § ne k à la 1. s nj aka la (Jmt.), Vespertilio. 

snjierra, pl. snjierak, (Kv.) snirra 1. snirre-sapan, 
(Vst.) sneris, g. snera, (Friis) snjiras 1. snjieras-sapan 
I S. snjæra, (Lui.) sn j erra, (Arj. Sors.) snjierra, (Sors, 
ogs.) injieris, (Ht.) snjierra, (Trond.) snjiæra 1. 
snjeærra, 1) Mus musculiis, L., 2) Mus sylvaticus, L. 

237. snubbe (Trond.), = 102. 

238. snurra (Jmt). = 18 (2aarig). 

239. snölke 1. snuölke (Trond.), (Jmt.) snölke, (HL) sngl^ka, 
= 12. 

240. ciebak 1. cievak 1. ciebag | S. cæpanje, (Sors.) ciebaga, 
[Gnaver], Sorex araneus, L. ; s. 259. 

241. ciffa (Ib.), = 171. 
a. ciko I S. (Lui.) ciku, (Gellivare) eika | R. (Pasv.) c eik, 

= 35 $. I Kt. ogsaa om Hun af Ræv, Fjeldræv, Ulv, 
Bjørn, Jerv. 



J. QVIGSTAD. 



b. cQhha (Ht. Trond.) = 35, (Trond.) cT. 

243. calk (R.: Ter.), = 12. 

244. caske (S.), = 26. 

245. cace-vesek (S.), [Vand-v es ek], = 190; s. 267. 

246. cacce-boassto (Kv.), = 76. 

247a. cacce-goassko, pl. -goaskok (Varanger), (Sdv. ogs.) 
-goasko pl. -gosskuk, (Leem) -guskos, (Friis) -goska | R. 
(Pasv.) cace-guötkjes, = 76, efter Fellm. p. 260 = 190. 

247b. cacce-massko, pl. -maskok (Tn,), = 76. 

248 a. ce lp (R.: Kildin), = 12. 

248 b. ciermma (Sdv.), (Kl.) cirmma | R. (efter Friis) cierma, 
(Pasv.) cörm, = 12. 

249. 6ïpe (R.: Ter.), [en som skjærer], = russisk kosatka (Orca 
gladiator, (la Cep.) ?). 

250. coarvve-buovja, [Horn-buovja], Monodon monoceros, 
L.; s. 28. 

251. Soavces, pl. coakcak, = 18 Ç (en Rensimle om Høsten; 
som har mistet Kalven om Sommeren eller Høsten) | S. 
cop ce s 1. copca, (Lui.) c op c es, pl. copcah, = 18 o 
(som har mistet Kalven), 
codde (Lui.), = 14 (laarig). 

cærmak 1. cærbmak | S. cerbmak 1. cærmuk, (Lui.) 
cærmak, (Sors.) curmu, (Jmt.) corma, (Trond.) curma 
1. eiermake | R. (Pasv.) cermakj, = 18 (laarig), (Sors. 
Jmt. Trond.) $. 

254. cævres, pl. cævrrak, (Kl.) caures | S. keura 1. cæura 
1. cæures, (Lui.) ceures, pl. cæu^rah, (Arj.) cevris, 
(Sors. Ht. Trond.) cævra | R. (Ter.) caM-ves, (Kildin) 
cievres, (Notozero) cevres, (Pasv.) cævres, = 214. 

255. vad nem (S.), = 128. 

256. v a dok, Juvenca (i 3dje Aar) | R. (Pasv.) vadakj, Juvenca. 

257. va3 (R. efter Friis), = 133. 

258. vai se (Arj.), (Sors.) va i sie, = 12 (egl. vildt Dyr); (Trond.) 
vaise 1. raves [graa] vaise, (Jmt.) vaisie, = 196. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KBYBDYR ETC. 357 

259. vandes, pl. vanndak, (BIs. Of.) vadda, pl. vaddagak, 

Lnv. Ib.) vadda, pl. vaddak | S. (Arj.) vondo, (Sors. 
vonda, = 240. 

260. v are k | R. (Ter.) Yïeheg, = 18 ^ (2aarig), (Ter.) (fra 
Dyrets 2den Sommer til Mai i det Aar, da det bliver 2 
Aar); s. 162. 

261. vargga, pl. vargak (Kl. Ib. Vst.) | S. varg, (Hm.) varja, 
(Fld. Arj.) v arga, = 12. 
vari- aj ja (S.), [Berggubben], = 14. 

var-lagges, pl. -laggak. (Leem), = 214 (ikke aars- 
gammel). 

264. varra-navag (Sdv.), [som har blodig Navle], Catulus 
phocce (1 à 2 Dage gammel). 

265. varssa 1. varsse, (Kr.) hæsta-varssa, = 55a. 

266. vaca, pl. vacamak (Kt. Ib. Of.), = 18 9 (2aarig eller 
seldre, som følger Moderen) | S. va6a 1. vac ev = 18$; 
(Lui. Arj.) v a eau, pl. vacamah, = 18 $ (Saarig eller 
ældre (Lui.), som har Kalv (Arj.)), (Sors.) v a co = 18 $ 
(ung) I R. (Ter.) v a 3, g. vac 61 me, (Pasv.) v aj, = 18 9 
(ung). 

267. ve sek (S.), = 190; s. 245. 

268. v i be (S.), = 14 <?. 

269. viekse I. viefse, pl. vievsek, = 101 (ikke aarsgammel, 
men som har ophørt at die). 

270. v i el g ok, [hvidt Dyr], = 171 (hvid Ræv med sorte Øren, 
sorte Fødder og sorte Haar paa Enden af Halen) (Leem, 
p. 194). 

271. vielpes, pl. vielppak, (Kl.) goalp | S. felpes 1. felpa, 
(Ht.) fleipa 1. guolpa, (Trond.) kuölpa, (Jmt.) kuolpa 
I E. vie lp i s | R. (Pasv.) vielpes, = 35 (Hvalp). 

272. viercca, pl. viercak, 1. fiercca | S. værca, (Lui.) 
v er® ca, (Hm. Ts. Fld. Sors.) v i er ca, (Arj.) værca, (Ht. 
Trond.) vierce | E. vierca | R. (Notozero, Pasv.) viere. 
Aries. 



358 J- QVIGSTAD. 



273. viækesl. viæka (S.), = 128 (stor). 

274. vuöbers 1. vuövers, (Kr. ogs.) vuöves, (Ib.) vuöbes | S, 
vuobberes, (Lui.) vuöpes 1. vuöperis, (Arj.) vuöbires, 
(Sors.) vuöbers e, (Jmt.) vuæprs, = 18 <? (Saarig, (Lui.) 
om Høsten) | R. (Ter.) vïbers, = 18 c? (2aarig), (Pasv.) 
vuevers 1. vueres, (Notozero) vueres, = 18 c? (3aarig). 

275. vuöksa 1. vuöfsa, pl. vuövsak 1 S. vuokses 1. vuoksa, 
(Lui.) vuökksa, (Hm.) vuöusis, (Ts. Fld. Arj. Ht.) vuöksa, 
(Trond.) vuæksa, (Jmt.) vueksa | E. vuoksa ] R. (Pasv.) 
vuö;js. Bos i. 

276. vuonjal, pl. vuodnjalak, = 18 $ (2aang) | S. vuonjel, 
(Arj. Sors.) vuonjal, (Trond.) vu en jeie, = 18 o (i 3dje 
Aar), (Lui.) vuonjal, = 18 9 (fra Høsten af dens 2det Aar 
til Vaaren i dens 4de Aar), (Jmt.) vuær]ele = 18 $ (Saarig, 
som endnu ikke har kalvet) | R. (Ter.) vïnjl, g. vïnnjïlï, 
= 18 $ (fra dens 2den Sommer til Mai det følgende Aar), 
(Pasv. Notozero) vuonjal, = 18 $ (2aarig). 

277. vuonjal-alddo, = 18 $ (2aarig, som har Kalv om Vaaren) 
I S. (Lui.) vuönjal-alltu, = 18 $ (3aang, om Vaaren) 
I R. (Pasv.) vuönjal-vaj, ^ 18 o (Saarig), Ter.) vïnjl- 
vaj, = 18 $ (2aarig). 

278. vuonjal-rodno | S. (Lui.) vuönjal-rottnu, = 18 o 
(2aarig, (Lui. : 3aarig), som ikke har Kalv, om Vaaren). 

279a. vuöperis-cor-take (Lui.), [en vuöperis, som arbeider 

paa sine Horn], = 18 (? (Saarig, om Vaaren); s. 274. 
279 b. v^orqese (Jmt.), = 12. 

280. vuöse (E), = 59 | R. (Ter.) vinsse, (Kildin) vu^ss, (Noto- 
zero) vua*ss, (Pasv.) vues, = 18 (Renkalv, før den faar 
nye Haar). 

281. vuövdde-sapan, [Skovmus], JLryicoïct r^t/'oca»^^(S, (Sund.). 

282. væigge-cicas, [Skumring-spurv], = 66. 

283. ænak (Leem) | S. ænak, = 14 c?. 

284. æste (Leem) | S. (Lui.) es t eu, pl. estemah, (Fld.) esteu, 
pl. esteva | R. (Pasv.) jæst-navd, = 14$; s. 145. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 359 

Tillæg. 
A. Rennavne. 

Rensdyret har efter de forskjellige Alderstrin forskjellige 
Navne- De almindeligste er: 

1. ruksis miesse, (Lui.) ruöpsis messe, (Ts.) ruöpsok, 
[rød Renkalv], nyfødt Renkalv; den kaldes saa, fordi dens 
første Haar er rødbrunagtige. 

2. muovjak 1. muovja-miesse 1. muovjadam-miesse, 
(Lui.) mu i vak, en Renkalv, som har begyndt at miste de 
første Haar og faar nye. Naar Renkalven har mistet de 
første Haar, kaldes den i Lui. pil^sa messe. 

3. borgge-miesse, (Lui.) pQr^ke messe, en Renkalv i dens 
første Aar, naar den har faaet nye Haar. Naar de nye 
Haar om Høsten er blevne tætte, kaldes Renkalven Sæp- 
bor(gge)-miesse. 

4. cærbmak 1. cærbmat, en Renkalv fra Nytaar til Som- 
meren i dens 2det Aar; (Lui.) cærmak, en Renkalv om 
Vaaren i dens 2det Aar. — Det kan hænde, at en cærb- 
mak 9 faar Kalv, og den kaldes da cærbmak-alddo. 

5. s ma vas, pl. smavvasat (Kt.) kaldes Renen, fra den har 
skiftet Haar om Sommeren i dens 2det Aar, Hannen, til den 
bliver vuöbers, og Hunnen, til den faar Kalv; (Lui.) sma- 
vas, Ren om Sommeren i dens 2det Aar. En smavasc^ 
kaldes i Finmarken varek, en smavas $ vuonjal. I 
Lui. er o rek en Hanren og vuonjal en Hunren fra Høsten 
i dens 2det Aar til Vaaren i dens 4de Aar. — Naar en 
Hunren har fyldt 2 Aar, kaldes den om Vaaren i sit Sdje 
Aar, hvis den har Kalv, vuonjal-alddo, og hvis den ikke 



1 Om Rennavne se G. von üüben, Om Lappland och Lapparne, p. 296 f., 
J. Fellmann i Suomi, 1848, p. 265 f. og 268, Stockfleths norsk-lappiske 
Ordbog, p. 532 b (Ren). Se ogsaa foi"anstaaende Fortegnelse No. 4. 7. 
9. 18. 65. 70. 73. 75. 77-81. 83. 87 b. 88. 110. 111. 120. 129. 131. 133. 
144. 146. 162. 164. 168. 170. 173. 176 a. 178. 179. 182. 192. 198. 206. 218. 
220. 230-232. 238.251. 253. 257. 260. 266. 274. 276-278. 279 a. 280. 



360 J. QVIGSTAD. 



har Kalv, vuonjal-rodno. I Lui. er vuönjal-alltu en 
Hunren, der har Kalv, og vuönjal-rottnu en Hunren, der 
ikke har Kalv, begge Saarige, om Vaaren. — Senere faar 
Hunrenen ikke nye Navne, men kaldes i Finmarken, naar 
den følges af Kalv, aid do. Kalven pleier at følge Moderen, 
til der kommer en ny Kalv; nogle Kalve følger Moderen 
3 — 4 Aar, endog efteråt de selv har faaet Kalv; en saadan 
Hunren, som selv har Kalv og dog følger sin Moder, kaldes 
i Kt. v a ca. En Hunren, som ikke har kalvet, eller som 
har mistet Kalven om Vaaren, kaldes rod no; en Hunren, 
som har mistet Kalven om Sommeren eller Høsten, kaldes 
coavces: gæsse[Sommer]-coavces eller cakca[Høst]- 
coavces. 
6. Naar Hanrenen begynder sit 3dje Aar, kaldes den i Kt. 
vu Ö bers, naar den begynder sit 4de Aar, goddodas, naar 
den begynder sit 5te Aar, goasohus, naar den begynder 
sit 6te Aar, makan, og naar den begynder sit 7de Aar, 
namma-lapa. Senere faar Hanrenen ikke noget Særnavn. 
Se videre No. 78. 78. 79. 87 b. 110. 111. 120. 146. 164 b. 
168. 170. 179. 231. 232. 238. 257. 279 a. 



Vildrenen kaldes g odde, og dette Ord kan nærmere bestem- 
mes ved at tillægge Renens Navne paa de forskjellige Alders- 
trin, f. Eks. godde-miesse, -cærbmak, -vuonjal, -alddo, 
-varek, -vuöbers, -goddodas osv. 



Der gives desuden mange Rennavne, som er hentede 1) fra 
Forhold vedkommende Parring og Fødsel og Moderens Forhold 
til Kalven, 2) fra Haarbeklædningens Farve og Beskaffenhed, 3) 
fra Hornenes Form, 4) fra Legemsform og Legemsfeil, 5) fra 
eiendommelige Egenskaber og Vaner, 6) fra Rensdyrets Anven- 
delse. Her følger en Opregning af de Navne, som ikke allerede 
er anførte i det foregaaende: 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 361 

1. aidnavalddo 1. ainovalddo, den sterkeste Renokse, 
som i Parringstiden tilkjæmper sig Herredømmet over 
Simlerne. Der kan være flere saadanne i en Hjord, og 
de holder de smaa Grarener borte. 

2. arakes alddo | S. (Lui.) arrak, Simle som føder tidlig 
om Vaaren. 

3. batte, Simle, som lidt før Kalvningen altid søger hen 
til det Sted, hvor den før har kalvet. 

4. gaskek 1. gasket, gildet Ren (kaldes saa, til Vinteren 
er forbi); den kaldes efter Alderen vuöbers-gasket, 
goddodas-gasket, goasohus-gasket. Almindelig 
gildes Renen som goasohus. I Lui. er ka ske k en 
4aarig gildet Renokse. En Ren, der er gildet om Som- 
meren, kaldes gæsse-gasket, en, der er gildet om 
Høsten, cakca-gasket. 

5. gçlgok I S. kçlkok, efter Parring udmattet Renokse. 
6a. gudçldak guödde, Simle, som føder tidligere end de 

andre. 
6 b. gæ se k 1. g æset, 1) Simle, som føder sent paa Vaa- 
ren, = gæset-alddo 1. gæset-guodde, 2) Renkalv, 
som fødes sent paa Vaaren, == gæset-miesse. 

7. luotvar 1. luædvar, (S.) Renko, som føder gode Kalve. 

8. lu ova s, pl. luovvasak, Løsren, som ei har Kalv, 
Gjeldren. I Kt. er lu o v va sat, pl. Hanrener, som om 
Vaaren skilles fra Simlerne. 

9. miesse-alddo | S. mesek-aldo, (Lui.) mesak, 1) 
drægtig Simle, 2) Simle som har Kalv. 

10. r ag a k 1. r ag a t, Renokse, som gaar i Brunst, = rakke 
sarves [ S. rakkeje sarves. 

11. s ara k 1. s ar a t, mindre Renokse, som af Frygt for de 
større ikke tør komme til Simlerne. 

12. suoppa I S. suoppa, Simle, som ikke vil vide af sin 
nyfødte Kalv, men spænder den fra sig. 

13. coavjek 1. coavjet, drægtig Simle, som snart skal føde. 



362 J- QVIGSTAD. 



14. eu ödde, Hanren, som løber omkring og søger efter Hunren. 

15. vuölltu (Lui), (Fid.) vuölldo 1. vuölldo-sarvis, den 
sterkeste Renokse i Hjorden. 

II. 1. biddojuölgge | S. (Gellivare) pittuk, (Jokkmokk) p i t- 
tus. Ren med hvide Ben fra Knæet nedover. 

2. duörsse-gallo. Ren, som er h vid i Fanden og ellers 
hvidgraa. 

3. gabba, snehvid Ren med hvide eller sorte Klover. 

4. gabbanulppo, snehvid, kollet Ren. 

5. gairrejuölgge-boaco, Ren med hvid Rand paa Foden. 

6. galbega33a, Ren med hvide Klover. 

7. galbegallo, Ren med hvidt Blis i Fanden. 

8. galbenjunne, Ren med en hvid Flek fra Fanden ned- 
over til Næsen. 

9. garek, liden ugildet Renokse om Vaaren, naar den har 
mistet Dækhaarene paa Halsen. 

10. kepak-sica (Lui.), ganske sort Ren med hvide Flekker 
om Snuden. 

11. gilgan: jevja (6appis)-duodnjas-gilgan (Kar.), Ren, 
som har en hvid (sort) Flek paa Siden. 

12. girjenjunne, Ren med hvide Flekker paa Næsen. 

13. g u orb an, Ren, hvis Haar er afsvedne eller afnyggede. 

14. gucakl. gu eat, Ren, som har Haar med lys Top eller ind- 
sprængt lys Farve, og som i Regelen ogsaa er langhaaret. 

15. jevja 1, jievja | S. (Jmt.) JQuje, hvid Ren. 

16. lidne-oaivve, Ren med hvidt Hoved. 

17. linak 1. linak-stalek (Lui.), Ren med hvidt Hoved og 
hvide Fødder. 

18. luostag 1. luostak | S. (Lui.) luöstak, Ren, som har 
en lys Stribe langs Siden. 

19. mQsag (Of.), hvidgraa Ren. 

20. mQsat-jevja (Kt.), sort Ren med hvide Haar iblandt 
og med hvidt Hoved og hvide Fødder. 

21. mQsat-mucet (Kt.), sort Ren med hvide Haar paa Siden. 




LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 363 

22. m Q ss Q (Lui.), lysegraa, næsten hvid Ren. 

23. m us s tur (Ib. Of.), sort Ren. 

24. mucek 1. mucet, sort Ren (uden hvide Pletter). 

25. rajak (LuL), hvid Ren med hvidagtige Øine og Klover, 
men med brune Flekker paa Skindet (meget sjelden). 

26. ran at 1. ran ok, graa Ren. 

27. ranat-jevja (Kt), graahvid Ren. 

28. ri ss a ga b b a^, snehvid Ren med hvide Klover og hvid- 
gule Øine. 

29. ruske. Simle med graabrune Haar. 

30. ru sk o t (Kt.), Ren med graabrune Haar. 

31. siednja-njunne. Ren med hvide Næsevinger. 

32. s i ca (Lui.), Ren, som har smaa hvide Flekker om Snuden. 

33. sica-cuösek (Lui.), busset Ren, som har smaa hvide 
Flekker om Snuden. 

34. s ledda (Lui.), ganske hvid Ren med hvidagtige Øine og 
Klover. 

35. slekki]a (Lui.) = sledda. 

36. s ta lek (Lui.), Ren med ganske hvidt Hoved. 

37. sæfte-njunne (Kr.), Ren med en eller flere hvide Flek- 
ker omkring Næseborene. 

38. snjilcca. Ren som har mistet de gamle Haar og derfor 
er snauhaaret. 

39. sæl go k 1. sælgot, Ren med tætte, vakre Haar. 

40. cesskis-jevja, ganske hvid Ren. 
1. Seskis-pæjuk (Gellivare), ganske hvid Ren med hvide 

Øine og Klover. 

42. ces ko k (Gellivare), = ceskis-pæjuk. 

43. cuoivag 1. ßuoivat, hvidgraa Ren. I Kt. skjelnes 
mellem duolvva[skidden]-c., ranat[graa]-S, selggis 
[skinnende] -c. 

44. cuösse-njunne, Ren med en hvid Flek paa Næsen. 

45. SæpbQrgge, en Ren med nye Haar, der begynder at 
blive tætte; naar de nye Haar er tynde, er Renen 



364 J- QVIGSTAD. 



bQrgge I R. (Ter.) cïepï^rke, Renkalv indtil 15de Au- 
gust, gammel Stil. 
46. cæskok, ganske hvid Ren. 
III. 1. abmel 1. abmel-bælle | S. abmel, (Lui.) appmel, 
Ren, som af Naturen kun har 1 Horn (alm. Simle) | R. 
a^mmel-akaj 1. -va^3, hornløs Simle. 

2. duölb-oaivve, Ren, hvis Horn spriker; sml. (Lui.) 
tuölp-Qi^ve, Gevir med udbredte Horn. 

3. giellan-oaivve, Ren, paa hvis Horn Enderne bøler 
sig sammen bagtil. 

4. go al la, Ren, som aldrig faar Horn; (Kr.) kun om Simler. 

5. gQbmaras-ßoarvve, Ren, hvis Horn er krogede og 
foroverbøiede ; sml. (Lui.) kQbbmçris Q i^ ve, Gevir, hvis 
Horn er bøiede i en Halvcirkel. 

6. gærdo-coarvve, Ren, hvis Horn begge vokser op fra 
samme Rod; sml. (Lui.) k ær tus ci® ve, om saadant Gevir. 

7. honka (S.), kollet Simle. 

8. j Q Ile hærgge, kollet Kjøreren, som aldrig faar Horn; 
JQlle alddo, kollet Simle, som aldrig faar Horn. 

9. lie dm e- o ai v ve, Ren, hvis Horn forgrener sig lige ved 
Roden og er mangegrenede (Fmis); Ren, hvis Horn i 
Enden har flade, pladeformede Takker. 

10. lænco-oaivve, Ren, hvis Horn spriker. 

11. nalak | S. (Lui.) nal ak. Ren med afkappede Horn. 

12. namme-hærgge 1. namme-coar-hærgge 1. namm(e)- 
oai-hærgge, 1. namm-oaivve 1. namm-oai-coar- 
vag, en Kjøreren, som endnu ikke har skuret Huden 
(nam me) af Hornene. 

13. nja g go, Ren med bagoverbøiede smale Horn (mest om 
Simler). 

14. njaidd-oai-hærgge, Ren, hvis Horn gaar langt bag- 
over. 

15. njarbbis-oaivve, Ren, hvis Horn har faa Grene. 

16. njavc-oaivve, Ren, hvis Horn har mange Grene. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 365 

17. nulppo I S. nolpo, (Lui.) nul^pu, Ren, som har mistet 
Hornene; nulppo-hærgge, kollet Kjøreren; nulppo- 
alddo, kollet Simle. 

18. rQco-oaivve, Ren, hvis Horn ikke spriker, opp. lænco- 
oaiv ve. 

19. ru ob b a. Ren, som har fældet sine Horn uden at faa 
nye igjen. 

20. ruossa-coarvve. Ren, paa hvis Horn en Gren gaar 
fremover og en bagover, saa der dannes et Kors. 

21. rænc-oaivve (Of.), Ren, hvis Horn gaar ud til Siderne. 

22. sagge-coarvve, Ren, hvis Horn ikke har Grene eller 
Takker. 

23. sarvva-goarvve, Ren, hvis Horn ligner Elgens. 

24 s narre 1. sn ar re -o ai v ve, Ren, som har lave eller 
smaa Horn med mange Tagger. 

25. snQg(o)-oaivve 1. snQgo-coarvag, Ren, som har 
sterkt fremoverbøiede Horn. 

26. snuoggo-oaivve, = frg. 

27. spaco-coarvag 1. spaco-oaivag, Ren med høit- 
ragende Horn. 

28. sukkis-oaivve, Ren, hvis Horn har mange Takker. 

29. cægg(o)-oaivve. Ren med ret opadstigende Horn. 

30. cal(o) (cala)-oai-liærgge 1. ëalo (cala)-5oar-hærgge? 
Kjøreren, af hvis Horn Huden er skallet af. 

31. cig-a^mmeU (R.: Ter.), Simle med 1 Horn. 

IV. 1. bævrek, et høibenet og slankvoksent Rensdyr | S. peurek, 
1) Vildren, 2) Ren, som er Afkom af Vildrenokse og 
tam Renko; (Lui.) peurek, høi og statelig Ren. 

2. guögge-boaco, sveirygget Ren. 

3. k ur g (S.), enøiet Ren; Ren, som tager feil af Veien. 

4. gurm ak, Ren, som har Larver af Oestrus tarandi. 

5. gæigo-bællje, Ren, hvis Ørespidser ved Merkningen 
ikke er skaaret af, men staar ud. 



366 J. QVIGSTAD. 



6. hubak 1. hubat, (Of.) hubar, Ren, hvis Øren næsten 
er afkuttede paa Grund af Merkning. 

7. janhek (Kr.), stor, fed Renokse. 

8. napak (Lui.), Ren medNappa-merke(afskaarenØrespids). 

9. njalppe- 1. njoalppe-boaco, Ren, hvis Bagdel er 
afrundet og lavere end Ryggen. 

10. rQvvak (Lui.), Ren som halter. 

11. skar jak (Lui.), Ren med Skarja-merke (Udsnit i Øre- 
spidsen). 

12. s k ur re -cal b me, enøiet Ren. 

13. urkka. Ren, som er ualmindelig liden af Vekst. 
V. 1. bçdo-boaco, Ren, som gaar udenfor Flokken. 

2. di Id an, Ren, som bærer Bjelde. 

8. k all ok (S.), en tæmmet Ren, som lader sig lede. 

4. gavl ok. Ren, som springer hurtig afsted, skjønt man 
holder Kjøretømmen paa dens venstre Side. 

5. kur®ja (Gellivare), Ren, som altid slikker op Urin. 

6. jaskak, stad Kjøreren, som under Kjøringen lægger 
sig ned. 

7. lid nja -boa co, Ren, som gaar og sjangler eller vakler. 

8. iQJak, en Ren, som er saa tam og folkegod, at den kan 
tåges med Hænderne uden Lasso. 

9. luovdak 1. luovdat. Ren, som under Kjøringen mod- 
villig lægger sig eller kaster sig ned. 

10. manne 1. mannes boaco, Ren, som af sig selv gaar 
i Spidsen for Flokken. 

11. nappe-rQggan, Simle, som har den Uvane at sparke 
til Melkekoppen. 

12. nirro 1. njirro, Hunren, som ei vil holde sig til andre 
Rener, men helst gaa alene. 

13. rates skgnka (Lui.), Ren, som altid vandrer hid og did 
paa Veiene. 

14. ravdat 1. ravdda-ælak, Ren, som altid vil holde sig 
i Udkanten af Hjorden. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 367 

15. ravnok 1. ravnot, Ren, som er modig til at trække 
sit Læs. 

16. rie v tag, Ren, som let lader sig styre bent under Kjør- 
selen. 

17. s kil an, Simle, som bærer Bjelde. 

18. skindeg, Ren, som ikke lærer at lade sig lede; Ren, 
som er urolig under Melkningen. 

19. cissa-banne, Ren, som følger Mennesker foråt grave 
op Sneen og slikke op deres Urin. 

20. cuovvo 1. cuovvos boaco, den Ren, som gaar først 
i Renflokken efter den Ren, der ledes foran. 

21. udamag, utæmmet Ren. 

22. visa, Vildren, som gaar i Spidsen for og leder Ren- 
flokken. 

VI. 1. raiddo-hærgge, Kjøreren, der trækker Læs i en Række. 

2. ron k 1. runk (S.), gammel Kjøreren. 

3. rQnco (S,), Kjøreren. 

4. coanohas 1. canatus. Ren, som bindes bag en anden 
Ren for at holde igjen og stoppe Farten under Kjørsel; 
Stopperen. 

5. vuogjem-hærgge, Kjøreren. 

6. vuöjan. Kjøreren. 

7. varre-hærgge, Reserveren. 



J. Fellman bemerker p. 268: „Alle Simler har sine Navne, 
i Utsjok almindelig efter Fugle og andre Dyr, som de ligner 
med Hensyn til Farve, Kvikhed m. m., saasom Ko al se {Mergus), 
Lahul {Eudromias morinellus), Njål la {Vulpes lagopus), 
Njoammel [Lepus timidus). De hvide benævnes almindelig 
efter de 2 sidste. Renokser kaldes ofte efter sine Mødre, saasom 
Lahul hærgge (Lahuls Renokse); men i nedre Lapmarken har 
de andre Navne, ofte efter Eieren m. m." 



368 J. QVIGSTAD. 



B. Hundenavne. 

1. b aj an (Kt.), en Hund, som altid gjør. 

2. bavges (Kar.), (Ib.) bavgge-cæbet, en Hund, som er 
hvid om Halsen. 

3. benne (Kt), (Kr. Nb.) b en nu, en liden Hund. 

4. bid dos. Tispe, som er hvid paa en eller flere Fødder fra 
Knæet nedover. 

5. darra (Kt.), en kort, liden Hund. 

6. dielkko (Nb. Kr.), (Kt. Kv. Kar.) dilkko, sort Hund med 
hvide Flekker. 

7. tigga, (Kt.), en Hund med smaa Flekker. 

8. digg al (Nb. Kr.), en Hund med en liden gul Flek over 
hvert Øie, (Friis) en Hund med brune Øienbryn. 

9. duörsse (Kt,), en Tyksak. 

10. fassko, en kjælen Hund, der pleier at logre med Halen. 

11. fl ir) ko (Kv.), Hundenavn. 

12. gai r es, en Hund med hvid Snude og hvide Fødder. 

13. gir jes, en flekket Hund (hvid- og sortflekket). 

14. girjo (Kv.), en flekket Hund. 

15. gugat (Kt.), en lang Hund. 

16. gucca (Sdv.), Hundenavn. 

17. guvge, en Hund, som er guovggad (blakket, lysebrun). 

18. h abb a (Kt.), (Kar.) habo, en hden mager Hund. 

19. ha i p pa (Kt.), en stor taabelig Hund. 

20. jevja, en hvid Hund. 

21. jçrbbe (Kt.), (Kar.) JQrbbo, en Hund, der er født uden 
Hale. I Kt. fødes mange saadanne Hunde, der kun har 
en liden Antydning til Hale; det skal være en egen Art. 

22. jælpper, en Hund, der er til Hjælp. 

23. lino, Hundenavn. 

24. lummbo (Kt.), en Hund med nedhængende Øren. 

25. lurffo 1. lurv ve, en Hund med tykke Haar. 

26. læjjo (Kar.), en Hund, der allerede som Hvalp er kvik 
og modig. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYPDYR ETC. 



369 




27. m us s te, en sort Hund. 

28. nas s te, [Stjerne], Hundenavn. 

29. njalla, [Hvidræv], Hundenavn. 

30. njirbbe (Kt.), en meget tyndhaaret Hund. 

31. ranne, en graa Hiuid. 

32. ras sko (Kt.), en tyndhaaret Hund. 

33. r i I] 1] g o (Kar.) en Hund med krum Hale. 

34. runne, Hundenavn. 

35. ruövsot (Kt.), en rød Hund. 

36. si egges, en Tispe med hvide Haar bag paa Fødderne. 

37. skoalddo, en Hund med stor, krum Snude. 

38. skuölffe, en h vid Hund med nedhængende Øren. 

39. spartte (Kr.), Hundenavn. 

40. saikke, en Hund, som altid gjør uden Grund. 

41. suvon I S. sovonja 1. suovonja, (Lui.) suövun, (Gelli- 
vare) cuövun, (Ht.) sQvunje, dresseret Renhund, (S. ogs.) 
Hyrdehund. 

42. eig g a, en sort hdenvoren Tispe. 

43. cigan, Tispenavn. 

44. eir k ko (Kv.), Hundenavn. 

45. cQbbe, en kort liden Hund. 

46. cainne (Kt. Kar.), en Hund med spids Snude. 

47. calmo, en Hund med røde Flekker over Øinene. 

48. cappe, en sort Hund. 

49. Sebu, en Hund, der er h vid om Halsen. 

50. cierges, en Hund, som har hvid Krave om Halsen. 

51. cQpparas (Nb.), en Hund med en hvid Ring i Nakken. 

52. Snöres, en rød Hund med lidt brune Haar iblandt, 

53. curre (Hm.), en graa Hund. 

54. cævan (Lui.), en liden Hund. 

55. virk ko, en kvik Hund. 

56. vuövdda, en graadig Hund. 



Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. XXXXII. IV. 



M 



370 J- QVIGSTAD. 



C. Konavne. 

1. ap ri la, Ko født i April. 

2. berju (Nb. Kt. Kr.), (Kv.) bærja, Ko født paa en Fredag. 

3. b ona, en rød Ko. 

4. b una -g orv v a, en Ko med røde Øren. 

5. da v leg 1. da vil o, en Ko, der er flekket paa begge Sider. 

6. du ore k 1. duo r et, Ko født paa en Torsdag. 

7. dædet, en Ko med store Flekker. 

8. gi r jo, en flekket Ko. 

9. go a 11 a, en kollet Ko. 

10. goalsse (Maasø), en Kograasomen goalsse (Fiskeand). 

11. gçmmaras (Nb.), en Ko med foroverbøiede Horn. 

12. gulda-gavla (Kt.), en Ko med rød Hals. 

13. he lb mo, [Perle], en Ko, der er hvid om Halsen. 

14. idda-rusa, (Kt.), en sort Ko. 

15. JQlle, kollet Ko. 

16. lav ga, Konavn. 

17. 1 avg g er. Ko født paa en Lørdag. 

18. lette-gQrvva (Kt.), hvid Ko med røde Øren. 

19. letik, Konavn. 

20. lieppa, en Ko hvis Horn kun er fæstede i Huden. 

21. lin a t (Kt.), en Ko med hvidt Hoved. 

22. linu, en hvid Ko. 

23. lumet (Kt.), en snehvid Ko. 

24. m ai -rus a (Kt.), Ko født i Mai. 

25. manne. Ko født paa en Mandag. 

26. muörja. Ko med meget smaa Flekker. 

27. m uss ta, en sort Ko. 

28. mussta-gorvva (Kt.), en Ko med sorte Øren. 

29. nassta 1. nästat, en hvid Ko med sort Flek i Fanden 
eller omvendt. 

30. njoammel, [Hare], en ganske hvid Ko. 

31. njæmma, Konavn. 

32. ri ekko, en flekket Ko. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 371 

33. ru s ske, en brun Ko, 

34. rusa (Kt.), en h vid Ko med meget smaa røde Flekker. 

35. sunnek, Konavn. 

36. vil gg on, en hvid Ko. 



B. Lappiske IVavne paa Krybdyr og Padder. 

1. dæSalagges 1. dæ3alagges 1. stæ33alagges, pl. -lag- 
gak, (Ib.) sta33alaggo, (Of.) stæ33Qlaggis | S. tydcol, 
(Lui.) tæ33ula(ka), (Fld.) d 863 3 ol a, (Arj.) di33ol, (Sors.) 
dicßol I R. (Friis) tanslensk 1. te^nslink, (Pasv.) 
dæ33eli, Lacerta vivipara. 

2. gukkes guöle (Trond.), [Langfisk], Serpens; s. 3, 4. 7. 

3. guövdde | S. (Jmt.) kuutie, (Trond.) guevde | E. 
kuovdde | R. (Kildin, Akkala) ku vt, Serpens, (Finmarken) 
Søorm; kack las kuvt (Akkala), [bidende Slange], Vipera 
Berus, L.; s. 11. 

4. gærmas, pl. gærbmasak | S. kærbma 1. kærbmas 1. 
kermesk, (Lui.) kærmai, pl. kærmahah, (Ts.) gærmai, 
(Arj.) gerbma, pl. gærbmaha, (Sors.) giermas, (Ht.) 
gier muse, Serpens. 

5. lisme-kuele (S.), [Dyndfisk], Rana temporaria, L. ; s. 6. 
9. 10. 12. 13. 

6. m al an i (Pasv.), = 5. 

7. mi/xe (R.: Ter.), Serpens. 

8. mæra-gærmas, Søorm; s. 3. 

9. njæoce-dæncce (Helgø), = 5. 

10. runta-kuölas (Lui), [liden Vandpyt-fisk], = 5. 

11. sudem-kærbma (S.), [Giftslange], (Arj.) sude-kulle, 
[Giftfisk], Vipera Berus, L. 

12. slubbo-oaivat, pl. -oaivagat (Kv.), [Klubbehoved], ^ 5 
(som Unge), norsk: Rovetroll. 

13. cuobbo, pl. cubbuk | S. cuobbo, (Lui.) cuöbbu, (Fid.) 
cuöbbui, (Arj.) cuöbbQ, (Sors.) cubbQ, (Ht:) cQbbQ | R. 



372 J- QVIGSTAD. 



(Ter.) cïembai, g. cïmpï, (Kildin) cuemp, g. c um pu, 
(Notozero) cuab, g. cueppu, (Pasv.) cuöbba, demin. 
cuöbbagaz, = 5. 



C. Lappiske l^avne paa Fiske. 

1. akabiddo, [Kjærringbukse], (alm.) Cottus scorpius, Fabr., 
(Varanger) Gyclopterus lumpus, L.; s. 4, 6. 89. 90. 

2. a kali (R.: Pasv.), Scymnus microcephalus, (Schneid.); 
s. 3. 5. 28. 116. 118. 

3. åkas, pl. akacak (Tromsø), [liden Kjærring], = 2. 

4. ak a ein co, Cottus scorpius, Fabr., (Leem, Hf. Ks.) Gyclop- 
terus lumpus, L. 

5. akkolagges 1. akkalagges, pl. -laggak, = 2. 

6. akobiddo (Varanger), [Gammelkjærringbukse], Cottus 
scorpius, Fabr. 

7. aksonadda, [Økseskaft], Hunlaks, som har lagt Rogn. 

8. alli (R.: Pasv.), Seimort; s. 38. 40. 59. 71. 137. 

9. allpesk 1. albas (S.), Coregonus lavaretus, L.; s. 50. 
68. 69. 70. 91. 110. 126. 127. 136. 

10. b al des, pl. ba Idd ak | S. (Hm.) ^, Hippoglossus vul- 
garis, Flem.; s. 11. 23. 27. 45. 67. 81. 82. 83. 96. 

11. bipo-oaivve, [Pibehoved], = 10 (overmaade stor, mindst 
paa 180 Kg.). 

12. b i s a I] k e (Varanger), Ammodytes tdbianus, L. ; s. 73. 
112. 124 a. 

13. bçdnek 1. bçdnet 1. bçnnet, [Bundfisk], Fleiironectes ; 
s. 19. 25. 30. 31. 33. 34. 35. 36. 44. 78. 98. 99. 103. 109. 

14. brugda, Selache maxima, (L.); s. 129. 

15. dabmok | S. tab m ok, (Lui.) tapmuk, (Arj.) dæbmuk, 
(Ht.) dçbmug, Salmo eriox, L.; s. 46. 48. 143. 

16. dal vek, [Vinterfisk], Laks, som staar Vinteren over i 
Elven; s. 17. 141. 

17. dalvve-cuo3ok, [Vinterstöing], = 16. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PA A PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 373 

18. did de, liden Elvelaks | R. (Pasv.) didd, „Titlinglaks". 
Ordet er vel = russisk tinda, Laks paa 5 Pund og 
derunder. 

19. diggel-bQdnet (Lg.), [Flek-bundfisk], Pleuronedes pla- 
tessa, L.; s. 13. 35. 36. 103. 

20. dikso 1. dif so, pl. divsok | R. (Ter.) fiksa, (Notozero) 
te/s, (Pasv.) dæks, Gadus æglefinus, L. ; s. 58. 85. 

21. dçrske | E. tQrska | R. (Ter.) tQrske, (Pasv.) dgraskj, 
Gadus morrhua, L.; s. 32. 43. 57. 88. 

22. duövve, pl duo vek, Rognlaks. 

23. faccabælle, [Vante], = 10 (liden), norsk: Kveitelap. 

24. f i kan, en Søfisk af Størrelse som Smaasild og lig Silden; 

men den har større Hoved og lever i dybt Vand. 

25. fin dar, (Kr. Ks. Sdv. Vst.) f lindar, (Of.) lendar | R. 
(Pasv.) lendar, = 13. 

26. fit al, Gadus merlangus, L. 

27. gadda, = 10 (middelsstor). 

28. ga33-akali (R.: Pasv.), [Klo-haakjærring] en mindre Art 
Haakjærring; s, 2. 

29. kaito (S.), Esox lusius, L.; s. 39. 55. 79. 131. 

30. gaicca-bçdnet, [Gjede-bundfisk], en Art Flyndre; s. 13. 

31. gaicca-guormat (Kv.), [Gjedeskrubbe], Pleuronedes mi- 
croc phalus, Donov.; s. 44. 

32. gakran, = 21 (liden), norsk: Modd. 

33. kambel, pl. kambalak (Sdv.) | R. (Ter.) kambel, g. 
kampali, = 13. 

34. garra-bæsk (R.: Pasv.), [Haaråpeh], Pleuronedes flesus, 
L.; s. 44. 

35. girje-bçnnet (Kv.), [Flek-bundfisk], = 19. 

36. girje-kambel (Sdv.), [Flekflyndre], = 19. 

37. goagjem, voksen Hanlaks | S. (Lui.) kçddjem, Hanlaks. 

38. kçja (Ks.), Seimort i Iste Aar; s. 40. 

39. gQles, pl. gQllasak (Leem) | S. kçlla, = 29 (meget stor). 

40. gQlnet (Lg.), == 38. 



374 J- QVIGSTAD. 



41. kQms, pl. kQmsak (Leem), en Laks, der er sort paa 
Skindet. 

42. gugjor (Kr.), Salmo trutta, L. (Søørret, der er bleven 
stationær i Elven); s. 47. 

43. guölle-gQ nagas, [Fiskekonge], = 21 (med misdannet 
Hoved), norsk: Torskekonge. 

44. guormak 1. guormat, [som har grovt Skind], = 34; (Kr.) 
Perca fluviatilis, L. ; s. 111. 

45. guovdda-ôalaiak, pl. (Friis), = 10 (mindre). 

46. guovcur (E.), = 15. 

47. guvcca, (Lg. BIs.) guvcSe | R. (Ter.) kuv ce, Salmo 
trutta, L. ; s. 42. 

48. guvSur (Sdv.), = 15? 

49. gædge-noarsse 1. -noarssa, [Sten-noarsse], Phoxinus 
aphya, (L.). 

50. kæcuk (LuL), = 9 (middelsstor). 

51. hakka, pl. hagak [ S. (Hm. Tä.) ==, Sebastes norvegicus, 
(AscAN.); s. 54. 142. 

52. ham mir (Kv.), (Lg.) hoabmir, Lamna cornuhica, (Gmel.). 

53. harre | S. =, Thymallus vulgaris, Nilss.; s. 117. 

54. havgga, (Leem) hav, pL havak, = 51. 

55. havgga | S. hauk, (Lui.) hau-'^ka, = 29. 

56. h oa k k a, pl. hoa ka k, Äcanthias vulgaris, Risso. 

57. jadda (Senjen), (Vst.) jadde | S. (Hm. Ts.) jadde = 21 
(liden), norsk: Gjedd. 

58. juks o 1. jufso, pl. juvsok, = 20. 

59. lagga (Nb.), Smaasei; s. 100. 

60. laggo I S. (Hm. Ts.) =, Molva vulgaris, Flem.; 79. 

61. loakka, pl. loakak (Tromsø), Brosmius brosme, (Ascan.); 
s. 74. 

62. iQd do 1. load do, Mallotus villosus, (Müll.); s. 77. 107. 125. 

63. luossa, pl. luosak | S. luosa, (Lui. Arj.) luössa | E. 
luos I R. (Kildin) lus s, (Notozero) luoss, (Pasv.) lu ös s, 
Salmo salar, L.; s. 7. 16. 17. 18. 22. 37. 41. 64. 65. 87. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 375 

132. 135. 139. I Karasjok kaldes Laksen efter sm Stør- 
relse 1) diddej 2) luossa-juölgge, 3) luossa-giera, 
4) jotto-luosa, [Vandrelaks], 5) lu os s a (fuldvoksen Laks), 
hvoraf goagjem er Han, duo v ve Hun. 

64. luossa-giera, pl. -gierragak (Kr.), [Lakse-top], = 63 
(mindre). 

65. luossa-juölgge, [Laksefod], = 63 (mindre). 

66. luossa-næring (Friis), Lampris guttatus, (Brunn.) 

67. læppadak, = 10 (dog ikke af de største). 

68. m aj h k (R.: Kildin), = 9 (større). 

69. m ai v (R.: Pasv.), = 9 (Unge). 

70. moanji (R.: Pasv.), = 9; moanjigaz, = 9 (liden). 

71. m urt to 1. mçrtto, Seimort i 3dje Aar; (Nb. ogs.) Torsk- 
og Hyse-mort. 

72. nava^g (R.: Ter.), Gadus nawaga. 

73. navllo, pl. navlok, = 12. 

74. njakka, pl. njagak | S. njaka | E. njåhe | R. (Pasv.) 
javre-njatj, Lota vulgaris, Jen. I Finmarken er njakka 
ogsaa = 61, der i Pasvik kaldes m^æra-njatj [Sø-njatj] 
til Forskjel fra javre-njatj [Indsø-njatj]; s. 140. 

75. njoavdnja, Salmo alpinus, L. (meget ung). 

76. njunne-sildde, [Nebsild], Belone vulgaris, Flem..; s. 133. 

77. njuorjo-saksa (Leem), [Kobbelodde], = 62 (fordi Kob- 
ben gjerne æder den). 

78. n juv vak (Friis), Pleuronedes limanda, L. 

79. nu'kkes (R.: Kildin), (Notozero) nuskes, (Pasv.) nu tj es, 
= 29; i Pasv. er m^æra-nutjes, [Sø-nutjes], == 60. 

80. næzzeni-guoll (R.: Pasv.), [Kvindefisk], Anarrhichas, L. 
(Hun). 

81. oaivvadak, = 10 (stor). 

82. oaivve-cargas, pl. -Sargacak, = 10 (mindre). 

83. radke-guölle, [Rav-fisk], = 10 (noget større end 27). 

84. ravddo, pl. ravdok | S. raudo, (Lui.) rau®tu, (Hm.) 
rav^do | E. ravdu | R. (Ter.) ravta, (Pasv.) ravd. 



376 J- QVIGSTAD. 



Salmo alpinus, L,, (Hm. Pasv.) om Hunnen; s. 75. 114. 
134. 138. 

85. rib sik (S.: Hrn.), = 20. 

86. riepas (R.: Kildin), enslags Coregonus; s. 97. 

87. rïps ki-lle (R.: Ter.), [Rødfisk], = 63 (Sølaks). 

88. ru d no k 1. rudnog | R. (Pasv.) runnag, = 21 (liden). 

89. rundiermes, pl. -diermak (Friis, Sdv.), (Nb.) -dærmes, 
pl. -dærmak, 1) Cyclopterus lumpus, L. (Friis, Sdv.), 2) 
Cottus scorpius, Fabr. (Nb.); s. 1. 

90. runëufso, pl. -cuvsok (Hf.), (Tn.) runcæksa, pl. -cæv- 
sak, Cyclopterus lumpus, L. 

91. ruotak (S.) = 9; (Lui.) ruötak, Coregonus aïbula, L. 
(middelsstor); s. 95. 

92. ruövdde-gulmek, [Jern-gulmek], Gaster osteus aculeatus, 
L.; s. 93. 94. 128. 

93. ruövdde-laiggo (Skjervø), = 92. 

94. ruövdde-cilla, pl. -cilat (Lg.), = 92. 

95. ræsska, pl. ræskak (Nb. Utsj.), Coregonus alhula, L. 
(Mela); s. 91. 128. 

96. ræsek, = 10 (megel liden); (Lnv.) Pleuronectes \ S. (Hm.) 
reiek, Pleuronectes; s. 13. 

97. rævas, en Indsøfisk med større Hoved og større Øine 
end Siken (Friis), = 86? 

98a. rævcak (Sdv.), [Utleirfisk], = 13. 
98 b. sådd og (S.: Hm.), [Sandfisk], = 13. 
99. saddo-lindar (lb.), [Sandflyndre], = 34. 

100. saidde | S. saide, (Lui.) saine, (Hm. Ts.) sai^de | R. 
(Ter.) saite, (Pasv.) said, Gadus vlrens, L. ; s. 8. 

101. saivva-guölle, (Nb.) savja-guölle, Ferskvandsfisk, især 
Laks og Søørret. 

102. sailed | S. (Lui.) sal let, (Hm. Ts.) sal lid, Clu pea haren- 
gus, L,; s. 106. 108. 

103. sandok (Hf. Ks.), = J3. Der skjelnes mellem gædge-s., 
[Stenflyndre, Flyndre der lever paa Stenbund], s add o-s,, 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 377 

[Sandflyndre, Flyndre der lever paa Sandbund], jçkka-s,, 
[Elveflyndre, Flyndre der lever i Elvemundinger], starra-s., 
[Tareflyndre, Flyndre der lever mellem Tare], ru ksi s-s., 
[rød Flyndre], = 19. 

104. sappeg (S.), Leuciscus rutilus, (L.); s. 122. 

105. savja-findar (Nb.), [Ferskvandsflyndre], Flyndre, som 
holder sig i Elvemundingerne. 

106. si elt te (R. efter Friis), = 102. 

107. s i ep pa (Lg.), = 62; jgkka-sieppa, [Elvelodde], norsk: 
Vaslodde; ape -si ep pa, Havlodde. 

108. sildde | S. sillda | E. sildde j R. (Ter.) silte, = 102. 

109. sinekj (R.: Notozero), = 13. 

110. sirkke, pl. sirkek, == 9 (Unge). 

Ul. sitte k (S.), Perça fluviatilis, L.; s. 44. 115. 142. 

112. sivllo, (Kr. Tn.) sivlla, (Kv. Lg.) sila, = 12. 

113. skatto, pi. skatok | S. (Hm.) = | R. (Pasv.) skat, Raja, L, 

114. skidd o, = 84 (Han) | S. skito, = 84, (Gellivare) hvid- 
agtig do., (Hm.) ski do, = 84 (Han). 

115. skQdek (S.), = 111 (liden). 

116. snuölgga-junne (Helgø), [Snotnæse], = 2. 

117. soavvel (Tn. Polmak) | R. (Ter.) sïvel, g. sïevvalï, (Kil- 
din) suevvel, (Notozero) so^vvel, (Pasv.) soavvel, = 53. 

118. spælg, pl, spielgak (Kl.), = 2. 

119. staggos, [liden Stang], Centronotus gunnellus, (L.); s. 
124 b. 

120. stainir 1. stainar, pl. s taidnarak | R. (Pasv.) stainar, 
Anarrhichas, L. Anarrhichas pantherinus, Zouiew kal- 
des i Kv. bçvlle-stainir, i Tn. girjag-stainir, [Flek- 
stenbit]. 

121. Steve 1, [Støvle], = 2 (af 4-5 Föds Længde). 

122. særgge | S. særg, = 104. 

123. sævnjat, pl. sævnjahat (Kt.) | S. (Jokkmokk) siur]na, 
pl. siui]nakah, (Fld.) sievna, pl. sievnaga | R. (Kildin) 
sivn, g. sivneg, Leuciscus idus, (L.). 



378 J. QVIGSTAD. 



124a. saggas 1. saggas (Sdv.) | R. (Pasv.) §agas, = 12; 

(Notozero) sages = 12? 
124 b. sagos, (Nb.) § agg us | R. (Pasv.) s ag g a s, = 119. 

125. saksa 1. safsa, pl. savsak, 1) = 62 (Varanger); Qrdde- 
saksa, Hanlodde (af Qrdde, Kant); mæddem-sakia, 
Rognlodde; ruövdde-saksa (Leem), [Jernlodde], Lodde, 
der har Jernfarve. 2) = 12 (Kr. Hf. Lg.). 

126. sali (R.: Ter.), = 9 (større). 

127. sap pa, pl. s ab a (R.: Ter.), (Kildin) sapp, = 9 (mindre). 

128. si Ila, pl. silat (Lg., Helgø) = 92? | S. si Iah, pl., Smaa- 
fisk; (Lui.) si Ila, = 95 (liden). 

129. su or ja, = 14. 

130. c oak an (Tn.), Trigla gurnardus, L.? 

131. aar va (R: Ter.), = 29. 

132. coarran (Friis), Laks, som har gydet og er gaaet til Søen, 
men straks er vendt tilbage igjen; (Kr.) soar ran. Laks 
med sølvblankt Skind, uden Melke eller Rogn, aldeles 
mager og uspiselig. 

133. goarvve-sildde, [Hornsild], = 76. 

134. coavcak (Kr.), = 84 (Gjeldrøe uden Melke eller Rogn). 

135. cuoncca (Kr.) = 63 (Gjeldlaks uden Melke eller Rogn). 

136. cuovcca, pl. cuovcak | S. cuouce, (Lui. Arj.) cuöuca, 
= 9, (Lui.) (meget stor). I Kt. kaldes Sik efter sin Stør- 
relse: 1) gila-sirkki (se 110), 2) gasskan-sirkki, [mid- 
dels-sirkki], 3) luöbbot-laikko, [middelsstor Flekkefisk]. 
4) stuora-laikko, [stor Middelsfisk], 5) coavjebælle, 
[Bugside], 6) s tuora-Suovcca, [stor Sik]. 

137. eus ska. Seimort i 2det Aar; s. 8 | S. cussk, Smaafisk; 
(Lui, Fid.) cussk a, = 9 (mindre end 136). 

138. valas, pl. vallasak (Kr., Varanger), blank Ørret (rød 
under Bugen) | R. (Pasv.) volas, = 84 (Han). 

139. v alleer (R.: Ter.), = 63 (Ferskvandslaks). 

140. visne (R.: Ter.), (Kildin) vu^sn, (Notozero) vuesn, Lota 
vulgaris, Jen.; s. 74. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 379 

141. vuorro, pl. vuorrok 1. vuorok (Kr.), = 16. 

142. vuosko, pl. vusskunak (alm.) 1. vusskumak | S. 
vuoskon, (Lui.) vuöskuii 1. vuöskui, pl. vuösskunah 
I E. pusko I R. (Ter.) vïezvan, g. vïsvïne, (Kildin) 
vuesk, g. vueskan, (Notozero) vuask, g. vuaskan, 
(Pasv.) vueska (dem. vueskanaz), = 111, (Nb.) == 51. 
I Finmarken er m ærra- vuosko, [Sø-aborre], = 51, diff. 
savja-vuosko, [Ferskvandsaborre], ^= 111. 

143. væjek | S. vejek, en liden Fiskeunge, (Nb.) = 15 (Unge), 
(S.) især om Laksyngel; (Nilss.) kådde- vejek, Bækforell. 



D. Lappiske IVavne paa Leddyr. 

1. arkko, pl. arkok (Nb.), etslags stikkende Insekt. 

2. acatj (Pasv.), Edderkop; s. 42. 

3. accis-ædne 1. haccis-ædne 1. acis-ædne, (Tn.) hatte- 
cen, (Nb.) hacecan | S. acice, (Lul.)hacek, (Arj.) aoic- 
hætne, Carahus, Bille; (Sdv. Kr.) Thanatophilus lap- 
ponicus, (Kt.) Thanathophilus thoracicus, L. ; s. 63. I 
Lule-Lapmark er efter L. L. Læstadius acic-edne Navn 
paa „den stora dagsländan". 

4. acæn-gaicca (Lg. Kri. Kl.), [Risegjed], Carahus. 

5. acæn-guss (Kl.), ]Riseko], Carahus. 

6. balgatægje (Nb.), [som bringer til at skjene], = 7. 

7. batta-bosska 1. -boskan | S. patta-poske 1. pattok, 
(Arj.) bidok, (Jmt.) spæhta 1. spahta, (Trond.) spætta, 
[en der stikker med Bagdelen], Oestrus tarandi; s. Zetterst. 
p. 622. S. 6. 15. 36. 37. 

8. bismar-batta (Tn.), [Bismer-bagdel], Æschna juncea, 
Øienstikker; s. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 27. 74. 87. 89. 113. 

9. boalddahas (Tn.), [som brænderj, etslags Insekt; opgives 
at være = finsk polttiainen (Knott). 

10. poarmas (R.: Ter.), Larva oestri tarandi?; s. 36. 

11. boaro, pl. borruk, (Kv. Lg.) boarro, pl. boarok | S. 



380 J- QVIGSTAD. 



pçrev 1. pQrrev | R. (Ter.) poara, (Kildin) poara, g. 
pu r ru, (Notozero) poar, g. poarro, (Pasv.) b o ara, demin. 
boarragaz, Oestrus, i Finmarken især Oestrus trompe; 
(Lg. Kv.) Tabanus. 

12. boaci (Pasv.), [som skyder], Renbremse. 

13. bçgge, etslags Seiaate (en Krebsart?). 

14 bQrQnj (Arj.), [som æder], Oestriis trompe; s. 11. 24.43. 
67. 83. 91. 

15. bçt-bçlkan (Leem), etslags Insekt, vel = 7. 

16. bur eke (Trond.), Renbremse, Klegg, Spyflue. 

17. bæivve-lcdde | S. (Hm.) bæivac-lQdde | R. (Pasv.) 
bæive-lcdd, [Solfugl], Dagsommerfugl; s. 28. 44. 

18. bællje-bQskan (Helgø), [Ørestikker], = 8. 

19. bællje-navlag (Friis), (Of.) -navlahak, [Ørestikker], =8. 

20. b ællje-rcggan, [Øregraver], = 8; (Leem, Kr. Kv.) Tipula, 
Høyhest; s. 22. 

21. bællje- skuran (Kt. Vst.), = 8. 

22. bællje-skurban | S. (Ht.) biellje-skurbadakke, [Øre- 
kradserj, = 8; (Kv. Kt.) Tipula, Høyhest. 

23. dikke | S. tikke | E. tikke | R. (Ter.) tike, (Kildin, 
Notozero) t eke, (Pasv.) dikj, Pediculus; s. 41. 101. 

24. trumpi (S.), = 14. 

25. dæocalma (Ht.), Hæmatopota pluvialis; s. 49. 110. 

26. gas kat, pl. gas k a ha t (Kt.), [Bider], Musea domestica. 

27. gacas, (Kr. ogs.) skacas | S. (Lui.) kae uk, = 8. 

28. giesie-laddie (Ht.), Sommerfugl; s. 17. 

29. gifsa 1. gi k sa, pl. givs ak | E. kifse, et sort Insekt, der 
ødelægger Skindklæder {Larva thanatopMli lapponici? 1. 
ThanatopMlus lapponicusP), (Of.) Staphylinus maxillosus. 

30. koabjo (E.) I R. (Kildin) ku ei 7, Møl. 

31. gobba-lafSo 1. -lakco, pl. -lavcok, Bytiscus. 

32. gçUebat-curruk (Utsj. efter Andelin, p. 192), [Guldbag- 
flue]; (Kt.) gQlle-batta, [Guldbag], Musea sarcophaga, 
Spyflue; s. 95. 107. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 381 

33. gotka 1. godka 1. gorkka | S. kotka \. kgtakes, (Lui.) 
korko, (Arj.) gotko, (Ht.) garke | R. (Ter.) kotk, (Pasv.) 
gQtk, Formica. 

34 a. gu öl ed ikke, [Fiskelus], Caligus; s. 102. 

34b. guöle-coakkal (Hl.), Gjelleorm (en Snyltekrebs i Fiskens 
Gjeller). 

35. guosta-hævdne, [Tøveir-Edderkop], et Insekt af Størrelse 
som en Husflue, der i Slutningen af Vinteren kan findes i 
Mængde paa kram Sne og er et Tegn paa Tøveir [Opilio?]. 

36. gurbma, pl. gurmak | S. kurbma 1. kormes, (Lui.) 
ku r ^'^ ma, (Arj.) gurbma, (Ht.) gorma, Larva oestri 
tarandi (Zetterst. p. 622); s. 10. 

37. gurbma-lodde (Kt.), [Gormfugl], = 7. 

38. gærp (Pasv.), Musea. 

39. hidas, pl. hittacak, (Kt.) hittat, pl. hittahat, Cerato- 
pogon pulicaris; s. 56. 60. 61. 84. 

40. hir]s L hei]s (Sors.), etslags Insekt, norsk: Skorva. 

41. horse (S.), Pediculus, proprie quibus ægrotantes afficiun- 
tur; s. 23. 

42. hævdne 1. hævnne, pl. hævnek | S. heune, (Lui. Hm.) 
heu<^ne, (Arj.) hævdni, (Sors.) fievni, (Ht.) hevnie | E. 
ævnne | R. (Ter.) jeavnai, g. jievni, (Kildin) eavnanc, 
(Notozero) eavnis, (Pasv.) ævn, demin. ævnaz, Ara- 
neus; s. 2. 

43. jorbba, pl. jorbat (Lg.), (Kr.) jorbba boaro, [rund 
Bremse], = 14. 

44. lablok (S.), Sommerfugl; peive-lablok, (Sors.) bieivie- 
1 ub lok, (Ht.) biejje-lable, [Sol-sommerfugl], enslags 
Sommerfugl; s. 17. 

45. lafes 1. laffes, pl. laffak | S. lafa, (Lui.) lafes, pl 
laffah, (Arj.) lafis, Pulex irritans; s. 46. 47. 92. 

46. lappes, pl. lappak, 1. lappo, pl. lappok | S. (Sors.) 
loppö, (Ht.) lappo, (Trond.) lappe | R. (Pasv.) lap, demin. 
lappas, = 45. 



J. QVIGSTAD. 



47. lavkes, pl. lavkkak, == 45. 

48. lavcca, pl. lavcak, (Sdv. ogs.) lavSco, (Kv. Tn. ogs.) 
lavcis, (KI. Bis. Lnv. lb. Of.) slavcca | S. klacce 1 
slacße 1. slauca 1. lau c a, (Lui.) slau^ßa, (Ht.) glacc(e), 
(Trond.) klacce, Tabanus, Oestrus, Klegg. 

49. lidd a (Friis), (Kv.) liddan, (Kl. Lnv. Ib. Of.) liddam, = 25. 

50. lokk (S.), Græshoppe; s. 70. 

5L luttak 1. luttek, (Tn.) luttekas, (Nb.) luttehas, (Kar., 
Tromsø) ludas, pl. luttahat, (Ib.) ludag | S. lüde, 
Cimex, Væggelus. 

52. main-kieHte 1. main-koadai (R.: Ter.), en Insektpuppe, 
som findes i Birkens Grene, og som holdes i Munden mod 
Tandpine. 

53. makka, g. maga (Gullesfjord), en liden Myg. 

54. miedis-ædne (Leem) [Mjød-moder] j R. (Notozero) miedas, 
(Pas v.) miedazaz, Bomhus; s. 109. 

55. moatta, pl. moatak (Tromsø, Senjen), Møl (større end 59). 

56. mueiva (S.), (Gellivare) mçivQ, = 39 (Zetterst. p. 821). 

57. muöger, pl. muökkerak | S. muoker 1. muokker, 
(Lui.) mu oker | R. (Notozero) mækjer, (Pasv.) mue v v er, 
Siinulia reptans (Zettersx. p. 802); s. 69. 

58. muösk (Pasv.), Knott. 

59. muoco, pl. m u CC uk, 1. muocco, pl. muocok, (Ib. Of.) 
muöcce I S. muece, (Lui.) muöce, Møl, (Lui.) hvidt 
Møl i Bøger o. lign.; s. 55. 

60. namek (S.), = 39. 

61. nja^ble (R.: Ter.), = 39? 

62. njavalak (S.), Møl. 

63. njaves-ædne (Kt.), ThanatopMlus lapponicus, Fabr.; 
s. 3. 

64. njivnja, pl. njivdnjagak, (Kv.) njievnja, (Kr.) njivd- 
iije, pl. njivnjek | S. (Arj.) snjimnja, Psocus. 

65. njunne-boaro (Utsj. efter Andeltn, p. 192), [Næsebremse], 
Oestrus. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 383 

66. njunne-cuoikka (Kt. Kar., Helgø), [Snabelmyg], (Kl.) 
nj un od ak, Culex; s. 105. 

67. nu r pa (Jmt.), (Trond.) s nur be, = 14 (Zetterst. p. 622). 

68. nöika 1. nai ka (Trond.), en liden Myg. 

69. orb m es 1. ur b mes (S.), = 57. 

70. rasse-lokko, pl. -ly k ko k | S. grase-lçkk 1. rase- 
kappan 1. -kappanis, Pezotettix, Græshoppe; s. 50. 

71. rïvte-poara (R.: Ter.), (Kildin) ru^vt-poara, [Jern- 
brenise], Oestrus; s. 11. 

72. r ou de -go ask o s, pl. -gosskusak (Ib.), en Bille større 
end 77, = 74? 

73. rQute-kçnk (S.), Scarabœus, Tordivel. 

74. ruö vdde-garanas | S. (Ts.) ruöude-garranes [Jern- 
ravn], Carahus, ogs. Carahus gldbratus; (Lg.) = 8. 

75. ruövdde-gacas (Kr. Lg.), etslags Insekt; s, 27. 

76. ruövdde-gQbba, (Kr.) -gQbbas, (Varanger) -gubbas, 
Carahus; (Lg.) Clirysoméla. 

11. ruövdde-gQmp (Kl.), (Lnv. Ib. Of.) rQude-gçmpa | S. 
(Lui.) ruöut(e)-kQnipo, (Hm.) roude-gQmba, Carahus, 
(Hm.) Skarptrold. 

78. ræbba 1. ga33a-ræbba, [Klokrabbe], Hyas araneus; 
s. 97 b. 

79. sadeu (akk. sæddemau) (Arj.), Larva oestri trompe; 

s. 80. 82. 90. 

80. sadkem (S.), (v, Düben, Lappland, p. 49) s ark em, (Trond.) 
s arg el m a, = 79 (Zetterst. p. 622). 

81. sakke, pl. sakkek 1. sagek, (Kv.) sakkit, pl. sakki- 
hat I S. sakke, et lidet Insekt med stort Hoved, der op- 
holder sig i Vand, norsk: Vasskolp, Vasskvalp. 

82. savla, pl. savllagak | S. (Lui.) s aul a, pl. s au '^l aka h, 
= 79 (Zetterst. p. 622). 

83. savla- lod de, [savla-Fugl], (Kar.) savla-batta, == 14. 

84. sicca, pl. sicak, (Kt. Sdv.) cicca, (Kr.) ei c ok, (Ks.) 
ei co, pl. ei con ak, (Sdv. ogs.) ei sa g j S. (Lui.) s i ca, pl. 



384 J- QVIGSTAD. 



s i ca k a h, bittesmaa Myg, der i stille Veir svæver i Sværme 
over Vandel, og som ikke bider. Efter v. Düben, Lapp- 
land, p. 85 er sicca i Lule Lapmark = 39. 

85. skoarppa (Kl.), et sort mangefodet Insekt, norsk: Bal- 
skroppa. 

86. skoattag (Of.), Tabanus bovis. 

87. sk odde -ci ce (S.: Lui.), [Snauskind -spurv], = 8. 

88. skr Q t ta, pl. skrçttak (Hf.), (Of.) s kr o att o, Oniscus, 
norsk: Skrotte. 

89. sk ur b an, = 22; (Kv. Kt.) Tipula. 

90. snavlle, pl. snavlek (Friis), (Nb.) snavla, pl. snavUa- 
gak, = 79. 

91. sn om pat (S.), = 14. 

92. sonsar 1. soamsur (E.), = 45. 

93. suin-njuckei (R. : Kildin), [Græshoppe], = 70. 

94. su oks a, pl. suovsak | S. suoksa, (Lui.) suökksa 
I R. (Ter.) siks, (Kildin) suks, (Notozero) suep^s, (Pasv.) 
suö%s, Larva sarcophagæ. 

95. suoksa-curuk, [Maddikflue], (Nb.) suoksa-batta-cur- 
ruk, (GuUesfjord) suöksa-cuöikka | R. (Pasv.) suöks- 
bat-cuera§, = 32. 

96. sæidne-ravdde, [Vægsmed], Anobium, et Skaldyr. 
97 a. s irra 1. h irra, Gammarus locustus. 

97b. cuobbo, pl. cubbuk (Leem) | R. (Pasv.) juelgj-[Fod-] 
cuöbba, = 78. 

98. cakkalagges, pl. cakkalaggak (Leem), et lidet Dyr, 
som efter Lappernes Udsagn har sit Tilhold i dybe Vand- 
kilder og fanges ved Smør, som paa et Fad sættes ved 
Bredden. 

99. cam-bokkal, (Leem) sambukel, (Sdv.) sam-boggal, 
(Hf.) calme-bçgge, Thysanopoda inermis. 

100. ôacce-cuoikka (Leem), [Vasmyg], Tipula. 

101. civros, pl. civrrusak, (Nb.) ei v ru, pl. civrruk | S. 
euros, (Lui.) ciurus | R. (Ter.) cuWres 1. cu'rves» 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 385 



(Kildin) civres, (Notozero) cevreS; (Pasv.) cævres, Ovum 

pediculi; s. 23. 
102. coakkan, = 34a. 
103a. corve-navva (Lui.), [Horn-haar], en Art Myg (meget 

lidei)). 
103b. coarve-vævses (Pasv.), [Hornhveps], Sirex? 

104. cuoika-ædne | S. (Lui.) cueikan-eddne, [Mygmoder], 
Tipula, Høyhest. 

105. cuoikka, pl. cuoikak | S. cuoik, Sgik, (Lui.) cuöi^ka, 
(Arj.) c o ai ka, (Jint.) cuoika | R. (Ter.) eis k, (Kildin) 
eu sk, (Pasv.) cuösk, Culex, (Helgø, Ib. Of., Gullesfjord 
ogs.) Musca; (Jmt.) kit tien Cuoika [Eng-cuoika] Oestrus; 
k Q ta -c., [Hus-cuoika], Musca. 

106. curuk 1. Surruk, (Tn.) euro, pl. currukak | S. curok^ 
(Lui. Hm. Ts.) ciruk | R. (Ter.) cPres, g. cïerrazï, (Kil- 
din) cue ras, (Notozero) cuaras, (Pasv.) c u eras, Musca. 

107. euro-6uoik (Kl, Helge), = 32. 

108. ussa 1. uss ek 1. q s so k (S.), (Ht.) h uss eg, Fællesnavn 
paa alleslags Insekter og Orme i Vand. 

109. uvllo, (Tn.) huvllo, (Kv.) ulvva, (Senjen, Of.) ublo | S. 
o b lo, obl o, (Lui.) hub^lu, (Arj.) h ublo, (Sors.) ublo, 
(Ht.) o b lu, (Trond.) o b la, = 54. 

110. valp po (Lg.): ca lm eh es [blind] valp po, = 25. 

111. vannca-divrre (Kt.), [Baad-insekt], etslags Insekt, som^ 
løber paa Våndet. 

112. vievses, pl. vieksak | S. vepses, vepsa, (Lui.) vepses, 
(Sors. Arj.) viepsis, (Ht. Trond.) væpsa | R. (Ter.) 
veazvas, (Notozero) væfsaz, (Pasv.) v æ vs es, Vespa. 

113. vuöpta-bagan (S.: Hm.), = 8. 



Nyt Mng. f. Naturv. XXXXII.IV; 25 



386 J. QVIGSTAD. 



E. Lappiske îfavne paa Orme, Bløddyr, Pighudede 
og Tarmløse. 

1. akale-lied (Pasv.), [Haakjærring-slim], Cyanea capillata^ 
Manæte; s. 3. 4 18. 26. 

2. akkar-guölle, [Akkerfisk], (Ib. Of.) akkar, (Lg.) ar|kir, 
Ommatostrephes todarus: s. 23. 

3. akkolag-sliedda (Varanger), [Haakjærring-slim], = 1. 

4. bçsso-colgga, [Hvalspyt], = 1. 

5. garanas-batte (Kr.), [Kraakegryde], Echinus. 

6. garanas-ruitto (Varanger, Ks.), [Kraakegryde], = 5. 

7. garja-batte, (Kl.) garja-gritto, [Kraakegryde], = 5. 
S. garra 1. k arra (Nb.), Cardimn, norsk: Renskjel. 

9. gavdnjaragges, pl. -raggak, (Nb.) gainaragges, (Kv.) 
gavnjeriegges, (Lg.) gavnrir]r]ga, (Helgø) gamrigges, 
(Kl.) gamlegges 1. gævnjerigges, (BIs.) gæ v nja rigga, 
Ascaris, en Traadorm der findes i Fisk; s. 30. 

10. g033a-guölle (Kv.), [Pis-fisk], =2. 

IL gov v a, pl. gQvak (Sdv,), hvidt, stort Skjel med glinsende 
Inderside, CardiumP, (Leem) gov, pl. g q vak, Sneglehus 
paa Stene i Fjæren. . 

12. gui ske, Musling: b okka- g., [Bukkeskjel] ; ga i ca -g., 
[Gjedeskjel], Mytilus; hæsta-g., [Hesteskjel], Pecten is- 
landicus; spine-g., [Svineskjel], Mya; s. 20. 24. 

13. matto, pl. madok | S. mato 1. matok, (Lui.) matn | E. 
m a tu I R. (Notozero) mat, g. mad, Mark, især Lunibri- 
cus; s. 25. 

14. m er- s op t (R.: Akkala), [Havskum], Svamp, Spougia; 
s. 27. 

15. ri bun (Lg.), enslags Snegl. 

16. ri pu, (Kv.) ripa, Snegl. 

17. ruossa-ræbba, [Korskrabbe], Asierias, Korstrold. 

18. siedak, Manæte; s. 1. 

19. skadna, pl. skanak, Balanus. 



LAPPISKE NAVNE PAA PATTEDYR, KRYBDYR ETC. 387 



20. skalëco I S. skalco, (Lui.) skallcu | R. (Pasv.) s ka le, 
Muslingskal. De norske Lapper skjelner mellem : bçccu-s. 
1. b oa co -s., [Renskjelj, Mytilus edulis; bukk a-s. 1. 
b ok ka- s., [Bukkeskjel] ; gaicca-s., [Gjedeskjel], Mytilus 
modiolus; gåran as -s., [Kraakeskjel], Echinus; gussa-s., 
[Koskjel], Gyprina islandica; hæ s ta -s. 1. hævos-s., 
(Kv. ogs.) rossel, ro s e-s., [Hesteskjel], Pecten islandicus; 
savcca-s., [Sauskjel], Astarte; sp in e-s., [Svineskjel], 
Mya; s. 12. I Kv. Ib. bruges bædnag-s,, [Hundeskjel], 
om Sneglehuse, der lindes i Fjæren. 

21. s k el ei m (Sd v.), Pecten islandicus; s. 12. 20. 22. 

22. skirceg (Nb.), = 21. 

23. skuftar (Hf.), = 2. 

24. skuiske, Muslingskal; s. 12. 

25. skuörva (S.: Sors.), = 13. 

26. snuolgga, [SnotJ, = 1. 

27. spielder-faeea, [spielder-vante], = 14. 

28. cerggim (Leem), Pecten (med hvidt og stribet Skjel). 

29. c ivr re, en brandgul Mark, som sidder ved endel Fiskes, 
især Torskens Mave, ogs. paa Leveren; Ascaris. 

30. coalle- g aim rigges (Pasv.), [Tarm-gai m rigges], vel 
= 9. 

Sl. v ar f a (Gullesfjord), Mytilus modiolus. 

32. vuoddas-cærv (Pasv.), [Sandmark], Arenicola piscatoria. 



Trykt den 20. December 1904. 



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Tab. II. Table representing variation of tailcoeffecient I 

the altitude of analfin. 



0: The lenght of the tail: 



Salmon (salmo solar) 


Trout (salmo trutta) 


Under 16 cm.s length 


Under 16 cm.s length 


1,30 
1,20 
1,10 
1,00 
0,90 
0,80 
0,70 
0,60 




o o 

o o 

o o 

ooooooooooooooopooooooooo 

o o o o 

o o 

o 


o 

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o o 

o o o o 

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From 16 — 50 cm.s length 


From 16 — 50 cm.s length 


1,40 
1,30 
1,20 
1,10 
1,00 
0,90 
0,80 
0,70 


o 
o o o 
c o o o o 
oooooo o o 


o o o o 

ooooooo 

oooooo 

ooooooooo 

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o o o 


Over 50 cm.s length 


Over 50 cm.s length 


1,60 
1,50 
1,40 
1,30 
1,20 
1,10 
1,00 
0,90 
0,80 
0,70 


o ooooooooooo 
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o o o 
o o 
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o o 
o o 





-.f 


Tab. III. Table shewing variati 


on of tailcoefficient IL 


o: Length of tail: minimum altitude of tail. 


Salmon (salmosalar) 


Trout (salmo truUa) 


Salmon (salmo salar) 


Trout (salmo trutta) 


^ Under 16 cm.s length 


Under 16 cm.s length 


Over 50 cm.s length 


Over 50 cm.s length 


2,10 






2,50 






2,00 


o 




2,40 







1,99 


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2,30 






1,80 





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2,20 


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1,70 


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1,50 


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1,90 




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1,40 


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1,80 


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1,30 




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1,70 


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1,20 




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o o o o 


1,60 


o o o 
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1,10 




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1,50 




o o 




1,00 






1,40 
1,30 

1,20 





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From 16-50 cm.s length 


From 16-50 cm.s length 







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2,50 












2,40 


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1,10 






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I 



Orkla nnd llu> moiilli 
of tlieOrklii 
»/,-'3/, 1898 
Eelhandseine. 



Tab. IV. Taille reprnsenlins; Ihe sizes of emigrating young sah 



The month of the Guln 
"/»-"/o 1898 
Eelhandseine. 



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Gula and the mouth of the Gnlii 
'«/»-"/s 1898 
Eelhandseine. 





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The mouth nf 
the Gula 

Eelhandseine. 



Uddevold, Gula Bak, Orkla 
"/, 1901 I 'Vt 1901 



KaUlad. Orkla 

'Vt «901 

Fly. 



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Tab. y. I'.il, 



'iiliiit; llic 



liuiil ein;;!!! iliiriii^ M"' ri'ScarrlicH 





(Ii'KIh :.ii.I III,' in.iulli ..1 lln- 


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Ki*iihvik''t), HisHi-ii and .S«*lv 
'V,.-»Vn 1«'J« 

KL-lliandseinr. 





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Till). VI. Taille ic|ii<'siiilin,L; llic si/c (,( Ihc lion! raiif/lil ilurin^ lln' lo-ii'iiiilic^. 
'.I = ,|i. Ill rii sfxiially inutiiru lisli. 



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Eelliundseiiie. 



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KuUtad 

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Eelhundseine, 



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V, IM» 

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oooooo. noooo 
ooooooooo 



o 

o o o o o 

oooooo 

o o o 

o o 

o o 



Tal). \'ll. 'I'.ililr ic|iir-,i'iiliii^ Uli- M/i 111 llii^ Imiil i-,ii],l;I]I iliuiiig tili' iiivi^üti^alioiiH. 

il = Hpciil nr .sexually iiiiitiii'i' litli. 



Tiic liril.sUiill'ionl 

may IHOO 

Kelluiiulsciiie and ordinary seine. 



Beitstadl'iord 
august 1900 
Eelhandseine. 



The Batleii- 
liord "/u 1900 
Eelhandseine. 



The Gula 
(Sundel) 

"/lo l*X' 
Eelhandseine. 



LerkjiL-r, MundnlriMr 

"1,0 l'J"» 

EelluindM.-inr. 



o o 


o 


o 





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o o o 











c o o 


o o o 


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o 


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o 
o o 



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oooooooooooooooooooooo 
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 

000 0000000000000000000000 0000001 

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OOOOOOOOO 
O O O o 



o o o o 

00000OÜ00U 

OOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOO 

OOOOOOOOO OOOOOOOOO 

OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO« 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 

OOOOOOOOO 

OOOOOOOOOOOO 



oooooooo 

o o o o o o 

o o o 

o o o o 

o o 

o 00 o o 

o o o 

o o o o o o 

oooooooooO 

o o o o o o 

o o o 

o o o 



Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. B. 42. 



Pl. IV. 







si 

up 
fa 




Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. B. 42. 



Pl. V. 




2 



fa 




^ 






©4 

fa 



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Nyt Mag. f. Naturv. B. 42. 

\ 



Pl. vi. 




I: 




2 



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Vv ? 



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\ 



4'" 



4 



NYT MAGAZIN 



FOR 



NATURVIDENSKABERNE 

GRUNDLAGT AF 

DEN PHYSIOGRAPmSKE FORENING 
I CHRISTIANIA 

BIND 42, Hefte 1 



REDAKTION: 

H. Mohn, Th. Hiortdahl, W. C. Brøgger, F. Nansen, 

Hovedredaktør N. Wille. 



CHRISTIANIA 

1 KOMMISSION HOS T. 0. BRØGGER 
A. W. BRØGGERS B06TRYKKERI 

im 



x Aaret 1904 vil der af „Nyt Magazin for Natur- 
videnskaberne" udkomme Bind 42 med samme Udstyr og 
lignende Indhold som B. 41, idet „Nyt Magazin tor Natur- 
videnskaberne" herefter kun optager Afhandiinger over natur- 
historiske Emner inden de botaniske, geografiske, geolo- 
giske, mineralogiske og zoologiske Videnskaber. 

Tidsskriftet nyder nu en Statsunderstøttelse af Kr. 2000 aarlig, 
men dette er ikke tilstrækkeligt, hvis det ikke tillige støttes ved 
Abonnement af Personer og Institutioner, som har Interesse af 
Naturhistoriens Fremme i vort Land. 

Saasnart Tidsskriftets Økonomi tillader, er det Meningen 
ikke alene at udstyre Afhandlingerne rigeligere med Aibildninger, 
men ogsaa at lade medfølge de paa norsk skrevne Afhandiinger 
et Resumé paa et større Kultursprog. 

Forfatterne vil erholde 50 Separataftryk gratis. 

„Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne" vil udkomme med 
4 Hefter aarlig, hvert paa 6 Ark og Abonnementsprisen 
er 8 Kr. om Aaret, frit tilsendt med Posten inden de skan- 
dinaviske Lande. 

Tidsskriftets Kommissionærer er: 

For Norge, Sverige, Danmark og Finland : T. O. Brøgger, 
Carl Johansgade 12, Christiania. 

For andre Lande: R. Friedländer & Sohn, Carlstrasse 
11, Berlin N. W. 

For Redaktionen 
N. WILLE. 




DIE UMSCHAU 



BERICHTET ÜBER DIE FORTSCHRITTS 

luND Bewegungen der Wissen- 

f SCHAFT, Technik, Litteratur und 

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H. ßecbhold, Frankfurt a. M.., Neue Krame tç\2i. 



BERGENS MUSEUM. 
Prisbelønning af Joachim Frieles legat. 

Legatets fundats bestemmer bl. a., at der af renterne hvert 3die aar 
udredes en prisbelønning bestaaende af en guldmedalje af 400 kroners 
værdi, for det videnskabelige arbeide med emne hørende under Norges land 
eller havfauna, som museets bestyrelse, efter udstedt opfordring til konkur- 
rence, finder værdigt til saadan belønning. Ligeledes udredes af legatets 
renter det fornødne til udgivelse af det prisbelønnede arbeide. 

I henhold hertil opfordres videnskabsmænd, der ønsker at konkurrere 
om denne prisbelønning, til inden udgangen af september 1905 at indsende 
sine konkurrencearbeider til Bergens museum. Saafremt noget af de ind- 
sendte arbeider findes værdigt til at prisbelønnes, finder uddelingen sted 
den 18de december s. a. 

Afhandlingerne, der kan være âffattede paa et af de nordiske sprog, 
'pàa tysk, fransk eller engelsk, indsendes som manuskript og^ skal være 
forsynede med et motto samt ledsagede af forseglet brev med samme motto 
og indeholdende forfatterens navn og adresse. 

Bergens Museum den 12te oktober 1903. 

G. A. Hansen. 



Brunchorst. 



Indhold. 



Sid9 
W. C, BRØGGER, Über die chemische Zusammensetzung des Xenotim 

{PI. I) 1 

P. HENNINGS, Beitrag zur Pilzflora der Umgebung Christiania (Hal- 
binsel Bygdö) . . . . • 9 

P. SCHEI, On some New Occurrences of Titanite from Kragerø ... 35 

OSKAR SCHULTZ, Beiträge zur Gattung Papilio L. und Colias Leach 39 
F. G. GADE og JENS HOLMBOE, Aarsberetning for Det biologiske 

selskab i Kristiania 1903 47 

HANS KIÆR, Dyrelivet i Drøbaksund (Med Pl. II, III) 61 

H. N. DICSON and W. E. NICHOLSON, Bryoiogicai Tiotes on a trip 

in Norway 91 



Bidrag til Magazinet bedes indsendt til Prof. Dr. N. WILLE, Tøienj 
Kristiania. 

Forfatterne er selv ansvarlige for sine Afhandlinger. 



Opfordring. 



Fra 1903 har undertegnede paataget sig at referere til „Just's botanischer 
Jahresbericht'* al i Danmark og Norge publiceret botanisk Litteratur. For 
At dette kan blive udført saa hurtigt og fyldigt som muligt, tillader jeg 
inig at opfordre de Herrer Forfattere og Udgivere til at sende mig Sartryk 
Àf deres Skrifter. 

Botanisk Museum, København. 

Morten P. Porsitd. 






NYT MAGAZIN 



FOR 



NATURVIDENSKABERNE 

GRUNDLAGT AF 

DEN PHYSIOGRAPHISKE FORENING 
I CHRISTIANIA 

BIND 42, Hefte 2 



REDAKTION: 

H. Mohn, Th. Hiortdahl, W. C. Brøgger, F. Nansen, 

Hovedredaktør N. Wille. 



CHRISTIANIA 

KOMMISSION HOS T. 0. BRØGGER 
A. w. BRØGGERS BOGTRYKKERI 
1904 



x Aaret 1904 vil der af „Nyt Magazin for Natur- 
videnskaberne" udkomme Bind 42 med samme Udstyr og 
lignende Indhold som B. 41, idet „Nyt Magazin for Natur- 
videnskaberne" herefter kun optager Afhandlinger over natur- 
historiske Emner inden de botaniske, geografiske, geolo- 
giske, mineralogiske og zoologiske Videnskaber. 

Tidsskriftet nyder nu en §tatsunderstøttelse af Kr. 2000 aarlig, 
men dette er ikke tilstrækkeligt, hvis det ikke tillige støttes ved 
Abonnement af Personer og Institutioner, som har Interesse af 
Naturhistoriens Fremme i vort Land. 

Saasnart Tidsskriftets Økonomi tillader, er det Meningen 
ikke alene at udstyre Afhandlingerne rigeligere med Afbildninger, 
men ogsaa at lade medfølge de paa norsk skrevne Afhandlinger 
et Resumé paa et større Kultursprog. 

Forfatterne vil erholde 50 Separataftryk gratis. 

„Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne" vil udkomme med 
4 Hefter aarlig, hvert paa 6 Ark og Abonnementsprisen 
er 8 Kr. om Aaret, frit tilsendt med Posten inden de skan- 
dinaviske Lande. 

Tidsskriftets Kommissionærer er: 

For Norge, Sverige, Danmark og Finland : T. O. Brøgger, 
Carl Johansgade 12, Christiania. 

For andre Lande: R. Friedländer & Sohn, Garlstrasse 
11, Berlin N. W. 

For Redaktionen 
N. WILLE 



fö»^'*?^; 



WS:Â 



DIE UMSCHAU 

BERICHTET ÜBER DIE FORTSCHRITTS 

luND Bewegungen der Wissen- 

f SCHAFT, Technik, Litteratur und 

Kunst in packenden Aufsätzen. 

Jährlich 52 Nmnmern. Bltistriert. 

^JDie Umschau" zählt nur die hervorragendsten 

Fachmänner zu ihren Mitarbeitern. 

Prospekt gratis durch jede Suchbaadlnag, sowie den Verlag 

H. Bechbold, Frankfurt a. M,, Neue Krame iç\2l. 




BERGENS MUSEUM. 

Prisbelønning af Joachim Frieles legat. 

Legatets fundats bestemmer bl. a., at der af renterne hvert 3die aar 
udredes en prisbelønning bestaaende af en guldmedalje af 400 kroners 
værdi, for det videnskabelige arbeide med emne hørende under Norges land 
eller havfauna, som museets bestyrelse, efter udstedt opfordring til konkar- 
rence, finder værdigt til saadan belønning. Ligeledes udredes af legatets 
renter det fornødne til udgivelse af det prisbelønnede arbeide. 

I henhold hertil opfordres videnskabsmænd, der ønsker at konkurrere 
om denne prisbelønning, til inden udgangen af september 1905 at indsende 
sine konkurrencearbeider til Bergens museum. Saafremt noget af de ind- 
sendte arbeider findes værdigt til at prisbelønnes, finder uddelingen sted 
den 18de december s. a. 

Afhandlingerne, der kan være affattede paa et af de nordiske sprog, 
paa tysk, fransk eller engelsk, indsendes som manuskript og skal være 
forsynede med et motto samt ledsagede af forseglet brev med samme motto 
og indeholdende forfatterens navn og adresse, 

Bergens Museum den 12te oktober 1903. 

G. A. Hansen. 



Brunchorst. 



Indhold. 



Side 
H. N. DIXON and W. E. NICHOLSON, Bryological notes on a trip 

in Norway (conlin.) 97 

EMBR. STRAND, Beitrag zur Schmetterlingsfauna Norwegens. III . 109 
EMBR. STRAND, Bemerkninger til Myntmester Münsters „Nye norske 

Coleoptera" . 180 

S. K. SELLAND, Om vegetationen i Granvin 183 

Anmeldelser I 



Bidrag til Magazinet bedes indsendt til Prof. Dr. N. WILLE, Tølen, 
Kristiania. 

Forfatterne er selv ansvarlige for sine Afhandlinger. 



Opfordring. 



Fra 1903 har Undertegnede paataget sig at referere til „Just's botanischer 
Jahresbericht" al i Danmark og Norge publiceret botanisk Litteratur. For 
at dette kan blive udført saa hurtigt og fyldigt som muligt, tillader jeg 
mig at opfordre de Herrer Forfattere og Udglvere til at sende mig Sartryk 
af deres Skrifter. 

Botanisk Museum, København. 

Morten P. Porsild. 






NYT MAGAZIN 



FOR 



NATURVIDENSKABERNE 

GRUNDLAGT AF 

DEN PHYSIOGRAPHISKE FORENING 
I CHRISTIANIA 

BIND 42, Hefte 3 



REDAKTION: 

H. Mohn, Th. Hiortdahl, W. G. Brøgger, F. Nansen, 

Hovedredaktør N. Wille. 



-o«®»-- 



CHRISTIANIA 

I KOMMISSION HOS T. 0. BRØGGER 

A. W. BRØGGERS BOGTRYKKERI 

1904 



:^'s 



X Aaret 1904 vil der af „Nyt Magazin for Natur- 
videnskaberne" udkomme Bind 42 med samme Udstyr og 
lignende Indhold som B. 41, idet „Nyt Magazin tor Natur- 
videnskaberne" bereiter kun optager Afhandiinger over natur- 
historiske Emner inden de botaniske, geografiske, geolo- 
giske, mineralogiske og zoologiske Videnskaber. 

Tidsskriftet nyder nu en Statsunderstøttelse af Kr. 2000 aarlig, 
men dette er ikke tilstrækkeligt, hvis det ikke tillige støttes ved 
Abonnement af Personer og Institutioner, som har Interesse af 
Naturhistoriens Fremme i vort Land. 

Saasnart Tidsskriftets Økonomi tillader, er det Meningen 
ikke alene at udstyre Afhandlingerne rigeligere med Afbildninger, 
men ogsaa at lade medfølge de paa norsk skrevne Afhandiinger 
et Resumé paa et større Kultursprog. 

Forfatterne vil erholde 50 Separataftryk gratis. 

„Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne" vil udkomme med 
4 Hefter aarlig, hvert paa 6 Ark og Abonnementsprisen 
er 8 Kr. om Aaret, frit tilsendt med Posten inden de skan- 
dinaviske Lande. 

Tidsskriftets Kommissionærer er: 

For Norge, Sverige, Danmark og Finland : T. O. Brøgger, 
Carl Johansgade 12, Christiania. 

For andre Lande: R. Friedländer & Sohn, Carlstrasse 
11, Berlin N. W. 

For Redaktionen 
N. WILLE. 



(jïfA 



îMMëçx DIE UMSCHAU 

BERICHTET ÜBER DIE FORTSCHRITFE 

i UND Bewegungen der Wissen- 

' scHAFr, Technik, Littet^tur und 

Kunst in packenden Aufsätzen, 

Jährlich 52 Nummern. Illustriert, 

JDie Umschau" zählt nur die hervorragendsten 

Fachmänner zu ihren Mitarbeitern. 

Prospekt gratis durch jede ßuchbandlung, sowie den Verlag 

H. Bechbold, Frankfurt a. M., Neue Krame tÇJ21. 




PHARMACIA 
TIDSSKRIFT FOR KEMI OG FARMACI 

redigeret af Eivind Koren 
udkommer 2 gange om maaneden. 

I første halvaar 1904 har følgende herrer leveret bidrag: 
V, Bjerknes, W. C. Brøgger, P. Farup, 0. Frich, H. Gold- 
schmidt, Kr. Grøn, S. A. Heyerdahl, Aug. Koren jr., Haa- 
vard Martinsen, C. Nicolaysen, J. Sebelien, Knut T. Strøm, 
S. Sæland, S. Tor up. 

Abonnement — kr. 5.00 pr. aar — tegnes ved postanstal- 
terne og hos boghandlerne samt i tidsskriftets expedition, Ridder- 
voldsgd. 9, Kristiania. 

Tidsskriftets kommissionærer er: 
i Danmark: imiversitetsboghandler G. E. G. Gad, Kjøbenhavn. 
i Sverige: Nordiska Bokhandeln, Stockholm, 
i Finland: Edlundska Bokhandeln, Helsingfors. 



Indhold. 



Side 

S. K. SELLAND. Om vegetationen i Granvin. (Slutn.) 193 

N. WILLE et V. WITTROCK. Motion au Congrès international 

de Botanique. Deuxième Session. Vienne 1905 217 

KNUT DÂHL. A study on trout and young salmon 221 

Anmeldelser Ul 



Bidrag til Magazinet bedes indsendt til Prof. Dr. N. WILLE, Tøien, 
Kristiania. 

Forfatterne er selv ansvarlige for sine Afhandlinger. 



Opfordring. 



Fra 1903 har Undertegnede paataget sig at referere til „Just's botanischer 
Jahresbericht" al i Danmark og Norge publiceret botanisk Litteratur, For 
at dette kan blive udført saa hurtigt og fyldigt som muligt, tillader jeg 
mig at opfordre de Herrer Forfattere og Udgivere til at sende mig Sartryk 
af deres Skrifter. 

Botanisk Museum, København. 

Morten P. Porsild. 



Botanisk literatur udkommande i de Skandinaviska länderna, Finland 
och Ryssland, refereras- af undertecknad i „Botanical Gazette", Chicago. 
Resp. författare ombedes att för undvikande af tidsspillan sända sina ar- 
beten direkt till undertecknad. 

Dr. Pehr Olsson-Seffer. 

Stanford University, California. 

U. S. A. 






NYT MAGAZIN 



FOR 



NATURVIDENSKABERNE 

GRUNDLAGT AF 

DEN PHYSIOGRAPHISKE FORENING 
I CHRISTIANIA 

BEO) 42, Hefte 4 



REDAKTION: 

H. Mohn, Th. Hiortdahl, W. C. Brøgger, F. Nansbn^ 

Hovedredaktør N. Wille. 



CHRISTIANIA 

I KOMMISSION HOS T. O. BRØGGER 

A. W. BRØGGERS BOGTRYKKERI 

1904 



x Aaret 1905 vil der af „Nyt Magazin for Natur- 
videnskaberne" udkomme Bind 43 med samme Udstyr og 
lignende Indhold som B. 42, idet „Nyt Magazin for Natur- 
videnskaberne" herefter kun optager Afhandlinger over natur- 
historiske Emner inden de botaniske, geografiske, geolo- 
giske, mineralogiske og zoologiske Videnskaber. 

Tidsskriftet nyder nu en Statsunderstøttelse af Kr. 2000 aarlig, 
men dette er ikke tilstrækkeligt, hvis det ikke tillige støttes ved 
Abonnement af Personer og Institutioner, som har Interesse af 
Naturhistoriens Fremme i vort Land. 

Saasnart Tidsskriftets Økonomi tillader, er det Meningen 
ikke alene at udstyre Afhandlingerne rigeligere med Afbildninger, 
men ogsaa at lade medfølge de paa norsk skrevne Afhandlinger 
€t Resumé paa et større Kultursprog. 

Forfatterne vil erholde 50 Separataftryk gratis. 

„Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne" vil udkomme med 
4 Hefter aarlig, hvert paa 6 Ark og Abonnementsprisen 
er 8 Kr. om Aaret, frit tilsendt med Posten inden de skan- 
clinaviske Lande. 

Tidsskriftets Kommissionærer er: 

For Norge, Sverige, Danmark og Finland : T. O. Brøgger, 
Carl Johansgade 12, Christiania. 

For andre Lande: R. Friedländer & Sohn, Carlstrasse 

11, BerHn N. W. 

For Redaktionen 
N. WILLE. 



DIE UMSCHAU 

BERICHTET ÜBER DIE FORTSCHRITTE 

UND Bewegungen der Wissen- 
schaft, Technik, Litteratur und 
Kunst in packenden Aufsätzen. 
Jährlich 53 Nummem. Illustriert. 

»Die Umschau« zählt nnr die hervoiragendsten 

Fachmänner zu ihren Mitarbeitern. 

Prospekt gratis darcA Jede Bucbbandtung, sowie den Verlag 

H, Sechhold, Frankfurt a. M., Nene Krame ig\2l. 




PHARMACIA 
TIDSSKRIFT FOR KEMI OG FARMACI 

redigeret af Eivind Koren 
udkommer 2 ^ange om maaneden. 

I første halvaar 1904 har følgende herrer leveret bidrag: 
y. Bjerknes, W. G. Brøgger, F. Farup, 0. Frich, H. Gold- 
schmidt, Kr. Grøn, S. Å. Heyerdahl, Aug. Koren jr., Haa- 
vard Martinsen, C. Nicolaysen, J. Sebelien, Knut T. Strøm, 
S. Sæland, S. Torup. 

Abonnement — kr. 5.00 pr. aar — tegnes ved postanstal- 
terne og hos boghandlerne samt i tidsskriftets expedition, Munke- 
damsveien 78, Kristiania. Telefon 8813 f. 

Tidsskriftets kommissionærer er: 
i Danmark: universitetsboghandler G. E. G. Gad, Kjøbenhavn. 
i Sverige: Nordiska Bokhandeln, Stockholm. 
Finland: Edlundska Bokhandeln, Helsingfors. 



Indhold. 



Side 
KNUT DAHL. A study on trout and young salmon. With PI, IV, V, 

VI. (Slutn.) 289 

J. QVIGSTAD. Lappiske Navne paa Pattedyr, Krybdyr og Padder, 

Fiske, Leddyr og lavere Dyr. 339 



Bidrag til Magazinet bedes indsendt til Prof. Dr. N. WILLE, Tøien, 
Kristiania. 

Forfatterne er selv ansvarlige for sine Afhandlinger. 



Opfordrîng. 



Fra 1903 har Undertegnede paataget sig at referere til „Just's botanischer 
Jahresbericht" al i Danmark og Norge publiceret botanisk Litteratur. For 
at dette kan blive udført saa hurtigt og fyldigt som muligt, tillader jeg 
mig at opfordre de Herrer Forfattere og Udgivere til at sende mig Særtryk 
aî deres Skrifter. 

Botanisk Museum, København. 

Morten P. Porsild. 



Botanisk literatur udkommande i de Skandinaviska länderna, Finland 
och Ryssland, refereras af undertecknad i ^Botanical Gazette", Chicago. 
Resp. författare ombedes att för undvikande af tidsspillan sända sina ar- 
beten direkt till undertecknad. 

Dr. Pehr Olsson-Seffer. 

Stanford University, California. 

U. S. A. 



} 



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